Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide 3014
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alesa Taylor on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3014 at Mississippi State University taught by James Stewart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
1) __________is the entire sequence of events that results in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the mitochondria. a) Inspiration b) Expiration c) Respiration d) Dehydration 2) What percentage of nitrogen exists in our environment? a) 20% b) 70% c) 5% d) 95% 3) Using O2 to produce ATP through cellular respiration and CO2 is produced as waste is known as _______. a) External respiration b) Internal respiration c) Oxygen respiration d) Mitochondrial respiration 4) ________ is also called ventilation; when the gas exchange occurs at the respiratory surface (your lungs) a) External respiration b) Internal respiration c) Oxygen respiration d) Mitochondrial respiration 5) ________ is the diffusion of gas into the tissues a) External respiration b) Internal respiration c) Oxygen respiration d) Mitochondrial respiration 6) Unicellular and small multicellular organisms that live in aquatic environments have small, thin membranes that allow for ______ of oxygen for their respiration a) Bulk flow b) Pressure c) Gas d) Diffusion 7) According to the ideal gas law, the total pressure exerted by a gas is related to the number of ______ of the gas and the ________ of the chamber a) Moles; volume b) Volume; moles c) Particles; radius d) Molecules; volume 8) Air is a mixture of gases and a variety of trace gases, each gas exerts its own amount of pressure, the sum of the pressures it the total pressure of the mixture, this concept is called __________ a) Pressure strategy b) Total pressure c) Partial pressure d) Conceptual pressure 9) Which is NOT a respiration strategy? a) Circulating the external medium through the body b) Diffusion of gasses across the body surface and circulatory transport c) Through the skin or specialized respiratory surface d) All of the above 10) What is the active movement of the respiratory medium (oxygen) across the respiratory surface (lungs, gills, etc.) called? a) Inspiration b) Expiration c) Ventilation d) Circulation 11) What is it called when the respiratory medium passes the respiratory surface in an unpredictable pattern? Like in animals with gills. a) Non-directional b) Unidirectional c) Tidal d) Countercurrent 12) What is it called when the respiratory medium moves in and out of the respiratory chamber in a back and forth movement? a) Non-directional b) Unidirectional c) Tidal d) Countercurrent 13) What is it called when the respiratory medium enters the chamber at one point and exits at another point, flowing in one direction? a) Non-directional b) Unidirectional c) Tidal d) Countercurrent 14) What is the most efficient unidirectional method of oxygenation? a) Co-current b) Countercurrent c) Crosscurrent d) Uni-current 15) Though animals can respond to changes in their environmental O2 or metabolic demands via an altered rate of ventilation, they cannot change their ________. a) Anatomy b) Current c) Dietary patterns d) Metabolic rate 16) What is the major function of the respiratory system? a) To supply the body with oxygen b) To dispose of carbon dioxide c) Both a and b d) Neither a nor b 17) the nose, nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi are all a part of the ___________ a) mucosal linings b) nasal conchae c) conducting zone d) respiratory zone 18) What part of the body serves as an airways for respiration, moistens and warms air, filters air of foreign particles, resonating chambers for speech, and houses the olfactory/smell receptors? a) Nose b) Mouth c) Both d) Neither 19) What part of the body functions to cause turbulent air flow and increase mucosal surface area? a) Nose b) Mucosal linings c) Paranasal sinuses d) Nasal conchae 20) About how many bronchial orders are there? a) 24 b) 23 c) 15 d) 26 21) As the branches of the bronchial tree get smaller what DOES NOT occur? a) Cartilage rings are replaced with irregular plates of cartilage b) Cartilage is replaced with elastin c) Smooth muscle begins to appear to regulate the amount of air entering the alveoli d) All of the above 22) What structure is NOT a part of the respiratory zone? a) Respiratory bronchioles b) Paranasal sinuses c) Alveolar ducts d) Alveolar sacs 23) Which is NOT a significant feature of alveoli? a) Fine elastic fibers surrounding structures b) Adjacent alveoli interconnected by alveolar poles c) Allows for equalization of air pressure throughout lungs d) All of the above 24) During inspiration the diaphragm ___________. a) Flattens b) Domes 25) The increased volume in the lungs during inspiration results in decreased ____________ in the pleural cavity a) Pressure b) Volume c) Quantity 26) During expiration the diaphragm moves _____ a) Down b) Up 27) Decreased volume in the lungs during expiration