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CLAYTON STATE / Art / ART 1010 / How does air pressure depend on height in the atmosphere?

How does air pressure depend on height in the atmosphere?

How does air pressure depend on height in the atmosphere?

Description

School: Clayton State University
Department: Art
Course: Solar System Astronomy
Professor: Bram boroson
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: astronomy
Cost: 50
Name: Final (Exam 3) Study Guide
Description: This is the completed study guide for exam 3 and our final exam. Covers chapters 10,11,12, and 13.
Uploaded: 04/26/2016
7 Pages 167 Views 2 Unlocks
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Astronomy 1010 – Review for Exam 3 – in-class April 28 Chapters Covered


How does air pressure depend on height in the atmosphere?



10: Terrestrial Planetary Atmospheres, 11: Jovian Planetary Systems, 12:  Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets, 13: Extrasolar planets

Format: multiple choice with some extra-credit essays. Closed-book.  

Planetary Atmospheres

How and why does air pressure depend on height in the atmosphere?  ∙ Pressure decreases with altitude because the weight of overlying layers is less

What is the greenhouse effect?  

∙ The process through which atmospheres absorb infrared light from the  surface and traps heat, warming planetary surfaces.

How does the natural greenhouse effect along with the reflectivity of the  planets and their distances from the Sun result in the temperatures on each  planet?  


What can cause climate change?



∙ Reflectivity (also called albedo) is the fraction of incoming sunlight a  planet reflects, and a planet’s distance from the Sun determines the  total amount of incoming sunlight. These along with the natural  greenhouse effect, contribute to a planet’s overall temperature. If you want to learn more check out What are the genetic factors for alcoholism?

Why is the sky blue and how is that related to why the sunset is red?  ∙ The sky is blue because air molecules scatter blue light more than red  light. Sunsets are red because red light scatters less.

What is the Coriolis effect and what does it have to do with weather  patterns?  

∙ Planetary rotation affects global wind patterns through the Coriolis  effect. The Coriolis effect was named for a French physicist and can be  likened to the effect of rolling a ball on a spinning merry-go-round.  Conservation of angular momentum causes the ball’s apparent path on the merry-go-round to change direction. The Coriolis effect on Earth  alters the path of air in the same way. Wind in equatorial regions move  around Earth’s axis faster than wind in polar regions. This also cause  large storms to form and results in opposite wind circulation in the  Northern and Southern hemispheres.


How does a planet gain an atmosphere?



Don't forget about the age old question of In economics, what are the types of product differentiation?

What can cause climate change?  

∙ Solar brightening, changes in axis tilt, changes in reflectivity, and  changes in greenhouse gas abundance can cause climate change. Don't forget about the age old question of How did the evolution of more sophisticated stone tools in homo erectus provide an adaptive advantage?

What affects how much of an atmosphere a planet has?  

∙ The amount of gases present affects how much of an atmosphere a  planet has.

How does a planet gain an atmosphere and how does it lose gas?  ∙ Planets gain atmospheres through outgassing,  

evaporation/sublimation, or surface ejection, and loses gases through  condensation, chemical reactions, solar wind stripping, and thermal  escape. Outgassing comes from volcanic activity and has been the  primary source for the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars.  Evaporation/sublimation occurs when atmospheric gases condense to  become surface liquids or ices, and the subsequent evaporation or  sublimation of these liquids and ices is a second source for  atmospheric gas. Surface ejection describes the occurrence of tiny  impacts from particles and photons and is not a major source for  planets that already have substantial atmospheres. Condensation is  the opposite of evaporation in that gases, in the form of liquids or  solids, absorb into the surface of the planet. Chemical reactions  incorporate gas into the surface metal or rock. Solar wind stripping  strips away gas particles into space through solar wind particles.  Thermal escape occurs when gas molecules reach escape velocity and  escape a planet’s atmosphere. If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of a volcano?

Mercury, Moon: why so little atmosphere?  

∙ Mercury and the Moon have so little atmosphere because they  essentially do not have a troposphere, stratosphere, or thermosphere  due to lack of absorption.

What happened to cause a runaway greenhouse effect on Venus?  ∙ Venus is 30 percent closer to the Sun than the Earth, which is small  difference but large enough to makes it so that temperatures were hot  enough to cause a runaway greenhouse effect.

How do we think Mars lost its atmosphere?  

