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UIC / Psychology / PSCH 315 / What are the genetic factors for alcoholism?

What are the genetic factors for alcoholism?

What are the genetic factors for alcoholism?

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School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Women and Gender
Professor: Karina reyes
Term: Spring 2016
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Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide PSCH 315
Description: These notes cover what will be on Exam 3 - Ch. 13-16 and the video
Uploaded: 04/27/2016
19 Pages 59 Views 3 Unlocks
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Exam 3 Study Guide PSCH 315


What is the genetic factors for alcoholism?



Ch. 15,13, 14, 16; Video

Ch. 15 Women and Mental Health Issues

● History of mental health:

○ People who didn’t conform to mainstream behaviors/practices were labeled or stigmatized negatively

○ Professionals tried to pull these people back into being “normal”

○ Abnormal Psychology is a field that attempted to understand “not normal” behavior

○ What is considered “normal” and “abnormal” shifts over time – we have learned more about psychopathology

○ Movements such as Civil Rights and Women’s Rights changed perceptions ○ When women had mental health problems, psychoanalysts looked at if they were fulfilling these roles


Homophobia is a fear of what?



■ Defined their mental health in terms of these traditional gender roles. ● Depression: 

○ Twice as many women as men

○ Symptoms: Sadness, low energy, social withdrawal, decreased/increased appetite, insomnia/hypersomnia, decreased self­esteem, pessimism, decreased motivation, decreased sexual desire

○ At age 13, females start to experience more depression than boys

■ Girls’ cognitive style starts to change toward negative direction

■ The earlier puberty happens, the more at risk they are for depression and anxiety

■ They are teased more and given more attention for their bodies

■ Younger girls are less able to handle this increased attention ■ Puberty for boys has either neutral or positive effects


What is the male­ sex role identity paradigm?



○ Factors: Cognitive vulnerability/risk

■ Hopelessness Theory: People with a negative cognitive style are vulnerable to depression. Influenced by the following 3 attributions: ■ Internal Attribution: The tendency to attribute external things to internal characteristics We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of legislation?

● Ex. I failed the test because I’m stupid (internal attribution) v. I failed the test because the test was way too hard (external

attribution)

■ Stable Attribution: Attributing something bad that happened to some stable reason

● Ex. It was my fault that I failed the test and because I am dumb in everything I do

■ Global Attribution: Generalizing bad things to everything

● Ex. “I am dumb in every regard.”

○ People who are cognitively vulnerable are triggered by stress to develop depression, but they may not always develop it If you want to learn more check out How did the evolution of more sophisticated stone tools in homo erectus provide an adaptive advantage?
Don't forget about the age old question of Is geography a new science?

○ Depression influenced by rumination (really dwelling on something and not letting it go)

■ Women most often ruminate on body esteem

○ Negative body esteem contributes to depression

○ Negative life events contribute to depression, especially when combined with a negative cognitive style

■ Ex. Child sexual abuse (more often happens to girls)

■ Women with history of childhood sexual abuse have 3 times the rate of depression as other women Don't forget about the age old question of What are the other types of psychological assessment employed by clinicians?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of the immune system?

● Anxiety ­ many more women than men

● Eating Disorders: 

○ 9 times as many women as men

○ Men experience EDs too, but it is less talked about

○ More common in adolescent girls and adult women

○ People who experience childhood sexual abuse or were teased for body are more likely to develop an ED

○ Anorexia nervosa = 95% female; mostly young/adolescent women ■ Can be fatal

■ Anorexics are under their normal weight, have extreme fear of gaining weight, have distorted body perception, have lighter periods due to lack of nutrition (amenorrhea), may exercise excessively Don't forget about the age old question of What is the chemical formula of phosphorous tribromide?

○ Bulimia: Binge and purge

■ Purging through vomiting, laxatives, or excessive exercise

■ Many more females than males

■ Regularly binge (extreme eating) to the point of feeling out of control ■ Goal is to lose weight

■ Meet criteria by bingeing and purging at least twice a week for 3 months; feeling out of control

○ Causes not very clear

■ There are biological causes

■ Hormonal causes – levels too low because brain is not getting the energy/nutrients it needs and the hypothalamus is unable to function properly

■ Perfectionists more likely to be bulimic (correlation)

● Some bulimic women are also OCD

● More likely to come from families that hold them to high standards ○ Treatment of EDs:

■ Very difficult to treat – people often in denial and resistant to treatment ■ Mainly treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) 