results in ___________ pressure in the pleural cavity. a) Decrease b) Increase 28) What is/are the layer(s) of pleura? a) Parietal b) Visceral c) Both d) Neither 29) What is/are the type(s) of pleural pressure? a) Intrapleural b) Intrapulmonic c) Both d) neither 30) What is the severe shortness of breath due to the loss of alveoli as an efficient gas exchange surface? a) Myocardial infarction b) Hyponatremia c) Dyslipidemia d) Pneumothorax 31) How do you fix pneumothorax? a) Slice into the abdominal cavity and suck out excess air b) Slice into the pleural cavity and blow in excess air c) Slice into the abdominal cavity and blow in excess air d) Slice into the pleural cavity and suck out excess air 32) What are respiratory pigments that increase oxygen carrying capacity in the blood called? a) Metalloproteins b) Cyanoproteins c) Hemoerthroproteins d) Leukoproteins 33) What type of respiratory pigment can carry the maximum amount of oxygen in the body? a) Myoglobin b) Hemoglobin c) Hemocyanin d) Hemerythin 34) Know the oxygen equilibrium curves- P100 is the plateau P50 is 50% saturated, the plateau moves higher when a person is doping blood 35) Hemoglobin has an extremely ____ affinity for carbon monoxide. a) High b) Low 36) __________ is when changes in the body’s pH or P affect the oxygen affinity to hemoglobin or a CO2 respiratory pigment, shifting the oxygen equilibrium curve. a) Oxygen shift b) Bohr shift c) Goldman shift d) Newton shift 37) When there is an increase in the pH or an decrease iCO2there is an increase in the oxygen affinity to hemoglobin, shifting the curve to the ___________ a) Right b) Left 38) When there is a decrease in pH or increase inCO2here is a decrease in the oxygen affinity to hemoglobin, shifting the curve to the ________ a) Right b) Left 39) As oxygen affinity increases, P50 ___________ a) Increases b) Decreases 40) When blood turns basic the curve shifts to the ________ a) Right b) Left 41) When blood turns acidic the curve shifts to the ________ a) Right b) Left 42) If there is a decrease in CO2, it will take ________ oxygen to saturate hemoglobin a) More b) Less 43) When the pH of the blood increases it will take _______ oxygen to reach 50% saturation a) More b) Less 44) When the concentration of CO2 decreases it will take ______ oxygen to reach 50% saturation a) More b) Less 45) Basic blood has __________ hydrogen ions and therefore can carry more oxygen a) More b) Less 46) Acidic blood has ________ hydrogen ions and therefore can carry less oxygen a) More b) Less 47) Blood is _____ at the lungs so oxygen can bond, it is __________ at the capillaries so CO2 can bond a) Acidic, basic b) Basic, acidic 48) When temperature ______ there is a decrease in oxygen affinity and the curve shifts to the right. a) Increase b) Decrease 49) An increase in 2,3 diphosphoglycerate _______ oxygen affinity causing a right shift a) Increase b) Decrease 50) Which is NOT a way that CO2 is transported in the blood? a) In the plasma b) Binded to carbaminohemoglobin c) In the form of bicarbonate d) All of the above ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? 51) KNOW CO 2 H O2⇔ H 2O ⇔3 HCO 3 H + 52) How is CO2 produced in the body? a) Through Goldman’s equation b) As a result of the Wiggers Diagram c) In your body’s metabolism d) As a result of hypertension 53) CO2 does not readily diffuse through membranes, it is moved out of the red blood cell by a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger in a process known as _______ _________ a) Bohr shift b) Wiggers shift c) Carbonic Shift d) Chloride shift 54) In the ________ the affinity for Co2 is higher than in the blood cell so CO2 diffuses out of the blood and onto the respiratory surface a) Lung b) Nasal cavity c) Mouth d) Heart 55) The _____ _____ is why deoxygenated blood carries more CO2 than oxygenated blood a) Bohr effect b) Haldane effect c) Mikes effect d) Renal effect 56) What encompasses all functions of the kidney, reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, and other small molecules, as well as the regulation of Na, K, and other electrolytes, fluid balance and blood pressure, maintain the acid-base balance, and produce various hormones along with activating vitamin D a) Renal physiology b) Urinary physiology c) Physiology d) Excretory physiology 57) Which is NOT a component of the urinary system? a) Kidneys b) Ureter c) Urethra d) Pancreas 58) Urea, uric acid, and creatinine are all? a) Parts of the citric acid cycle b) After effects of aerobic respiration c) Waste products excreted in the urine d) Necessary enzymes for the breakdown of waste 59) What are the three distinct regions of the kidney? a) Cortex, pyramid, sinus b) Medulla, sinus, columns c) Cortex, medulla, calyces d) Cortex, medulla, sinus 60) What are the two parts of the uriniferous tubule? a) Nephron and collecting tube b) Major and minor calyces c) Pyramids and columns d) Nephron and pelvis 61) What is the order of the four steps of urine