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Study Guide for exam 4

by: Eleonora Sacks

Study Guide for exam 4 BSC 2023

Eleonora Sacks
GPA 3.92

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About this Document

This file covers everything that's going to be on the test.
Human Biology
Paul Sharp
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE 04/26/2016 ▯   Urinary System: ▯ Organ system consisting of the kidneys and urinary bladder. ▯ Excretion: rids the body of nitrogenous waste and metabolic waste ▯ Helps regulate the water­salt balance of the blood. It filters the blood ▯ Urea: primary nitrogenous waste of human derived from amino acid breakdown ▯ ▯ Kidneys: organ of the urinary system that produces and secretes urine ▯ Fist sized organ ▯ Produces hormone called calcitriol which increases blood calcium levels ▯ Produces hormone called erythropoietin which stimulates red blood cell  production ▯ The outer part is called the renal cortex. Appears granular ▯ Renal medulla: has the renal pyramids, the inside part of the kidney. ▯ Renal pelvis: hollow chamber of the kidney that lies inside the renal medulla  receives freshly prepared urine and takes it to the bladder. ▯ ▯ Renal artery: vessel that transports blood to be filtered from the aorta and  delivers it to our body ▯ Renal vein: vessel that takes filtered blood away from the kidney to the inferior  vena cava. ▯ Ureters: one of 2 tubes that take urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. is  25cm long and 5mm in diameter ▯ Urinary bladder: organ where urine is stored, approx. 800ml.  ▯ Has small folds of mucosa that prevent backward flow to ureters. When there is  backward flow, the kidneys stop working ▯ Internal sphincter (involuntary) and external sphincter (voluntary) ▯ Approx. 300ml stretch receptors send the 1st nerve signal to the CNS. (when  300ml go into the bladder, it stretches and causes the internal sphincter to give way and the urine starts going down to the urethra. But there's an external sphincter that  prevents it from going any further, it's the feeling we get when we need to pee but are  holding it for a while. ▯ When the bladder gets to 800 ml, you're gonna pee your pants. ▯ It takes until a person is 3 or 4 years old to be able to control the external  sphincter ▯ Urethra: tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder ▯ Carries urine to the outside of body, ▯  In females is 4cm long and in males is 20cm long ▯ Micturition: emptying of the bladder, urination, peeing. ▯ Nephrons: (where the action takes place, the filtration) microscopic kidney unit  that regulates blood composition by: ▯ Glomerular filtration ▯ Tubular reabsorption ▯ Tubular secretion ▯   ▯ ▯  The whole beige tube is the nephron, not just the  ball shaped thing. ▯ The part of the kidney where the filtration actually happens is the Nephron.  ▯ Nephron:  ▯ Glomerulus: capillary bed, ball shaped, surrounded by the glomerulus capsule  where glomerular filtration takes place. There's more leakage than other capillaries.  Water, salts, uric acid, glucose and other molecules leak out and enter the proximal  convoluted tubular ▯ Glomerulus capsule: double walled cup that surrounds the glomerulus ▯ Peritubular capillary network: capillary network that surrounds a nephron and  functions in reabsorption during urine formation. Purple tubes seen around the nephron  in the picture above. ▯ Proximal convoluted tubule: next to the glomerular capsule. The things that got  filtered out in the glomerulus but that we need like glucose and amino acids are put  back into the capillaries by Tubular Reabsorption. Inside it has villi which increase  surface area. ▯ Loop of the nephron: where we get water that got filtered out, found between the  proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Water reabsorption takes place. ▯ Distal convoluted tubule: distant to the glomerulus. The toxins and other things  that didn't get filtered out of the blood are taken in by this tubule from the capillary next  to them through active transport called Tubular Secretion (only for toxins or things that  should be removed from blood flow).  ▯ Collecting duct: once anything reaches here it becomes part of the urine and will  be excreted from the body in hours. ▯ Afferent arteriole (brings blood to the glomerulus) is much larger than the efferent arteriole(takes blood from the glomerulus to the peritubular capillary network), this puts  the capillary bed under a lot of pressure which pushes the liquids to go out faster. ▯ ▯   Endocrine System: ▯ Organ system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones ▯ Endocrine gland: a ductless gland that secretes hormone(s) into the  bloodstream. EG: pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc ▯ Exocrine gland: glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a particular site. Eg: mucous, sweat, oil and salivary glands, the liver (secretes bile) ▯ The pancreas is both exocrine (secretes digestive enzymes through pancreatic  juice through a duct) and endocrine (secretes insulin and glucagon to the bloodstream,  no duct) ▯


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