Psychology 100 PSYC 101
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Roselyn Stoyer on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Levine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Psychology 101 Final Ch. 1 Psychology: an approach to knowledge based on critically thought about careful, repeatable observations 2 main components: The scientific critical thinking attitude: Gullible Cynical Non scientific evidence for behavioral claims How we tend to think nonscientifically The problem is that we make too many mistakes Intuition/”common sense” One key problem is that we are too biased Our intuitions can be wrong Bloodletting made “common sense” Ex.) Electric belt, vitamin C Is psychology just common sense? Whatever researchers find, one can in hindsight see it as mostly common sense and unsurprising: Two heads are better than one Too many cooks spoil the broth Hindsight Bias: “I knew it all along” Psychology & folk wisdom Sports Friend getting engaged/break up (Sometimes surprised but obviously not...) Majority & Authority Personal Experience/ Anecdotal Evidence Testimonials and infomercials Your experiences or “Uncle Joe” Anecdotal evidence: your own experiences Personal experiences can be misleading Informal observation, not careful or objective but BIASED Ex.) Bloodletting Still makes lots of mistakes today Be cautious: skeptical and open minded I, they, you can be wrong VERY WRONG Perspectives and Psychology Biological Cognitive More nature Behavioral Socioculture More nurture Nature and Nurture Nature: innate biological, genes, heredity Innate: born with that Nurture: parents, environment, culture, experiences Blaming/credit to parents? NO Parents matter LESS than most people think Ex.) South Korea: nurture/environment/Socioculture Scientific Evidence Descriptive Methods Naturalistic observation Case study: follow one person through a process; doesn’t generalized Surveys Scientific Evidence Correlation studies Measure two variables more objectively Ex.) How much vitamin C people get and how many colds Correlation coefficients and scatterplots Third variable Can’t jump to conclusions Scientific Evidence Experiments Can EXPLAIN, can say something about causality, can isolate out variables of interest What is the key aspect that makes something an experiment? Having a comparison group Independent variable: manipulate a variable Experiment group and control/comparison group Dependent variable: measure a variable Ex.) Vitamin C for IV Experimental: individuals getting extra vitamin C Control: does not get vitamin C Ex.) Vitamin C for DV Measure how many colds people get in the two groups and compare Random assignment: use this to make groups equal Placebo Effects Double BlindParticipants and researchers are not aware Ex.) Bloodletting experiment Participants: patients with fevers IV: people who get bloodletting Control: people who don’t DV: measure of health Multiple experiments Replicated and peer review Ch. 2: Neuroscience & Behavior Neurons Billions of neurons in brain Dendritescell body axon terminal of axon (Chemicalselectric signalsignal fired) When signal is fired: chemicals released in synapse Neurotransmitters Chemical that transmits info between neurons Dozens of them: serotonin, dopamine, endorphin Omit nervous and endocrine systems Brain scans/fMRI: big picture and future “thought identification” The Brain Lower/Mid Brain Composed of two cells: neurons and glial cells Neurons: info through nervous system Glial cells: info through brain and rest of nervous system Keep neurons stable More glial cells; 90% of cells Medulla: heartbeat, breathing, digestion Pons: bridge between cerebellum and brain; sleep and dreaming Reticular formation: arousal, consciousness Cerebellum: movements, sense of balance, motor learning Thalamus: relay station for incoming sensory info Basal ganglia: initiation, execution of movements Limbic system: survival, memory, emotions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala) Hypothalamus: eating, drinking, sex Hippocampus: memories Amygdala: emotions The Brain the cortex “the lobes” 4 main lobes & functions Frontal lobe: prefrontal cortex – critical thinking Strip at back of lobe – deals with motor learning Parietal lobe – deals with sensation – strip at front Occipital: vision Temporal speech, hearing Motor cortex – move different parts of our body Hemispheres Hemispheres and cross overs Right controls left Left controls right Split brain research corpus callosum Differences between hemispheres Right: simple verbal material, special perception, face region Left: speech, and language, “verbal” small details Sleep and dream Sleep deprivation Ex.) Rats: no sleep = no food People = immune systems Hormones, weight increase, (lack of) growth, mood, thinking 5 stages: Sleep: 5 min Sleep: 20 min, sleep spindles: rapid activity Transitional sleep: slow