production? a) Reabsorption, secretion, excretion, filtration b) Secretion, reabsorption, excretion, filtration c) Filtration, reabsorption, secretion, excretion d) Filtration, secretion, reabsorption, excretion 62) Nephrons each have a _______ a) Corpuscle b) Glomerulus c) Renal tubule d) Bowman’s capsule 63) The proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule are all ___ ______ a) Bowman’s structures b) Glomural structures c) Nephron structures d) Gladiolus structures 64) Which nephron capillary is specialized for filtration which allows the blood pressure in the capillary bed to be very high and forces fluid and solutes out of the blood and into a capsule? a) Glomerular b) Peritubular c) Neither d) Both 65) Which nephron capillary is where most of the filtrate is reabsorbed from the renal tubules and is returned to the blood? a) Glomerular b) Peritubular c) Neither d) Both 66) Which is NOT one of the layers of the filtration membrane? a) Glomerular capillaries b) Podocytes c) Basal laminae d) All of the above 67) Is hydrostatic pressure positive or negative? a) Positive b) Negative 68) Is oncotic pressure positive or negative? a) Positive b) Negative 69) What is an equation that demonstrates the fluid movement out of the capillary membrane as well as back into the capillary? a) Goldman’s equation b) Wigger’s equation c) Starling equation d) Henle’s equation 70) Tubular ______________ is the process by which solutes and water are removed from the tubular fluid and transported back into the blood. a) Absorption b) Secretion c) Excretion d) Reabsorption 71) Where is solute and water reabsorbed? a) Proximal tubule b) Descending loop of Henle c) Ascending loop of Henle d) Distal Tubule 72) Where does the hormone-mediated regulation of uptake of solute and water occur? a) Proximal tubule b) Descending loop of Henle c) Ascending loop of Henle d) Distal Tubule 73) Which limb of the loop of Henle absorbs water? a) Proximal tubule b) Descending loop of Henle c) Ascending loop of Henle d) Distal Henle 74) Using the Starling equation determine if the fluid is being filtered or reabsorbed. 40-20= 20 a) since the result of the equation is positive it is reabsorption b) since the result of the equation is positive it is filtration 75) Using the Starling equation determine if the fluid is being filtered or reabsorbed. 20-30= -10 a) Since the result of the equation is negative it is reabsorption b) Since the result of the equation is negative it is filtration 76) What is a bodily process that is similar to reabsorption, it is when substances such as hydrogen and potassium ions and organic anions move from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubular lumen filtrate (urine). a) Excretion b) Absorption c) Secretion d) Disposing 77) Using the oxygen equilibrium shift, what will occur when there is an increase in pH? a) There will be a decrease in oxygen affinity and an increase in CO2 affinity, left shift b) There will be an increase in oxygen affinity and a decrease in CO2 affinity, left shift c) There will be a decrease in oxygen affinity and an increase in CO2 affinity, right shift d) There will be an increase in oxygen affinity and a decrease in CO2 affinity, right shift 78) Using the oxygen equilibrium shift, what will occur when there is a decrease in pH? a) There will be a decrease in oxygen affinity and an increase in CO2 affinity, left shift b) There will be an increase in oxygen affinity and a decrease in CO2 affinity, left shift c) There will be a decrease in oxygen affinity and an increase in CO2 affinity, right shift d) There will be an increase in oxygen affinity and a decrease in CO2 affinity, right shift 79) Using the oxygen equilibrium shift, what will occur with an increase in temperature? a) There will be a decrease in oxygen affinity and an increase in CO2 affinity, left shift b) There will be an increase in oxygen affinity and a decrease in CO2 affinity, left shift c) There will be a decrease in oxygen affinity and an increase in CO2 affinity, right shift d) There will be an increase in oxygen affinity and a decrease in CO2 affinity, right shift 80) The “bounce” from low pH to high pH and back and forth, which happens as blood is pumped through the circulatory system is known as? a) Shift effect b) Root effect c) Bohr effect d) Chloride effect 81) The pH is acidic (low) in what area of the body? a) Lungs b) Tissues c) Both d) Neither 82) The pH is basic (high) in what area of the body? a) Lungs b) Tissues c) Both d) Neither 83) What is the word and abbreviation for the hormone that hinders urination? a) Antiurinary hormone (AUH) b) Antisecretion hormone (ASH) c) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) d) Unurinary hormone (UUH) 84) What kind of cells is the proximal tubule made up of? a) Squamous epithelial b) Cuboidal c) Both d) Neither 85) What type of cells are the ascending loop of Henle made of? a) Squamous epithelial b) Cuboidal c) Both d) Neither 86) In the ascending loop of henle osmosis pulls