∙ We believe that solar winds may have stripped Mars of its atmosphere  after its magnetic field decreased due to interior cooling. We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between an obsession and a compulsion?

What naturally removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere on the Earth?  ∙ The oceans on Earth dissolve atmospheric carbon dioxide, enabling it  to be trapped in rocks.

Jovian Planetary Systems

Which are the Jovian planets?

∙ Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

 What are their main features (which is most massive, which has rings, their  order from the Sun, etc.)?

∙ Features can be found on pg. 310 in txtbk and on PowerPoint.  Is there a sharp division between atmosphere and surface as there are for  the terrestrial planets?  

∙ No, Jovian planets lack a solid surface.

What are the Jovian planets made of?  

∙ Hydrogen, Helium, and Hydrogen compounds

What are their insides like?  

∙ They have no solid surface, their layers are under high pressure and  temperatures, their cores are made of hydrogen compounds, metal,  and rock, and they all have different layer compositions. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the functions of the immune system?

What do we think is the source of heat inside the Jovian planets?  ∙ Internal heating in the Jovian planets is thought to come from the slow  contraction of the interior which releases potential energy. Why does Jupiter have such a strong magnetic field?  

∙ Jupiter has a large amount of metallic hydrogen circulating inside of it  which makes a strong magnetic field.

What is the Great Red Spot?  

∙ The Great Red Spot is a large storm, larger than two full Earth’s, on  Jupiter that has been going on for more than three centuries. What causes the bands and zones in Jupiter’s atmosphere?  ∙ The bands and zones on Jupiter are caused by convection. Convection  is when interior heat circulates gases in the atmosphere causing warm  air to rise and cool before sinking back down. This causes the different  colored bands as certain molecules in the gases reflect certain colors. What are the Jovian moons like?  

∙ The small moons have no geological activity, medium sized moons  have had past geological activity, and large moons have ongoing  geological activity. The medium and large moons have enough self gravity to be spherical, have substantial amounts of ice, formed in  orbit around the Jovian planets, and have circular orbits in the same  direction as the planet’s rotation. The smaller moons are more  numerous and are essentially captured asteroids.

Why does Io have active volcanoes?  

∙ Io’s volcanic activity is due to it’s relatively young age and tectonic  activity which goes hand and hand with volcanism.

What keeps the inside of Io hot?

∙ Tidal heating keeps the inside of Io hot. Tidal heating refers to the the  tidal force exerted by Jupiter on Io. This force is far greater than Earth’s force on the moon. In correlation with Io’s slightly elliptical orbit which  causes variation in Io’s tidal bulges, this causes friction that keeps the  core heated.

What is an orbital resonance?  

∙ An orbital resonance is an orbital period that falls into a simple  mathematic equation.

What is interesting about Europa?  

∙ The surface of Europa is covered by water ice and scientists believe  that there may be an ocean beneath this surface.

What is interesting about Saturn’s moon Titan?  

∙ Titan is the only moon with a thick atmosphere that hides the surface  from view. This atmosphere consists mostly of nitrogen, argon,  methane, and ethane.

What are Saturn’s rings made of?

∙ Saturn’s rings are made of tiny particles of ice and rock.  What about the rings of the other Jovian planets?  

∙ The other Jovian planets all have rings systems, but their rings are  smaller and less visible than Saturn’s.

How does the matter in the rings move?  

∙ The rings move with the planet’s orbit.

Why are there gaps in Saturn’s rings?  

∙ Gaps are caused by particles bunching up at some orbital distances  and being forced out at others. Also by some small moons, and orbital  resonances with larger moons.

What does resonance have to do with the moons of Jupiter, gaps in  Saturn's rings, and gaps in the asteroid belt?

∙ Orbital resonances cause tidal heating within the moons of Jupiter,  create gravitation tugs, waves and ripples that cause gaps in rings, as  well as the gaps in the steroid belt.

Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets

What is an asteroid?

∙ Asteroids are solid rock objects left over from planet formation. What are asteroids made of?  

∙ Asteroids are made of rock and ice.

What are their shapes?  

∙ Most Asteroids are potato-shaped with many craters

How do we know their masses?  

∙ We know the mass of asteroids by measuring its orbit.

Where are most of them in the solar system?

∙ Most asteroids are found within the asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter.

 How do they orbit the Sun?

∙ Asteroids orbit the Sun in the same direction as the planet, but their  orbits are elliptical and more highly inclined to the ecliptic plane.  Why are there gaps in the asteroid belt?

