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UA / Psychology / PSY 372 / Proximity is what?

Proximity is what?

Proximity is what?

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
Professor: William hart
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: PY 372 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This is a study guide for topics on exam 3
Uploaded: 04/26/2016
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Exam 3 Study Guide- PY 372


Proximity is what?



Dr. Hart- Spring 2016

What are the four factors that bring people together? How do these factors  influence attraction? Think of specific examples.

1. Proximity- The physical distance between two people

• Being physically close to people promote friendship formation Festinger, Schacter, & Back (1950)- Friendship formation in college dorms • Randomly assigned to dorm rooms

• 65% said closest friend was in same building

• Of the 65%, 41% said the closest friend lived next door, 22% said closest  friend lived two doors away, 10% said closest friend at end of the hall What causes the proximity effect?

• Higher probability of meeting people who are close in physical distance? • We are often close to people that we have things in common with? • Anticipating interacting with someone boosts liking  

• Mere exposure effect

Mere Exposure Effect


What causes the proximity effect?



• The more you see/perceive it, the more you like it

• Zajonc- Chinese ideographs (symbols/letters)- seeing the ideograph more  had a higher probability of identifying is as a positive word

2. Physical Attractiveness

Hatfield 1966- Welcome week dance study

• Attractiveness of face predicted whether people wanted to see their  partners again We also discuss several other topics like otvu

3. Similarity

• “Birds of a feather flock together”

• Newcomb 1961 Housing Study- similar people became friends • Phantom-other technique (more values shared = more liking) • No strong evidence for “opposites attract” idea

Why is similarity important in attraction?

• Less conflict when viewpoints/personalities/hobbies are similar • Validation of our characteristics and beliefs feels good

4. Reciprocal Liking

• A bit more complex than “we (dis)like those who (dis)like us” 5. Minor blunders make you seem human


What is the physical attractiveness stereotype?



• We find the person with the mustard stain more attractive than the one  without it

• Pratfall effect- tendency for attractiveness to increase or decrease when a  person makes a mistake, depending on the individuals perceived confidence  or ability to perform well in a general sense.

6. A little uncertainty

• If you’re not sure if somebody likes you, then that person is on your mind a  lot  Don't forget about the age old question of biol 2050

• We assume then that it’s someone we’re really into

Moreland & Beach (1992) - Confederates in class study

Demonstrates the “mere exposure” effect

4 fake students sent to class, some regularly, some occasionally, and some to very  few. They never interacted with students, but students preferred the one who  came regularly when asked

Mita et al. (1977) - Photographs vs. mirror images  

Proximity example

Photographs vs. mirror image

• People like there mirror image more than their picture in photographs (used  to seeing mirror image more frequently)

Darley and Berscheid (1967)

Proximity example

Anticipated interaction enhances liking

• Gave university students vague descriptions of two other people, one of  whom they expected to talk to intimately. The women later preferred the  person they expected to meet

What is the physical attractiveness stereotype? Is it accurate? The belief that physically attractive people have a wide range of positive  characteristics

• Frieze -MBA graduate study (It pays to be physically attractive- 1 scale point  of attractiveness increases starting salary.

The stereotype is partially true

• Physically attractive people are not more intelligent, dominant, happier, or  mentally healthy

• They are more confident and comfortable in social settings (might actually  be the same as others but are give a “free pass” because of how they look) • Why? - Behavior confirmation

What does it mean to have an attractive face? If you want to learn more check out what enzyme breaks down maltose

Physical attractiveness: High Bodily symmetry  

• Average (not mediocrity)- no facial extremes

• Faces with typical features tend to be viewed as more attractive Matching hypothesis and UCLA dating study

Matching phenomenon- the tendency to choose as partners those who are a match  in attractiveness and other qualities (intelligence, SES, etc.)

UCLA Dating Study:

• Those who were most similar in physical attractiveness were most likely to  have fallen in love nine months later We also discuss several other topics like ruread

Possible that people settle based on fear of rejection

Other evidence indicates a real preference for people on your level Aronson and Linder (1965)

We like people who start out disliking us and vice versa

• We really like those we have “won over”

• We really dislike those we have lost

Allowed university women to “overhear” remarks made about them (some  positive, some negative, and some that changed from positive to negative or  negative to positive)

• Target person was especially well-liked when the individual experienced a  “gain” in the others self-esteem

Passionate and Companionate Love

Passionate Love- A state of intense longing for someone that includes intense  physiological arousal, psychological interest, and care for his/her needs Companionate Love- Affection people feel for those with whom their lives are  deeply connected but do not necessarily experience passion or arousal in their  presence

Know each of the theories of relationship change. What are the central tenets  of each? What does each explain, have trouble explaining?