● Behavior therapy only focuses on reinforcement/punishment

● CBT looks deeper at the thoughts behind the behavior

● Replace maladaptive behavior by correcting cognitive distortions ● Not sexist

■ Family therapy also used because family is an important factor ■ Exposure therapy

■ Group therapy

■ Have to consider anxiety that accompanies EDs

● Purging can relieve their anxiety

■ Can be treated with antidepressants because they help with OCD behaviors and anxiety

● EDs cannot only be treated with drugs ­best results from

combination with therapy

■ Not entirely curable – people learn to manage it but they will almost always have those desires

■ Prevention is crucial – targeting at­risk groups (adolescents, athletes) ■ If people already have EDs, education alone will not eliminate it

■ Some people support each other’s EDs

■ Feminist Views: 

● Try to change societal behavior practices

● Women depicted in media present unrealistic body images that

make women feel bad if they can’t obtain

● White women are held up as the ideal

● Normative discontent: People focus on their imperfections in

comparison to others; it is normal for women to be discontent with

their bodies

● Women preoccupied with their physical attractiveness to men

● Alcoholism and Drug Abuse:

○ Men outnumber women greatly for alcoholism/substance abuse

○ Considered more masculine problem as opposed to the more “feminine” problems above

○ Women often overlooked for substance abuse problems

○ Heavy drinking = 6+ drinks

○ Mortality rates 4x higher for women

○ Alcohol intake positively correlated with breast cancer

○ Long term alcohol abuse shrinks the brain with negative effects

○ Women judged more negatively for being visibly intoxicated

○ Men experience more peer pressure to drink

○ Bioavailability and sensitivity

■ Alcohol is more bioavailable to women – they can drink the same amount as men but get more drunk; men metabolize it faster

■ There is individual variation

○ Genetic factors for alcoholism

■ Having an alcoholic parent creates more genetic vulnerability to

alcoholism – more for males than females

■ Not absolute – there are other factors

○ Lots of negative life events are a strong predictor of future alcoholism ■ People use substances to self­medicate

○ Depression/anxiety related to substance abuse (correlation not causation) ○ Drug use rates

■ Both genders equally use marijuana

■ Cocaine and hallucinogens used more by males

■ Psychotherapeutic (prescription) drugs used more by females

■ Cigarettes used equally

● Violence and Poverty:

○ Feminization of poverty: women are more likely to be in poverty

■ Due to large number of women as single parents, not receiving child support payments

○ There’s a positive correlation between poverty and depression

■ Consider all the other stressful things that come along with poverty ● Traditional Treatments:

○ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 

■ Systematic Desensitization:A systematic way of getting used to something

● Being exposed to anxiety­producing things from least to most

anxiety­producing

● Cognitive behavioral because they are discussing their fears and

thought processes

■ Dismantling harmful/illogical thought processes

■ Potential for sex bias from cognitive perspective

○ Psychoanalysis: 

■ A gender­biased theory (women ARE inferior to men) (penis envy) ■ Tries to uncover deep­seeded feelings often rooted in childhood traumas ○ Behavior Therapy: 

■ Positive reinforcement or punishment

■ Least likely to introduce sex bias into the process

● More Modern/Alternative Therapies:

○ Feminist Theory: 

■ Always take context into account – what happens around you

■ Take into account different components of woman’s identity (mother, worker, social class, sexual orientation, race, etc.)

■ How to cope with external factors – elements of her context

■ Attack problem at root, not just symptoms of problem

■ Work with woman’s interior and exterior

■ Focus on women’s strengths, not deficits

■ Account for how society favors men’s traits

■ Focus on empowering woman (confidence, education, knowledge, etc.)

○ Assertiveness Training: 

■ Not relinquishing power to someone else

■ Speaking up/standing up for yourself

■ Being honest, expressive, and direct when expressing your feelings

■ Women not traditionally used to thinking/acting in an assertive way – women more concerned with maintaining/preserving interpersonal

relationships

○ Feminism aims to give more attention to women in poverty and women of color ■ These groups have unique issues that often go unaddressed

■ They have limited access to resources ­ more privileged groups have more access

■ Take into account how much minority woman has adapted to

new/mainstream culture and therapist adjusts treatment according to that

■ Therapists must be culturally competent

● Unethical to not be; can recommend patient to more

knowledgeable therapist

● Shouldn’t push your own cultural viewpoints onto patient

Boys Will Be Girls 20/20 Documentary

● Jack » Jackie

● Trans people can take puberty­blockers if they have not hit puberty yet (controversial)