the water out, making the urine saltier, what type of poisoning messes up this process? a) Shitake mushroom poisoning b) Botulism c) Alcohol poisoning d) Listeria 87) More gas causes ____ pressure on an environment a) More b) Less 88) What gas has the highest concentration in our environment? a) Oxygen b) Carbon c) Nitrogen d) Hydrogen 89) Decreasing the activity of type II cell in the alveoli will __________ oxygen diffusion across the respiratory membrane. a) Not effect b) Increase c) Decrease 90) Which of the following anatomical structures contains nephrons? a) Renal pyramids b) Renal columns c) Renal pelvis d) Renal sinus 91) Increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity will ___________ air pressure a) Increase b) Decrease c) Not effect 92) Which of the following does NOT occur during expiration? a) Thoracic cavity decreases in size. b) Diaphragm muscle relaxes to a domed position. c) The air volume decreases and the air pressure increases. d) All of the above 93) Which of the following does NOT occur during inspiration? a) Thoracic cavity increases in size. b) Diaphragm muscle contracts to a flatten position. c) The air volume increases and the air pressure decreases. d) All of the above occur during inspiration. 94) Type II cells produce and secrete surfactant a substance that will ___________ the surface tension in the alveolar sacs and enhance respiration. a) Not effect b) decrease c) increase 95) Which of the following gases will have the highest affinity to hemoglobin? a) Carbon dioxide b) Carbon monoxide c) Oxygen d) Nitrogen 96) Artificially increasing in a patient’s hematocrit by blood transfusion will directly relate to a(n)________ the patient’s ability to carry oxygen. a) Not Effect b) Decrease c) Increase 97) Carbon dioxide is transported through the body in three different ways. Which of the following is NOT a transport mechanism? a) Plasma b) Hemoglobin c) Red blood cells d) All of the above answers are used to transport carbon dioxide 98) Alveolar pores are beneficial because they allow… a) Equalization of air pressure b) Provides alternate routes for air passage c) Warms and humidifies d) A and B e) All of the above answers are correct 99) According to Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, decreasing number of oxygen molecules will ____________ its partial pressure a) Increase b) Decrease c) Not Effect 100) A decrease in blood pH will cause the oxygen equilibrium affinity curve to shift right. This shift in oxygen affinity equilibrium will cause a(n) _____________ in carbon dioxide affinity to hemoglobin. a) Decrease b) Increase c) Not Effect 101) Which of the following is NOT characteristic of hemoglobin? a) Hemoglobin has a heme group bound to an atom of iron b) Hemoglobin is composed of the protein globin c) Each hemoglobin molecule can transport four molecules of oxygen d) Hemoglobin irreversibly binds with oxygen 102) During secretion, the volume of urine will ________. a) Increase b) Decrease c) Not be effected 103) Increasing reabsorption of water would _________ water volume in the urine. a) Not effect b) Decrease c) Increase 104) _______________ is defined as the pressure observed within the lungs. a) Intrapleural pressure b) Intrapulmonic pressure c) Interpulmonic pressure d) Interpleural pressure 105) _______________ is generated when the parietal and visceral layers are pulled in opposite directions. a) Intrapulmonic pressure b) Interpulmonic pressure c) Intrapleural pressure d) Interpleural pressure 106) Blood looks homogenous to the naked eye, but it actually contains both cellular and liquid components. What is the name of the fluid element that suspends cellular component? a) Hematocrit b) Serum c) Buffy Coat d) Plasma 107) _____________ is the total exchangeable air of the lungs, and it normally ranges between 3,600-4,800 mL. a) Vital capacity (VC) b) Residual volume (RV) c) Tidal volumes (TV) d) Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) 108) There are four basic steps in urine formation. __________ is the first step when waste leaves the kidney capillaries and enters into the lumen of nephron. a) Reabsorption b) Secretion c) Filtration d) Excretion 1. C 38. a 73. B 2. B 39. b 74. B 3. D 40. b 75. A 4. A 41. a 76. C 5. B 42. b 77. B 6. D 43. b 78. C 7. A 44. b 79. C 8. C 45. b 80. B 9. D 46. a 81. B 10. C 47. b 82. A 11. A 48. a 83. C 12. C 49. b 84. B 13. B 50. d 85. A 14. B 51. KNOW CO 2 H 2 86. C 15. A ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? 87. A 16. C ⇔ H 2O ⇔3 88. C HCO +3H + 17. c 89. B 18. a 52. C 90. A 19. d 53. D 91. B 54. A 20. b 92. D 21. d 55. B 93. D 22. b 56. A 94. B 57. D 23. d 58. C 95. B 24. a 96. C 25. a 59. D 97. D 60. A 26. b 61. C 98. D 27. b 99. B 28. c 62. B 100. B 63. C 29. c 64. A 101. D 30. d 102. B 31. d 65. B 103. B 66. D 32. a 67. A 104. B 33. b 105. C 34. oxygen equilibrium 68. B 106. D curve 69. C 107. A 70. D 35. a 108. C 36. b 71. A 37. b 72. D
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