1. Investment model (Rusbult, 1983)

• Investment: anything people have put into a relationship that could be lost if  they leave it (e.g. financial investments, kids, etc.)

• Greater investment, less likely to leave If you want to learn more check out ce 341

• Not enough to know satisfaction, must also know about investments 2. Social Exchange Theory

• People make decisions about their relationships like they do about consumer  products (“economic model’ of relationships) If you want to learn more check out math 200 drexel

• Ex: Phone is doing its job, but it will be left behind if newer model comes  along

• Staying together:

1. Satisfaction (how happy are you in the relationship?)

2. Presence of attractive alternatives (can you do better?)

These factors can be crossed so that relationships fit into 1 of 4 quadrants

“I can do  

better”

“I can’t do  

better”

Satisfied

Happy &  

unstable: will  probably leave

Happy & stable

Not  

Satisfied

Very likely to  end  

relationship

Stay in unhappy  relationship

3. Behavioral Theory

• People learn from their interaction with their partners whether or not they  are in a good relationship

• Positive behaviors (e.g. holding hands) enhance evaluations of a relationship  while negative behaviors (e.g. name calling, stone walling) reduce  evaluations

• Empowering approach- Read books by John Gottman on this theory 4. Attachment Theory: Bowlby 1960s- psychoanalysis- personality fixed at age 2, In infancy, people develop ideas about close relationships:

• Secure attachment: reliable caregiver (good, dependable bond)- good w/  intimacy

• Avoidant attachment: Unavailable caregiver (apathetic)- not wanting intimacy • Anxious/Ambivalent: Undependable, unpredictable caregiver- needy and  uncertain (does he/she love me?)

This theory offers some explanation to why some people have the same  relationship over and over again

Influenced by parenting and temperament/genetics

5. Crisis Theory

• Focus on reaction to stressful external events

Hill (1949)- The ABCx Model

A) Negative Event

B) Resources for dealing with the negative event

C) Cognition: interpretation of event

A+B+C=x: You cope successfully, grow closer or poorly, grow apart Explains when pressure might help or hurt a relationship, depending on the  presence of psychological and physical coping resources

Exchange and communal relationships  

• Communal- One person gives without expectation of return (parent to  child), people give because they are concerned for the other person’s  welfare

• Exchange- A relationship based on equity concerns (I scratch your back,  your scratch mine)

Evolutionary approaches to male and female differences in relationships • Men prefer women with “youthful” features signifying fertility • Women prefer men with features that suggest maturity & dominance  (protection in early civilization)

Women look for men who are stable and will be able to provide and protect Men look for women who can bear children- passing on their genes Men tend to be more sexually promiscuous and less choosey than women, perhaps  in part due to evolutionary processes, cultural differences, or stereotypes Story of Genovese

• Murdered in 1964

• Witnessed by 38 people

• No one helped during the attack

• Police were called forty minutes after the attack

What are the three reasons people help? Be able to distinguish these reasons  and come up with some of your own examples.

1. To gain genetic and material benefits- kin selection (we act to help those who  share our genes)

2. To gain social status and approval/ to manage self-image- People should help  those who need help

3. To manage our moods and emotions- manage moods through pro-social actions What does an egoistic model of helping imply about helping? Evolutionary  approach is what?

Evolutionary Approach: Predisposition to help those who share our DNA, increasing  the chances our DNA is passed on

• Kin selection- we act to help those who share our genes (broken wing  display in birds, people help family members more in life-threatening  situations than strangers)

Egoistic Model: Implies that altruism does not really exist. Rather, the motive  underlying all behavior is to increase one’s own welfare

Arousal model

• We try to manage moods/ emotions through pro-social actions • When viewing situations requiring help, we are usually distressed, we want to  reduce distress

• Particularly likely to help (& reduce stress) when arousal is strong- babies  crying

• This is considered an egotistical model

Know each of the 5 steps that go into helping. Be able to discuss research  examples at each stage.

1. Notice the event

2. Interpret event as an emergency- person passed out against a tree sleeping or  sick?

3. Take responsibility for helping (Kitty Genovese example)

4. Must know/be able to give help- knowing cpr if someone passes out 5. Must decide to help (weigh rewards and costs)

Pluralistic ignorance

We assume that when other people appear unconcerned in the situation, it is not an  emergency and it could be embarrassing or awkward to intervene in a non emergency situation

Diffusion of responsibility

A person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are  present

Social exchange theory of helping

People take rewards and costs into account when deciding whether or not to help Darley & Batson (1973)

Good Samaritan Study- Seminary students asked to give a lecture on the Good  Samaritan or church finances passed a man slumped over in need of help

• Half had been told they were in a hurry and half were told they had plenty of  time

• Story had no real effect

• Being told they had plenty of time made people more likely to help Effects of mood on helping

Good mood tends to increase helping (people who find money help more) • Why? - Think more positively of others and requests when in good mood  (think back to persuasion)

Sad mood can increase or decrease helping

• Children help less when in a sad mood

• Adults help more when in a sad mood (not angry mood)

• Adults realize the benefits of connections

Negative-state relief model: help get out of sad mood; indeed

• If you give sad people another way to feel better, not as likely to help • If sad people believe helping won’t make them feel better, not as likely to  help

Angry people are less likely to help out

Know the distinctions between basic and applied research.