waves, brief Deep sleep: 30 min REM: rapid eye movement Happens near end of first deep sleep (about an hour) and you return to stage 2 and 3 and enter REM Repeats every 90 min Ch. 3. Sensation and Perception* ESP: parapsychology; paranormal psychology 100s of studies: No good evidence No replication (or scientists tricked) Jumping to conclusions Our brain wants to jump to conclusions which is a sense of adaptiveness Perception is BIASED, beyond just what you attend to Experience/expectations/schemas Perception Bottom up processing sensation, input side Also known as datadriven processing Perception begins with the stimulus itself. Processing is carried out in one direction from the retina to the visual cortex, with each successive stage in the visual pathway carrying out ever more complex analysis of the input. Top down processing brain, creates vision Refers to the use of contextual information in pattern recognition For example, understanding difficult handwriting is easier when reading complete sentences than when reading single and isolated words. This is because the meaning of the surrounding words provide a context to aid understanding Organization, depth, constancies, illusions Your brain is doing a lot of below awareness: “filling in” PERCEPTION IS BIASED Depth perception Binocular cues two eyes Binocular cues help you judge how far things are due to the fact that you have 2 eyes. Retinal disparity: you have two eyes, and what hits your eyes is different As distance increases, the retina gets smaller; and vice versa The different perspectives of each separate eye Monocular cues one eye **BRAIN TRICKS YOU; YOU SEE WHAT YOU EXPECT AND KNOW “Selective” attention and not encoding everything Biased perception and interpretation Ex.) Escaped panda; people say they saw it because their eyes and brain sees and thinks what they want Biased memories: memory construction CH 4: LEARNING – behavioral perspective, learning behavior “Behaviorism” 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Biological & Cognitive Learning 1. Classical Conditioning Pavlov watch video Unconditional stimulus (UCS) stimulus in a reflex that automatically elicits an unconditioned response Unconditional Response (UCR) response in a reflex that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus Neutral Stimulus (NS) Conditional Stimulus (CS) comes to elicit a new response in classical conditioning Conditional Response (CR) response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning EX) Dorm Shower toilet flush neutral UCS hot water UCR negative response CS toilet flush UR negative response EX) Car accidentdriving neutral UCS crash UCR negative response CS Driving after accident UR negative response *look at D2L for examples and walk through Extinction when condition is “unlearned” Stimulus Generalization going from initial stimulus to new stimulus, and conditioning/learning is still affective Stimulus Discrimination going from initial stimulus to new stimulus and conditioning/learning is not effective/ lose learning 2. Operant Conditioning Learning based on consequences Reinforcement behavior INCREASES in the future (is strengthened) because of a consequence; more likely to occur Punishment behavior DECREASES in the future (is weakened) because of a consequence; less likely to occur Positive (+) Added/presented (that caused the behavior to increase or decrease) DOES NOT MEAN GOOD & INCREASING Negative () Removed/avoided (that caused the behavior to increase or decrease) DOES NOT MEAN BAD & DECREASING *** know B.F. Skinner and associate him with Operant Conditioning Known as father of Operant Conditioning Conducted experiments in which different animals were placed in a box He coined three responses that follow behavior Neutral Operants Reinforcers Punishers Shaping baby steps toward behavior you want; you give rewards to achieve the behavior Continuous VS. Partial Partial usually better *** Many conditions have both classical conditioning and operant conditioning EX) toilet flush in shower Classical – wincing avoiding something bad Voluntary Operant moving out of the way (negative reinforcement) Decisions EX) dog and can opener Classical salivating response getting food Operant coming to kitchen (positive reinforcement) NEED TO DO 1. Look at target behavior If increasing reinforcement If decreasing punishment 2. What OTHER THING caused target behavior to increase or decrease (something that was presented or removed) If changed because of something presented positive (+) If changed because of something removed negative () Immediate VS. Delayed Rewards Immediate reward right after Delayed reward longer down the road Sometimes a larger reward is earned Relates to “selfcontrol” Can we wait for larger reward? Ex.) Marshmallow/candy study with kids 3. Biology, Cognition, and Learning Learned taste aversion: classical condition *** Eat