SOC 316 Midterm Study Guide
SOC 316 Midterm Study Guide SOC 316 - Pfaff
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SOC 316 - Pfaff
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucas Reller on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 316 - Pfaff at University of Washington taught by Pfaff in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociological Theory in Sociology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 03/12/15
SOC 316 Midterm Study Guide Week 12 0 A social scientific theory should be 0 O O O Falsifiable Generalizable Parsimonious saying a lot with little evidence using many assumptions Concrete 0 Theorydriven social scientific research should be 0 O O 0 Transparent Skeptical Methodical Inferential o A scientific fact is according to Durkheim O O O 0 Social solidarity Law Religion Social stratification o Assertions of Durkheim s theory of moral order 0 O O 0 Criminal punishment serves to strengthen solidarity Criminal conduct violates the collective norms Crime in some form or another is present in all societies of all types Crime is less likely where norms are strongest o Weber s principle of methodological individualism is premised on O O O The individual as the basic unit of social analysis Understanding microlevel motives behind macrolevel changes Explaining purposive social action 0 An ideal type is according to Weber 0 0 An analytical construct of generic properties of social phenomena Types I Community 0 Based on subjective feelings of togetherness solidarity emotional attachment and dependence I Association 0 Based on shared rational interests and common material purposes 0 Weber s idealtypes includes 0 0 Instrumental or purposive action I End rationality in which costs and consequences are calculated or anticipated in the achievement of a specified material goal I Most important in relation to sociology Valuerational action I A calculating purposive orientation to service an absolute value or moral good for its own sake and without expectation of material reward o Effectual action I Action that is motivated by specific emotions or ties of affection Here the calculation of costs and benefits is not the guide to action but rather deeply felt subjective experiences and motives 0 Traditional action I This is action undertaken because it corresponds to customary forms or action or deeply habitual practices IdealTypes Rational NonRational Purposive Instrumental Rationality Traditional Action calculation conformity to custom Expressive Value Rationality Affective Action emotion conviction commitment psychological reaction o The basic process that drives social change according to Weber is 0 Competitive selection 0 A parsimonious theory is one which 0 A few assumptions are used to build cogent propositions o A nonmaterial social fact 0 Something that must be inferred from influence on behavior 0 Cannot be easily observable 0 Ex The level of solidarity within a society 0 A material social fact is o Easily observable o Easily tracked o Reductionism 0 Similar to ideal type Making generalization that may never exist 0 A moral order is effective if 0 Social sanctions are applied for violations of the rules the offender must be punished or blamed If rules are good offender will feel guilt Social order is if those governed by the rules regard them as just Moral education must convince members of the rightness and goodness 000 o Morally integrated individuals desire regulation as a condition for group membership 0 Manifest function 0 The objective consequences of actions or institutional practices for an individual group institution etc that contributes to its adjustment or adaptation to its circumstances 0 Latent function o The unintended or unrecognized consequences of actions or institutional practices for a specified unit of analysis that contributes to its adjustment or adaptation to its circumstances 0 Manifest and latent functions offer social scientists advantages according to Merton Clarification of seemingly irrational social patterns o Directing attention to theoretically fruitful fields of inquiry 0 Discovery of important emergent properties of social life 0 Redirecting social science away from quotna39i39ve moral judgments towards sociological analysis Objectively functional No Yes Subjective No The Freudian unconscious Latent function motivation Yes Primitive ignorance Manifest function 0 Rationalization of knowledge through 0 Concept specific model of truth theory 0 Experiment rational control of experience 0 Method reliable measurement and observation 0 Science offers 0 Means of control over the material world 0 Method of knowing o Clarity of thought through explicit concepts 0 Limits of Weberian approach 0 Voluntarism I The idea that individuals act upon their own interests without substantial structural or institutional restraint o Rationality postulate may be misleading idealtypes can t resolve all behavior 0 Overreliance on dualistic categories types and conceptual models 0 Problem of subjective understanding Week 3 o The Industrial Revolution was a period where rational division of labor and new technologies increased 0 The Enlightenment thinks generally thought that the condition of society was improvable through science and reason 0 Government should always stay out of economic matters according to Smith 0 Crime could be deterred by creating a penal system in which punishment was according to Bentham 0 Swift 0 Certain 0 Severe 0 Factors that condition rational action according to sociological rational choice theorist are 0 Opportunity costs 0 Constraints imposed by institutions 0 Transaction costs 0 The principle of distribution justice in exchange theory states that people will feel aggrieved when they perceive that their contribution to the group is not rewarded proportionally o Utilitarian theorists of the 19th century were similar to Smith no government involvement 0 The origins of the Industrial Revolution can be observed in according to Smith 0 The rational division of labor 0 Smith assumes in regard to human nature 0 Humans are generally selfinterested o Humans are inclined to quottruck and barter to get what they want 0 The mechanism propelling the expanding division of labor in a capitalist economy according to Smith 0 Free economic competition 0 Division of labor advances through 0 Specialization o Reorganization of work factory system 0 Application of machinery 0 Government policies to advance economic welfare all lead to irrational outcomes 0 Mercantilism policy of promoting only export trade of one s own country 0 Imperialism capturing of other societies to exploit their resources or markets 0 Monopolies to protect desired industries from competition 0 Subsidies that favor one industry or set of producers over another 0 Government policies promote Corruption Inefficiency Rentseeking behaviors Favoritism 0000 Drive up consumer prices Week 4 o Legitimacy can be achieved in relations of domination through according to Weber 0 Tradition o Legality o Charisma 0 Using Weber s theory of the rationalization of administration organizations most closely approximating quotmonocraticquot bureaucracy in societies where o The economy is monetized and marketoriented o The scale of government activities is extensive o The scale of economic activities is extensive o The bureaucratic organization gives selective advantages to societies that adopt it because of its technical superiority as a form of administration 0 Ideal types of authority 0 Traditional Resting on the common belief in the sanctity of tradition and authority of custom o LegalRational This means conformity to rules which are formally correct and instituted through proper procedures or channels 0 Charismatic Rests on uncommon devotion and emotional attachment to the sanctity heroism or personality of an extraordinary individual such as a hero prophet or messiah o In the ideal type legalrational form of political order legitimacy rest upon common allegiance to the formal rules o In the ideal type legalrational form of political order leaders themselves are ruled by the rules 0 Traditional forms of authority can be destabilized by charismatic leaders 0 Charismatic political orders are often the result of revolutionary upheavals Characteristics of domination Secular Sacred Normative Legal rational authority Traditional authority Non normative Instrumental domination Charismatic authority o Monocratic bureaucracy according to Weber 0 Limited areas ofjurisdiction and specified official duties 0 Hierarchical control 0 Management based upon written files maintained by subordinate officials in formally defined offices 0 Formal training and qualifications specialization of functions specified working hours and duties assigned to the position 0 Formally stated and instituted rules technical experts master the rules and regulations 0 Weber s ideal type of bureaucracy includes 0 Training is formal o All actions during working hours are documented 0 Officials in the hierarchy are expected to hold only one office 0 Many officials share responsibility for the same task collegial management 0 The most important function of religious behavior for social order according to Durkheim is o Legitimacy o It heightens conflict with the secular world 0 Reinforcement of communally integrative emotions o Religions must contain according to Durkheim 0 Sacred objects o Rituals beliefs 0 Religious organizations Organic social solidarity based on the interdependence of group members According to Durkheim s functionalism a system of social control is most effective when punishments is reinforce moral consensus According to Foucault individualism freedom and rationallegal authority cannot be replaced by coercive power as a basis of social order Interaction ritual 0 Ingredients needed I Two or more people are assembled in the same place so that they affect each other by their bodily presence consciously or not I There are boundaries to outsiders so that participants have a sense of who is taking part and who is excluded I A common focus of attention upon an activity and mutual awareness of each other s focus of attention I A shared emotional experience 0 Outcomes I Group solidarity a compelling feeling of membership I Emotional energy EE an individual s feeling of confidence elation strength enthusiasm and initiative I Symbols that represent the group emblems or other representations visual icons words gestures that members associate with the collectivity I Morality a feeling of confidence the sense of group rightness respect for its symbols and offense at transgression Epistemology the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge It attempts to answer the basic question what distinguishes true adequate knowledge from false inadequate knowledge Sacred is 0 True 0 Rational 0 Scientific 0 valid Profane is 0 False o Irrational o Prejudiced o Superstitious o Invalid Implications of no quotright and wrong 0 Buried within modern notions of reason is the original social enchantment that classified a world of objects supernaturally making them knowable through social analogy Week 5 0 There can be no claim to truth outside of a shared moral and symbolic community and hence no objective universal truth 0 The origins of both social solidarity and social classification lie in a kind of primitive religion no matter how secularized the modern mind Ruling varies on 0 Scope of rule 0 Intensity of rule Modern states nationstates have 0 Increasing resources economic development 0 Delimited scope of rule 0 Increasing intensity of rule Power as a social relationship obtains o The deployment of resources to achieve ends 0 Dominion over the activities of other human beings Power containers territoriallybounded administrative locales where rulers can effectively deploy resources and exercise control generally a modern state 0 Depends on modern political organization which produce Surveillance information gathering and control Officiadom agents that carry out rulers commands Coercion milita ry police power Indoctrination ideological training especially of agents of the dominant classes Coercive surveillance was industrial democracies using 0 Management of a growing population esp of the poor and unproductive 0 Management of the growing militarization of the state 0 Management of largescale industrial production and control over large urban workforces 0 Effective exploitation of the advantages of the rational division of labor The basic institutional framework of societies 0 Family 0 Economy 0 Polity 0 Religion 0 Education Impression management the actor tailors behaviors to signify social meanings emotional states or status Facework is the effort to carry out social roles in a fashion that preserves social status honor prestige selfregard extend it or recover it from dishonor or humiliation Status performance uses 0 Idealization ceremony elevated dignity specialized consumption 0 Mystification an air of mystery a holiness or charismatic attribute o Dissimulation Action that is designed to give a selfsatisfying or selfserving behavior o Intrinsic rewards pleasure or satisfaction in the experience 0 Extrinsic rewards goods services produced by the exchange 0 Creating disequilibrium in social exchange 0 Need for resources from unlike actors 0 Efforts among status equals to gain advantages over one another
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