Basic

• Knowledge as an end in itself

• Looking for causal relationships between variables (concern for internal  validity- ability to assert causal relationships)

• Experiments- manipulative factors, careful control

Applied

• Solving social problems (e.g. aids obesity, education, group conflict) • Concerned with finding variables that produce beneficial changes • External validity is key- findings from a study apply clearly to the outside  world

• Ex: The “jigsaw classroom” research- addressed issues of discrimination  through equal, positive contact

Are eyewitnesses generally accurate? As accurate as they think? Accuracy can be impaired by a variety of factors involving the way people form  judgments and memories

• Misinformation: False information Is believed by a witness to be true • As the sequence of events in a crime is told repeatedly, errors may creep in  and become embraced by the witness as part of the true account • Assertive eyewitnesses are more likely to be believed, even though  assertiveness does not reflect the accuracy of the information  • People are generally inattentive and can encounter several problems with  encoding

• Confident eyewitnesses are no more likely to be correct and eyewitnesses  are sometimes more confident than correct

What are possible problems that can happen at encoding, storage and  retrieval that can interfere with accuracy?

Encoding: Process by which people notice and attend to information in the  environment. Affects what enters memory

• Exposure doesn’t mean it’s in memory- can’t identify correct penny in a line up

• Most crimes are committed under poor encoding conditions- conceal face,  body, etc.

• Focus primarily on a weapon if one is present (weapon focus) Storage: The process by which people store and organize information from the  environment in their memory

• We can struggle with putting information in “good” spots- finding keys after  leaving them somewhere unusual

• Hints/reminders can jog our memory- returning to the scene of the crime Retrieval: The process by which people recall the information stored in memory not simply “recalling” what happened

• Study watching videos of a car crash- Participants estimated the speed of a  car (same in all studies) to be different after being asked differently phrased  questions

Do eye witnesses affect verdicts?  

Yes, eyewitnesses can have a significant impact on a jury’s decision Circumstantial evidence plus:

No eyewitnesses = 18% conviction

1 eyewitness = 72% conviction

1 discredited eyewitness = 68%

Does the death penalty seem to be a good deterrent of violent crime? Probably not

• States with death penalty do not have lower murder rates

• When the death penalty is enacted in a state, murder stays the same or  increases

Is there a difference between people for or against the death penalty? People for the death penalty:

• Favor the prosecution

• Feels the system coddles criminals

• More concerned with crime control

• More likely to vote guilty

Do clinicians predict outcomes better than statistics? Yet, they tend to show  more confidence in their intuitive assessments than in statistical models. • Computer-based (statistical) diagnosis & prognosis- often performs better  than individual clinicians

• Combination of clinician and computer sometimes does better than either  individually

What are some biases that clinicians show? How do they work to affect  diagnoses?

• Inaccurate assumptions (illusory correlations)- eyes on Draw-a-Person test • Confirmation bias- Looking for traumatic events usually leads to them being  found

• Cognitive Overload- Too much information has been given, leaving the  recipient unable to process it

• Overconfidence (most confident clinicians are typically least accurate) What is the self-presentation approach to therapy? How does it differ from  traditional approaches?

Traditional Approach- “tell me about the bad stuff”- unnatural and awkward- more  openness, over-sharing of details is often associated with worse outcomes Self-presentation approach- clients should present an image of themselves they  desire

• Clients should be truthful, general in behavioral description of negative  things (avoid the approach in the old school scene)

• Therapists need to encourage client to make positive statements about  themselves and beneficial change and explain how self-concept change  works, and encourage clients to play the role of the ideal self

Stress, stress coping, microstressors

Microstressors (the little things):

• Overcrowding, car problems, bad work/school days

• Seem to contribute more to illness and burn-out than major life stressors Coping- trying to reduce the stress threat and its effects

Productive and non-productive coping

Emotion focused- cleaning instead of studying

Vs.  

Problem focused- studying to get ready for the test

Stressor- any physical/psychological event perceived as being able to cause  harm/emotional distress

• Major Life Event- death, marriage, divorce, kid, job loss

Depressive realism

The tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving  judgments, attributions, and predictions- “sadder but wiser ‘effect What are the effects and causes of chronic loneliness?