something and get sick hours later not immediate Classical condition occurs because now you can’t eat or drink that; you get sick before when seeing it or smelling it again Ex.) Give coyote sheep laced with something, coyote gets sick and doesn’t go after or eat sheep again. Farmer wins Cognitions/expectations In play when aversion is learned; your brain can cause aversion for certain tastes and smells Latent learningCognitive Observational learning not behaviorist but cognitive Modeling when you model behavior and subject then projects behavior from being presented that behavior Media violence and Aggression Be open minded Mirror reality what’s on TV and reality is what causes us to act as we do Logic of commercials big influence Science well established Correlational studies Experiments Complex Small effect but large societal problem – from watching tv/media/YouTube Not just increased aggression but desensitization Less upset, less sympathy, less caring Punishment VS. Discipline VS. Spanking Punishment causes behavior in future to decrease Discipline what parents do to correct behavior Spanking type of discipline Science shows: Positive (+) reinforcement of “good” behaviors Never spank Discipline Resilience and anecdotal evidence Kids that were spanked VS. Kids not spanked But no studies showing longterm positive effects and many showing problems Spanking Issues Spanking can appear to work in the moment but 1.) It models violent behavior so it increase violent and aggressive behavior in kids 2.) It can interfere with a child’s positive feelings about their parent’s classically conditioned negative emotion 3.) Kids get older and bigger 4.) It doesn’t teach the lessen as well “Don’t get caught” VS. “This is wrong” It’s more learned at controlling them VS. Kids learning to control themselves 5.) Parents can sometimes get too angry & “lose it” Ch. 5 Memory Three stages of memory Sensory Shortterm Longterm Sensory Large capacity, very short duration Set of registers where we temporarily store incoming sensory information from the physical environment Short term Small capacity, working memory, limited to about 7 chunks Recognized information from the sensory memory enters consciousness Long Term “Memory” Long duration, capacity unlimited Types: Explicit: memory that recalls conscious recall; factual knowledge, personal experiences Episodic: personal experiences Semantic: factual knowledge Implicit: memory that does not require conscious recall, happens automatically, influences behavior; riding bike, motor tasks *people remember first things and last things better First: primacy effect “long term” remember after delay Last: recency effect “short term” remember right after (both) Chunkmeaningful unit in a person’s memory Memory spanaverage number of items an individual can remember across a series of memory span trial. Encoding Process of moving information from one memory stage to the next Automatic: occurs subconsciously and does not require attention; most of what you remember Effortful: occurs consciously and requires attention Levels of Processing What types of encoding lead to better retrieval Maintenance Vs. Elaborate Rehearsal Maintenance: repetitive cycling of information Elaborate: incoming information is related to information from long term memory Underlying highlighting Vs. SQ3R “how” and “why” questions in the margins Anecdotal Stones Vs. Stats Make it vividuse imagery Emotion and Memory Flashbulb memory More emotion=better memory PTSD=flight/fight hormones Inconsistent with repressed memory Retrieval Recall: measure of retrieval that requires the reproduction of the information with essentially no retrieval cues Recognition: measure of retrieval that only requires the identification of the information in the presence of retrieval cues Relearning: saving method; measure of the amount of time saved when learning information for the second time “over” learning is needed Study more than you think because you’ll forget Overconfident: “familiar” Vs. “knowing” Forgetting Encoding delay: forgetting due to failure to encode the information into long term memory Storage failure: forgetting due to the decay of the biological representation of the information in long term memory Interference big picture*** forgetting due to the interference of the information in long term memory, making the forgotten information inaccessible Tip of the tongue & retrieval cues: failure to recall specific information from memory combined with partial recall Cue Dependent: forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues necessary to locate the information in long term memory Retrieval Cues: Acronyms & Acrostics LOL: laugh out loud Memory Construction Memories always changing Schema: information on certain idea Ex. Elephants are gray; first dates are awkward Misinformationthe distortion of a memory by exposure to misleading information False memoryinaccurate memory that feels as real as an accurate memory **memory is not a recording it’s a construction **even our best memories are constructed **memory is trickynot everything is stored, and when remembered it can be full Loftus Study Study involves witnessing an event and then being tested for memory on the event but being given misleading information at the time of the test. Showed participants a film of a traffic accident and then later tested their memory for the accident Test included misleading information for some participants Key line: memories for events are distorted by exposure to misinformation; the resulting false memories seem like real memories Study shows that eyewitness testimony is subject to error and manipulation by misleading information CH 6 A THINKING Heuristics: quick way to solve a problem, rule of thumb, mental short cuts 3 Heuristics Anchoring & Adjustments (Guesstimations) look at firearm death estimates; which is true? Representativeness use schemas to make quick estimates/stereotypes, judge likelihood by match to your schema You see a woman who is driving a blue minivan which do you think; has kids or doesn’t? 98% says has kids **Schemas can lead you astray You need a man who is short, slim and likes to read poetry.. Is he more likely to be a professor at an Ivy League school or a truck driver? 88% says professor Availability we use how easily examples come to mind to make estimates Examples come to mind – common Examples don’t come to mind uncommon Ex.) court cases about 5% of convictions are jury trials **Anecdotal Evidence personal experiences Influenced greatly by whats available to us, stories, examples “Person who” Ex.) person who smokes but is healthy? Confirmation Bias seek supportive evidence or our beliefs We tend NOT to try to disconfirm Ex. We believe kids with hyperactivity due to sugar, therefore we look for sugar Illusory Correlations – sometimes we see correlation when it doesn’t exist OR we see a relationship when it doesn’t exists Ex.) sugar & hyperactivity Bloodletting & wellness Rain dance & rain Belief Perserverance vert hard to change peoples beliefs even when get disconfirming information We believe what doesn’t have evidence?? Availability Heuristic and Risks Anecdotes/examples mumps, measles, polio vs. autism Authority wakerfield study; found small correlation between vaccines and autism ** but careful research cant find a connection Wakerfield “actually” discredited Cant “pick and choose” your scientific evidence B INTELLIGENCE Intelligence tests IQ tests Validity does it measure what it claims? Reliability is it consistent? Are there different types of intelligence? Sternburg, Gardner, and “learning styles” Stanovichmore resent Says intelligent people don’t make good decisions “rational” not very related to “intelligence” Rational making decisions based on reality 1. Avoids these cognitive biases/ not a cognitive miser 2. Delaying rewards Group difference intelligence due to environment/culture Flynn effect Therapeutic touch no evidence, placebo effect mainly whats independent, dependent variable? CH 7 DEVELOPMENT A COGNITIVE Language animal language Clip welders mask so no clues are given to chimp CT about critical wondows Cognitive Development: thinking Piaget developed stage model for cognitive development Says kids think differently than adults STAGE 1: sensorimotor (018/24 months) Object performance when something is out of sight, how does it still exist? Out of sight, out of mind? STAGE 2: Preoperational (18/246 years) Egocentric thinking kids cant understand what others are thinking Learning symbols, concepts, numbers, and letters Conservation 1000lb of brick weighs more than 1000ib feathers? Research Design Between: what we learn, whats on the tes Two groups: independent, dependent Within: everybody does everything in experiment Longitudinal: follow same person over longer time (marshmallow study) Cross sectional: measure people of different ages, at once and examine results; everybody at once Crystallized VS. Fluid Intelligence – abstract thinking, logical problem solving | Accumulated knowledge, verbal skills II. Social Development Harlow study: contact comfort Orphans not grow as well as peers – got nutrition, no touch/contact Rat touch mother touched babies to increase growth Premature infants getting touch grew faster **contact/touch is important Attachment mother/infant bond Secure vs. insecure & straight situation procedure –seeing how baby acts with mom and stranger and how baby acts when mom returns; botheredsecure, unbothered unsecure Secure better; relationships better as results Insecure not better Temperament Nature: kids born that way “easy”/low reactive/bold/outgoing “difficult”/high reactive/shytimid Study Examples 6 days: Nature Adopted monkey out of cage: Nurture Adopted monkey with humans: Nature Parenting styles: matters but less of an impact then we think Authoritarian: you obey Authoritative: wants whats best Theory of Mind Band aid study: shows kids box of bandaids, ask them whats in it, its not bandaids, do it again and then trick them (egocentric) 4 years old but 18 months old Brocoli/crackers study Erikon’s Stages Trust or no trust: if struggles are not handled then future is changed forever (secure, insecure) Adolescence: who we are, what are you going to do with our lives, what group do we fit in? CH 8: PERSONALITY Pseudoscience & Personality Base knowledge on careful observations Are the claims falsifiable? Is ther a way to test? Astrology Study Each person gets 3 readings; their own and 2 that are not theirs Pick “theirs” 33% of the time Cold reading/The Barnum Effect Generalized personality decriptions that most people think decribes them How psychics work Learn Barnum statements Find a creative and intelligent person Expand things: past OR future/you OR someone you know Listen to what they tell you and reword/repeat it Be observant facial expressions, tone Freud Psychoanalytic: also Pseudoscience Role of unconscious: below awareness Dream analysis Freudian slips say something you didn’t mean to say but true Ex. Calls bf by ex bfs name Projective tests Rorschach ink blot Defense Mechanisms Repression no evidence But evidence for: Denial reduce anxiety by saying you don’t have a problem Displacement anger; frustrated in one situation but take it out on something else Projection youre feeling bad but instead of owning it, out it on another person Regression go back to earlier stage of development; less mature Rationalization instead of no, make explanation that makes you feel better Childhood/Mother something wrong? Mom did it 1. Oral fixation breast feeding, learn to talk if good, ok. If not, fixated in stage 2. Anal fixation potty training, neat, messy? Cant do what you want Oedipus Conflict Humanistic Approach Maslows of hierarchy of needs 1. Self actualization needs we live to full potential 2. Esteem needs self esteem, achievement, independence 3. Belongings and love needs to love, be loved, belong, accepted 4. Safety needs feel safe secure, and stable 5. Physiological needs satisfy hunger and thirst Self Cognitive Self efficacy self effectiveness; if you don’t believe in yourself, you don’t try, therefore don’t succeed Internal and external Locus of Control Learned helplessness Internal and external Attributions Self serving bias Success because of me (internal) Failure because of something else not me (external) Pessimistic opposite explanatory style Internal control: I have control External control: I do not have control **could have different control for different tasks/subjects Happiness 10% circumstances 50% genetic 40% YOUR CONTROL Who you compare to: always someone better off and someone worse College and better jobs VS. better paying jobs Anatomy “feeling that your lifeit’s the activities and habitsare self chose and self endored.” You feel in control Relationships and “flow experiences”things you do that youre so engaged that you lose time Ex. Friends, better half “meaning” meaningful life, fulfillment The Big Five Perosnality Trait Dimensions high end low end Openness imaginative, dependent practical, conforming Conscientiousness dependable, well organized undependable, disorganized Extraversion sociable, talkative redusive, quiet Agreeableness sympathetic, polite toughminded, rude Neuroticism emotional, nervous calm, secure social loafing put less effort in when in a group bystander effect probability higher of helping when alone deindividuation loss of self awareness in a group situation group polarization group members share opinion but when discussed, opinions strengthens group think mode impairs group decision making; main focus: maintain consensus CH. 9 Social Psychology understanding everyday behavior Mediums James Van Pragh talks to dead people Critical thinking Cold reading again: names, pictures, jewelry (common names, belongings) Lots of Misses Ask and repeat back: has he passed, please? Media editing and bias and anecdotal evidence Social Norms: unwritten roles on how we should behave Varies by culture and gender Ex. Coffee study Conformity Ex. Asch studysituation dominates personality, situation can really change us You don’t know how youll act until youre in that situation Ex. Milgram and obedience Shocking study (showed rationalization, projection) Foot in the door: have people start with small thing and push them to a large thing Attributions person slips Dispositional (internal) clumsy Situational (external) floors slippery Misattributions: you think something because of person but really it’s the situation or vise versa Ex. Stuck up if shy FAE (fundamental attribution error) Don’t consider situation as much as we should Ex. Milgram participants are “mean” Far reaching implications Relationships Attitudes and policy Attitudes Behavior changes our behavior Cognitive Dissonance Ex. Imagine you smoke (rationalization) Think about how bad it is for you Big biasing force: don’t like to think of ourselves foolish or hypocritical Role playing Ex. Zimbardo prison study Joke at first but doesn’t end like that Prejudice Self serving biaspeople think other people are most prejudice Changes how you perceive people Primacy and self fulfilling prophecy Another below awareness bias CH 10: Psychological Disorders Abnormal psychology: the scientific study of mental disorders and their treatments Maladaptive, dysfunctional, distressful Does it interfere with your life? Does it bother anyone/everyone else? DSMV: book to help list disorders; only describes Labeling issue & Rosenhan study Labeling issue: expert told the kids that participated what their future careers were Makes kids think later and possibly go for that career Rosenhan study: Psychologists faked major symptoms to schizophrenia to gain admission to a hospital Overall prevalence 50% of us 50% of those more serious Anxiety, OCD, depression, bipolar More women are depressed while more men have addictions Stigma and Stereotypes People within mental illness are more violent Complex Biopsychosocial approach explaining abnormality as the result of the interaction among biological, psychological (behavior and cognitive) and sociocultural factors Depression & Bipolar Disorder: mood disorders Depressive disorderspresence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect the individual’s capacity to function Major depression disorderdepressive disorder in which the person has experienced one or more major depressive episodes Major depressive episodeepisode characterized by symptoms of intense hopelessness, low selfesteem, and worthlessness Lose interest in everything, even their life Major depression/major depression order Depressed and/or flat affect Very common; “common cold” Symptoms can vary Concordance biological component Bipolar Disorder disorder in which recurrent cycles or depressive and manic episodes occur Depression plus mania Clips and treatments Manic episode period of at least a week of abnormally elevated mood in which the person experiences such symptoms as inflated selfesteem with grandiose delusions, a decreased need for sleep, constant talking, distractibility, restlessness, and poor judgement Interferes with daily functioning **suicide risks for both disorders Anxiety Disorders & OCD Anxiety disordersdisorders that share features of excessive fear and anxiety and related behavioral disturbances Generalized anxiety disorder anxiety disorder in which a person has excessive, global anxiety and worries that he cannot control, occurring more days thank not for at least a period of 6 months Specific phobiaanxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent fear of specific objects and situations that is excessive and unreasonable Social anxiety disordera marked irrational, and persistent fear of one or more social performance situations in which embarrassment may occur and in which there is exposure to unfamiliar people or scrutiny by others Agoraphobiaanxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent fear of being in places or situations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing Panic disorder an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurrent panic attacks Obsessivecompulsive disorderobsessions or compulsions that are recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable, but consume considerable time and cause significant distress and disruption in the person’s daily life Obsession persistent intrusive thought, idea, impulse, or image that causes anxiety Compulsion repetitive and rigid behavior that a person feels compelled to perform in order to reduce anxiety Eating Disorders Strong cultural element Also genetic Schizophrenia Schizophrenia a psychotic disorder in which at least two of the following symptoms are present most of the time: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or negative symptoms such as loss of emotions Split between the mental functions and their contact with reality Breakdown in mental functioning Genetic or biological Psychotic realitycharacterized by loss of contact with reality Hallucination false sensory perception Delusion false belief *** NOT SPLIT PERSONALITY Treatment Drugs and pharmacotherapy Neurotransmitters Can be effective for many, life alerting for some But big placebo effects and potential side effects and take time to find right one/dose Psychotherapy Different perspectives Does psychotherapy work? Most say yes; therapists more convinced it works Critical thinking 1. Complex results could be atypical/different issues and therapists 2. The placebo effect 3. Regression to the mean
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