∙ Gaps in the asteroid belt are caused by orbital resonances. The nudges experienced by asteroids in Jupiter’s orbit eventually move asteroids  out of resonant orbits leaving gaps in the asteroid belt.

 Why are some asteroids in orbits near Jupiter's?

∙ Jupiter’s gravity pulled them in (?), these asteroids are referred to as  Trojan asteroids.

What are meteorites?  

∙ Meteorites are rocks from space that enter into Earth’s atmosphere. What are processed and unprocessed meteorites?  

∙ Processed meteorites are younger and have experienced volcanism  and differentiation. Unprocessed (primitive) meteorites are unchanged  since their formation 4.6 billion years ago.

What are comets?

∙ Comets, like asteroids, are leftover planetesimals from the birth of the  solar system that formed beyond the frost line.

 What are they made of?

∙ Comets are composed of hydrogen compounds that condensed into  ice.

 When do they light up?  

∙ Comets “light up” when their orbits come close to the Sun, causing ice  and particles to melt and creating a halo.

What are comet tails and why do they point in the directions they do? ∙ Comets have two visible tails, a plasma tail and a dust tail. A plasma  tail consists of gas escaping from the coma, while a dust tail is made of dust particles escaping from the coma. The plasma tail extends directly away from the Sun at all times because the ultraviolet light from the  Sun ionizes the gas and solar winds carry that gas straight outwards  from the Sun.

 How are comets related to meteor showers?

∙ Comets carry sand to pebble sized pieces of rocky material that drift  away slowly and spread along the orbital path. These particles are  responsible for most meteor showers.

What is the Oort Cloud and what is the Kuiper Belt, and how did  they form?  

∙ The Oort Cloud is a collection of many individual comets and contains  an estimated one trillion comets, and the Kuiper Belt is a ring of  comets that orbit the Sun just beyond Neptune’s orbit. The Oort cloud  was formed by the planetesimals within the Jovian planets that  escaped being swallowed by them and gathered in the far regions of  the solar system. The Kuiper Belt formed much farther out and consists of planetesimals that were formed and still lie in the outskirts of the  solar system.

What are Dwarf Planets like Pluto and Eris?  

∙ Dwarf planets are smaller sized objects that orbit the Sun but have yet  to clear their orbits of debris.

What is the evidence that an asteroid collision doomed the dinosaurs? ∙ Evidence of a meteorite impact include iridium which is very rare on  Earth but often found on meteors. Iridium has been found in lower  layers of the Earth above where dinosaur fossils have been uncovered.

Extrasolar Planets

Stars are other Suns. We now know of hundreds of other solar systems. How  did we find them?  

∙ We discover other solar systems directly through observations of  pictures or spectra of the planets, and indirectly through  

measurements of stellar properties revealing the effects of orbiting  planets.

What is the effect of the gravity of a planet on its star?

∙ The gravitational tugs of a planet’s mass on a star cause that star to  change its orbital period. Both the star and the planet orbit around a  center of mass.

Why can’t we just see planets around other stars (except in a few rare  cases)?  

∙ Direct starlight is billions of times brighter than the starlight reflected  from planets and effects our ability to detect the presence of extrasolar planets.

How do we find other planets with the Doppler effect?  

∙ By measuring changes in a star’s velocity (Doppler shift) toward or  away from us, and observing the gravitational influence of a planet on  a star, the Doppler Effect helps to locate extrasolar planets.

How do we find them using transits?

∙ A transit occurs when a something moves across the face of a star,  indicating the possible presence of a planet.

Why might the planets we discover not be the most common type?  

∙ It’s easier to locate the larger planets than the smaller, therefore these planets might not be the most common within the universe because of  their large size.

What sort of solar systems have we found and how are they different from  our own solar system?

∙ Solar systems outside our own fall in line with the nebular theory but  present challenges to it as well. One challenge includes the existence  of extrasolar planets that fall into the Jovian category yet have hot  temperatures. The other challenge is that of the Jovian extrasolar  planets’ orbits that are highly elliptical and go against the believed  circular orbits these planets should’ve formed if adhering to the  nebular theory.

 What is planetary migration?  

∙ Planetary migration describes the occurrence where planets encounter  other massive objects and their gravitational interaction results in the  planet’s migration from it’s original location. Models show that matter  in these waves can tug on a planet, causing its orbit to migrate inward.

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