• Loneliness is the painful awareness that our social relationships are less  numerous or meaningful than we want them to be. Modern emphasis on  individual fulfillment and the depreciation of marriage and family may be  loneliness provoking, as well as depression provoking. Job-related mobility  also makes for fewer long-term family and social ties, and increased  loneliness. Loneliness is also genetically influenced; identical twins are much  more likely than fraternal twins to share moderate to extreme loneliness.

• Lacking social connections, many people compensate by seeing humanlike  qualities in things, animals, and supernatural beings.  

• Loneliness tends to run in social clusters, as its negative thoughts and  behaviors spread.  

• Loneliness affects stress hormones and immune activity and puts people at  greater risk for depression, suicide, high blood pressure, heart disease,  cognitive decline, and sleep impairment. Social isolation also increased the  risk of death as much as smoking, and more than obesity and inactivity.  • Adolescents experience loneliness more than adults.  

• Males experience loneliness when deprived of group interaction and females  feel loneliness when deprived of close one-to-one relationships. • Can be adaptive- loneliness signals people to seek social connections  • Chronically lonely people are often caught in a cycle of self-defeating social  thinking and social behavior, similar to that of depressed people. They  perceive their interactions as making a poor impression, blame themselves  for their poor social relationships, and see most things as beyond their  control. (Negative explanatory style)

• Lonely people’s belief in their social unworthiness and feeling pessimistic  about others prevent them from acting to reduce their loneliness- find it  hard to introduce themselves, make phone calls, and participate in groups  

• Are attuned to others and skilled at recognizing emotional expression (like  mildly depressed people)

What are the effects and causes of Social anxiety?

The implications for social anxiety are straightforward: We feel anxious when we  are motivated to impress others but have self-doubts

We may feel more anxious when we are

• With powerful, high-status people, people whose impressions of us matter • In an evaluative context, such as when making a first impression on the  parent’s of ones fiancé

• Self-conscious (as shy people often are), with our attention focused on  ourselves and how we are coming across

• Focused on something central to our self-image, as when a professor  presents ideas before peers at a professional convention

• In novel or unstructured situations, such as a first school dance, or first  formal dinner, where we are unsure of the social rules

The tendency for most shy people in theses situations is to be cautiously self protective; to talk less, to avoid topics that reveal ones ignorance, to be guarded  about oneself, to be unassertive, agreeable, and smiling

• Such anxious concerns about making a good impression often create a bad  one

Additionally, shy people see incidental events as somehow relevant to themselves over personalize situations, a tendency that breeds anxious concerns, and in  extreme cases, paranoia.

• Overestimate the extent to which other people are observing them- believe  everyone notices if they have a facial blemish

• Also self-conscious about their self-consciousness- Often wish they could  stop blushing, worrying about what others are thinking, or what to say next Shy people may turn to alcohol to reduce social anxiety

• Can become self-handicapping- labeling oneself as anxious, shy, depressed  or under the influence of alcohol may provide an excuse for failure Materialism and relation to mental health

Materialism relates to:

• Reduced life satisfaction/happiness

• Symptoms of major depression and anxiety disorders

• Less happiness with friends and family

• Headaches/physical ailments

Bottom Line: People often pursue happiness through materialism and materialism  leaves people sick and unhappy.

Does money buy happiness? When does money raise happiness? In poor countries, where low income threatens basic needs, being relatively well  off does predict greater well-being. In affluent countries, where most can afford  life’s necessities, affluence still matters, partly because people with more money  perceive more control over their lives. But after a comfortable income level is reached, more and more money produces diminishing long-term returns. Close  relationships, and feeling empowered and confident better predicts subjective well being.  

• Wealth is related to happiness across nations but not happiness within  nations

• Income is related to happiness across individuals but not happiness within  individuals

What are the four reasons materialism fails to produce happiness? 1. The more people strive for wealth, the less satisfied they tend to be with it 2. Adaption-level phenomenon- Tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation  (sound, temperature, income) and thus to notice and react to changes from that  level. We adjust neutral points based on experiences

3. Parkinson’s second law- Expenditures rise to meet income (the more money  poor people earn, the more obligations they take on. The rich earn more and let  their savings compound)

4. Upward social comparison- there is always someone richer than you What does make people happy? How can you implement these things in your  life?

• Close supportive relationships- need to belong is satisfied by close,  supportive relationships

• Faith communities and voluntary organizations- source of close connections  as well as meaning and hope

• Positive thinking habits- Optimism, self-esteem, perceived control and  extraversion mark happy experiences and happy lives

• Experiencing nature- potentially lowers stress hormones and blood pressure • Flow- Optimal state of being absorbed in an activity, but not overwhelmed or  stressed by it

• Engaging leisure activities

• Spending on family and friends

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