● Trans youth have an extremely high suicide rate, so it’s important to allow them to express themselves and not feel trapped

● Support looks different for each child – some can’t function without being able to fully transition

● Some people don’t believe kids can know that they are a different gender and decide on life­long changes; they hope for a reversal

● Jackie’s parents are fully supportive – very important

● Emerging research may show that there are differences in the brains of transsexuals

● Tim » Kim

● Kim Petra is the world’s youngest person (16) to have a complete sex change ● She had to advocate a lot to get an exception to the 18­year­old limit

● She uses her music to lend support to other trans people

● Vanessa

● Turned to prostitution to pay for surgery that she couldn’t otherwise afford ● Prostitution also paid for black­market estrogen that she also couldn’t afford ● Gets her surgeries in Guadalajara, Mexico – a popular medical tourism destination ● There is no preoperative work (blood tests, EKG, etc)

● In the US, surgeries cost $30,000+. In, Mexico costs $6,500 cash

● 6 surgeries in 2 hours – it would take twice as long in the US

Ch. 13 Lesbian and Bisexual Women

● Important Terms:

○ Transgender: When your biological sex doesn’t match your gender identity ■ Lots of transgender people don’t get surgery

○ Intersex: When you’re born with both biologically male/female genitalia ○ Gender Identity: Gender that someone feels they are

○ Transsexual: Surgery to change sexes

● Many stereotypes for lesbians

○ Lots about appearance – short hair, no makeup, manly, etc.; man­hating ○ Lots of women don’t conform to lesbians stereotypes

● Queer: 

○ Used to mean strange, later became a slut, now a term for non­heterosexuals ○ Anyone who’s a sexual minority

● Homophobia is a fear of homosexuality; anti­gay prejudice is acting hatefully toward homosexuals

● Lesbian culture:

○ Ex. Boystown in Chicago is known for its large amount of gay male residents, but it is a community for queer people in general

○ Some parts of the country have higher populations of lesbians

○ There are communities of lesbians that serve their interests and rights ○ Ex. WNBA lesbians have a sense of community

● Sexual orientation now noted in census data so that minority sexualities are allocated more attention and resources

● Lesbian couples similar to heterosexual couples in length of relationships, negative/positive behavior displayed toward each other, and what they argue about (money, sex, housework)

● Boston Marriages: older term for romantic but asexual relationships ● Coming Out Process: 

○ Mainstream assumption is that you are heterosexual, until you announce that you are not

○ Comparison Step: comparing themselves to other people to figure out their own sexuality

■ May experience a sense of loss over not being heterosexual –

heterosexuals treated better by society

○ Tolerance Step: moving in direction of more certainty about their sexuality ○ Acceptance Step: fully accept their sexuality, rather than tolerate it ■ A process of affirming own sexuality

○ Pride Step: heterosexuals are viewed with a negative connotation

○ Synthesis Step: there are good heterosexual people, and bad heterosexual people; things aren’t so black and white

○ These steps can also apply to gay men

○ Can come out selectively – only tell certain people

○ Parents not often the 1st ones to be told about their sexuality

○ Mothers tend to be more accepting

○ Often have dual identity of being in queer and heterosexual communities ● Mental Health:

○ Same­sex attraction seen considered a mental disorder until 1973

○ Lesbians similar to heterosexual women in self­esteem, levels of distress in lives ○ Lesbians more likely to have suicidal thoughts, attempt suicide, and see a therapist

■ Related to being in a society that is not entirely accepting

○ Lesbians less likely to have eating disorders, be preoccupied with weight ○ Lesbians have lowest rates of HIV/AIDs

○ APA regards conversion therapies (religious­based) as unethical; they don’t work

○ Therapists must be considerate and knowledgeable of queer patients; check own internal prejudices

○ Being queer adds to pressures/stressors of female identity + other factors ● Lesbians as Parents:

○ Children of lesbian mothers develop just as well as children of straight couples ○ Raise their children in similar way

○ Majority of their children have a heterosexual orientation

● Why are some women lesbians?

○ Misconception that women choose to be queer after having bad experiences with men

○ Biological explanations (genetics)

■ Research: identical twin sisters raised separately/differently are both lesbians at a rate of 50%

■ Theory that lesbians have more testosterone (nonconclusive)

■ Theory that hypothalamus functions differently in lesbians

(nonconclusive)

○ Learning explanation

■ Suggests that some women are conditioned (rewarded) to be lesbians ■ Operant/classical conditioning; social learning

■ No support for this

○ Bottom line – there is no conclusive reason; we don’t know exactly why ● