PKSC 102 final exam study guide completed.
PKSC 102 final exam study guide completed. 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Addie Pearson on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Heather P Batt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Packaging Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
PKSC final exam review How the Clemson Packaging Program defines it: “It is a field that involves the use of materials, methods and machinery to develop and produce the packages that protect and preserve a product, help market the product and instruct the consumer in its proper use” HISTORY - Know timeline dates: Earliest (unrecorded dates) - Simple function of containment - Organic from enviroment Ancient Man-made (3000BC-1500) - 3000 BC Egyptians blew and cast glass - 105 AD china invented paper - 1500 first evidence of protective packaging; cork stopper used for bottles Developments during the industrial revolution: - 1809: Nciholas Appert- canning process - 1810: peter Durand- develops tin canister - 1868: john hyatt: leading developer of cellulose, first plastic - 1895: convenience packaging: tooth paste was first offered in tubes - 1877: Quaker oats first used the “Quaker Man” to represent their product; first branding - 1897- fist major use of paperboard for National Biscuit Company “Uneeda” Biscuit product - Late 1800-early 1900’s: first major use of graphics to help sell products End of Industrial Rev. and around WWII - Movement from bulk packaging to retail packaging - Illustrates how social changes interact with packaging developments - 1930: polyethylene discovered in England, eventually one of the most commonly used packaging plastics th Late 20 century packaging - 1950s and 60’s: convenience and brand expansion - 1970’s: improvements in distribution and material handling - 1980’s: improvements in barrier films and microwave packaging - 1990’s: environmental awareness and market globalization - 1954-Polypropylene used for packaging - 1960-1970: laws clarified and improved - 1987: new jersey enacts first statewide law for recycling plastic containers - 1990: nutritional labeling and education Act o - Three M’s in definition of packaging (materials, methods, machinery) - Trends o Away from glass and metal toward plastics and composites o Away from rigid toward flexible and semi-rigid o Metallized instead of foil laminates o Tamper evident and anti-theft devices o More informative (ex. OTC drug packages) - users and suppliers o users: consumer, industrial, institutional o suppliers: converters, machinery and services FUNCTIONS - contain - protect o from elements, shock, vibration, protect consumer, protect against tampering - inform/sell o information required by law o contents, nutritional label, warnings, shipping info - utility of use* NOT IN TEXTBOOK o for the consumer: easy opening, squeezable, microwavable, unit dose o for retailer: size, orientation, point of purchase displace o for the shipper: hand holds, fork truck cut outs, totes - four levels o primary - main informative package box w/ nutrition facts o secondary – holds individual primary package one thing of oatmeal in a box (indiv. Packaging) o Tertiary – shipping or distribution packaging Corrugated box used to shop a number of cereal boxes o quaternary - unit load stretch wrapped pallet load of corrugated shipping container MATERIALS - paper and paper board – wood pulp, cellulose - metals o steel o aluminum - glass - plastic - paper o 50% cellulose: structure for paper/paperboard o 30% lignin: brown sticky substance that holds it together o 20% carbohydrates o thickness: paper vs paperboard 0.12” point? .014” = 14 point o what “plastic” comes from wood? Cellophane o three ways to make pulp: 1. Mechanical (groundwood) a. Lease expensive bc: doesn’t use chemicals b. Uses all the wood c. Low brightness and strength 2. Chemical a. Sulfate (Kraft= German for strength) b. Sulfite c. Soda d. Higher quality than mechanical e. Grocery store (when you get meat/grocery bag) f. Cook wood in chemicals g. Grind in disc refiner h. Not used much except for corrugated media (media- inside waves in cardboard in between the two walls) 3. Semi-chemical o general procedure for paper/paperboard? Screen, squeeze and dry o Calendaring? Paper run through stack of rollers: increased density and smoothness: important for strength and point quality o Basis weight of paper? Basis weight- lbs/sq ft Paper: lbs/3000 sq ft Paperboard: lbs/1000 sq ft o Use for bending grade board? Used for folding cartons o Three basic design styles for folding cartons? Tube (straight tuck, reverse tuck, seal end) Tray (beers, brightwood, walker) Hybrid (milk carton) - Testing? Mulllen bursts (pressure required to puncture a sheet) and edge crush test (pressure and angle required to crush edge or corner) - RSC? Regular slotted container - Two basic styles of composite cans? o Convolute (complex with holes) - METALS o Cans- steel and aluminum o Two basics kind of can: three and two pieces - Three piece (most soup cans) 1. Rectangle formed into cylinder 2. Seal side seam of cylinder (many times there is sidewall beating for structural integrity.) 3. Two metal circles rolled onto ends of cylinder (wore after closure so it lasts forever- pressure chamber) 4. Three ways to seal side seam of three piece can 1. Mechanical clinch seam- like 2 hooks smashed 2. Welded seam 3. Adhesive-bonded (cosmented) seam - Two piece 1. Circle drawn into cup shaped cylinder. 2. One circle needed for top Two methods for making 2 piece cans - Drawn and Ironed (aluminum or steel) o Looks like :) ( ironing allows thinner walls (open soda and sidewalls are much more flexible) - Draw Redraw (aluminum or steel) o Looks like:| | sidewalls have even thickness o Plating weights measured in lbs/basebox 1 base box = 31,360 sq. in. 112 sheets of 14” x 20” Plating weights specified as lbs./base box Ex. Tin plated steel designated as 20 plate, has .1/.1 lbs./base/bo tin Higher plate number = thicker plating o Bayer process – bauxite to alumina Digest bauxite in hot sodium hydroxide Forms sodium aluminate Filter, seed with Aluminum hydrate Crystalize out Al(OH3) Heat Form AlO2 (alumina) Reduction cell o Hall herlout process 1886- aluminum from alumina o Now thin is aluminum foil? 6 mil o Is aluminum used for packaging as a pure metal? NO - ALLOYS o What happens to WVTR (WATER VAPOR TRANSMISSION RATE) as thickness of foil decreases? Why? Increases bc pinholes - GLASS o How to make glass bottles Blow and blow, press and blow Blow and blow- for narrow necked containers Press and blow- uses a plunger in the first step for wide mouth containers. Allows better control of glass distribution o Major ingredients Sand- main structural component Soda ash- reduces melting temperature Limestone- improves hardness Cullet- 20% of total composition broken, recycled glass also reduces melting temperature Flint = uncolored glass o Two methods for making glass bottles - IS MACHINES (individual section) o Blow and blow- for narrow necked containers o Press and blow- uses a plunger in the first step for wide mouth containers. Allows better control of glass distribution - Annealing o Purpose of annealing is to reduce internal stress o Process of gradually heating container to 1050F o What is gob? Molten glass o Parts of a bottle thread Top= finish Neck Shoulder Body Heel “toe in” Base “push up” o Advantages: Almost completely inert to most products Absolute barrier to gases and bacteria Transparent (an advantage if transparency is desired) Perceived quality image (looks fancy) o Disadvantages Breakable Heavy weight Energy intensive manufacturing process - POLYMERS o What is gutta percha? 1843- Malaysia- Gutta Percha derived from latex from tropical trees (Getah- sap) (Percha- strips of cloth). Used for knife handles, picture frames o What is the first synthetic plastic? Bakelite dr. leo Baekeland o 1930’s polyethylene first developed – most widely used plastic today 6x more used than next most popular (polypropylene) o Thickness terminology Gauge Mil Inches 0.001”= 1 mil = 100 gauge Sheet- greater than 1 mil thickness o Name of chem reaction used to link monomers? Polymerization o If you link different monomers? o Know abbrev : HDPE, LDPE, PP, PET, PVC, PVDC(saran) - PE- POLYETHYLENE available in different densities (LPDE, HDPE, LLDPE) used for bread bag to milk bottles - PP- POLYPROPYLENE liing hinge. Strong, stiff, used for caps with hinges used for closures. - PET- POLYESTER used for fresh meat overwrap, worse oxygen barrier. - PVDC- POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE- saran wrap, used as a parrier coating, best oygen barrier. - EVAL is a trade name, common abbreviation EVOH - PVAL is commonly abbreviated PVOH - HDPE- HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE- less branching and more ordered arrangement - LDPE- LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE- less branching and more spread out - LLDPE- combo of HDPE & LDPE, it is more ordered but still spread out. o Yield- amount of finished material (area) than can be produced from raw material (lbs or in^2/lbs). LOWER DENSITY = HIGHER YIELD o Thermoset- when exposed to high temperatures, bonds are set and can’t be unlocked. o Thermoplastic- when exposed to high temperatures, bonds are loose and form upon cooling o Cost- more specialized plastics are more costly Since the basic structure of most common polymers are similar, what makes each one different? Side chains o What basic process is used for all types of forming methods? Extrusion – melting plastic o What are 2 ways to make film? Cast and ring die o What does orientation meant as it relates to film? Stretched to align molecules for strength Biaxially oriented film= film that has been stretched, oriented, in MD and CP direction. Important for shrink film- necessary for equal strength o What is coextrusion and what is it used for? Used to combine two plastics Blends different polymers, film, sheet and bottles o What is injection molding used for? Cups, caps, small tubes o What type of package does extrusion blow molding produce? Bottle o What is a parison Hollow tube inflated into bottle o How is wall thickness controlled during extrusion blow molding Programmed parison o What types of package are made by injection bow molding? Bottles o Stretch blow molding? Bottles o What are two advantages of extrusion blow and molding compare to IBM and ISBM? One mold and handles o Adv. Single mold Readily produced o Disadv. Handle is difficult o Advantages of plastics Very versatile Light weight Unbreakable Low energy for production compared to glass and metal o Disadvantages of plastics Petroleum based (mostly) Non-degradable- perception problem Recycle issue- difficult to remake SAME package from post consumer waste Not totally inert- must select carefully - FORMS o Rigid – glass bottle o Semi rigid - squeeze ketchup bottle o Flexible – bread bag or potato chip bag o Closures- types and uses Type Uses Plug (cork) Wine, liquor Crown Beer Continuous thread Beer Roll on Beer Lug/ interrupted thread Jam/jelly Press on Baby food o o Dimensional analysis – what is meant when the film converter…. o Properties of laminates: structural barrier o Two ways to form a pouch: V/F/F/S and H/F/F/S o How perrmiation happens? If thickness decreases by ½, permeability increases by 2 o Levels of packaging? Primarty secondary tertiary quaternary (listed above) o What are 3 basic areas of testing Quality, environmental, shipping and abuse (distribution and transportation) QUALITY TESTING Uses standard methods and machines to determine quality of materials or combination of materials ENVIROENTAL TESTING Use a fully made and approved package Subject to real world simulated conditions or real world conditions Involves accelerated aging- process of evading conditions and speed testing Measures- effects of environment on product and package effects of product on the package during storage Shelf life determination: - Package or packaging material - Packaged goods - Effect of environment (on temperature and humidity) SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING (transportation or distribution testing) How package stands up to rigors of shipping storage and handling Sophisticated machines used to stimulate conditions… but they are just stimulations Two advantages: - Short testing time - Uniformity o Know the areas of testing and the specific tests o Know how to solve problems relating to stacking strength Paper example: - Paper must be conditioned using TAPPI standards: 24 hrs @ 73 +/- 3.5 Fahrenheit, +/- 2% RH - Creates standard conditions to eliminate variables due to changes in climate or season Specific tests for paper: - Tensile strength and elongation - Tear - Mullen burst strength - Stiffness - Opacity Specific tests for plastic: - Gloss, haze, clarity - Slip, blocking, static - Impact fatigue - Flex resistance - Permeability testing: cc/mil/100in^2/24hr o Mocon method for O2, CO2, and WVTR (Water vapor transmission rate) o OR cup method for WVTR Specific tests for aluminum: - First digit indicates primary alloy - Last two digits indicates purity - Most foil alloy is 1235 (.65% Si and Fe) - Generally tested similar to paper except for conditioning Specific tests for aluminum foil - Pinholes - Wettability Tests for inks, lacquers and adhesives - Weight/gallon - Zahn cup (viscosity) - Printing characteristics - Adhesion- scotch tape tests and sotherland rub tests Identification of unknown materials: - Duplicate a competitor package - Check competition for patent infringement PACKAGE MACHINERY - Line function? Individual machines made by individual companies but must operate together in a packaging line - Linespeed- what really counts is output. - Cpm- containers per minute o Filler is critical part of determining line speed o Filler will always determine your lines per minute o REMEMBER- machines do not run at 100% efficiency o To calculate actual cpm: Efficiency of each machine x cpm of lowest machine = actual cpm - What are 2 main types of fillers? - Constant fill level o Higher probability of give away o Use for transparent packages o For inexpensive product - Constant volume o Less giveaway o For opaque package o Expensive product GRAPHICS AND PRINTING - Package design consists of two components… o Attract and inform consumer o Motivate to purchase product - Three fundamental messages a package must anser o What is this o What will it do fo rme o Who guarentees this? - 4 basic methods of printing o Relief (raised image) – flexography, letterpress, or offset letterpress o Planographic (flat image) – lithography or offset lithography o Gravure (engraved image) – falls under category of “other” methods DEVELOPMENT - What are the 4 types of package development projects? 1. Modification of existing product (ex. PET bottles with PE cup base) 2. Expansion of product line through uses of existing package that has been used for similar or different products (ex. Tennis ball can design for pringles) 3. Development of new package for new product (ex. Plastic squeeze bottle replacing glass 4. Development of new package for new product (ex. Modified atmosphere package for precut salads - What are two development paths for pkg development - Total system path o The main path o Product and package developed together - Package development path o Used by packaging companies o Develop a package first then get feedback from users o INEFFICINET method - - Wht oart of a company drives development? Never a committee; market driven PACKAGING LAWS AND REGS - CFR code of federal regilations where ougo to find the details of the laws - Laws and regs form all years FIRST LAWS: INDIRECTLY PKG RELATED - Food and drug law: 1906 o To protect consumer o Fight against fraud FOOD DRUG AND COSMETIC ACT- 1938 - Banned poisonous substances used in foods and tried to address “over packaging” - Important landmark but not very effective FOOD ADDITIVES AMENDMENT – 1958 - First law that directly affected packaging - Anything that directly or indirectly becomes part of the food is considered an additive- INCLUDES PACKAGING COMPONENTS FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT- 1966 - Nutritional label required - Ingredients listed in DESCENDING order of prominence - Name and address of company and/or distributor - Detailed format of quantity declaration o Ex) must appear at lower 30% of PDP (Principle Display Panel) NUTRITION LABELING AND EDUCATION ACT – 1990 - Revised 1966 requirements - Specifies label format - Established new diet standards - Defined declaration statements such as “low fat” “reduced cancer” “lite” “reduces heart disease” etc…. - Does not include diet supplements, YET OTHER SIGNIFICANT PACKAGING LAWS - Poison Prevention Act – 1970 o Significant deaths related to accidental poisonings o Included aspirin, vitamins, furniture polish o Lead to child resistance packaging and warning labels o Recently revised with new testing standards in 1995 - Tamper Evident Act – 1982 o Seven deaths in tylenol-cyanide poisoning incident o Tamper evident – not “proof” or “resistant” o Required for Over The Counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals only DISTRIBUTION LAWS AND REGULATIONS - Dept of transportation regulating body - Transportation safety act of 1974 o Covers hazardous materials o 1990- HM181 adopts global standards - National motor classification and uniform freight classification (rail) specify standard practices o Ex) rule 41, Item 222 specifies design, style, and materials etc. for shipping packages if damage or injury occurs when standards aren’t followed, damage claims are valid - ENVIROMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS - What are the 2 main types of environmental laws and regs? o Health laws – federal o Enviro – state and local o Man laws indirectly related to pkg VOC’s (Volatile Organic Corrosives) Water – based inks, coatings and adhesives Incinerators Solvent recovery Special Case: CFC’s and Foamed plastics (EPS) – Expanded Polystyrene o Mandatory recycling laws – is really mandatory SEPARATIONS o Know modification for packaging Degradable, high cone, pull tabs - Packaging is the largest contributor of solid waste 30% - Wht is solid wastes hierarchy or disposal? st 1. Source reduction – 1 best 2. Recycling 3. Incineration with energy recovery 4. Landfill – last resort - Know the plastic recycling codes (1-7) o SPI - Society of Plastics Industry o 1 = PETE – polyester – water bottles, coke bottles o 2 = HDPE – lids, milk jugs, lids to sourcream o 3 = PVC – clear plastic wrap o 4 = LDPE – bread bags, Ziploc bags o 5 = PP – tubs things come in, screw caps o 6 = PS – clear, straw berry containers o 7 = other (includes multilayer) - What does innovation do? o Boost sales o Changes consumers demands o Change with tech developments - What is the # one factor driving innovation? o Convenience!
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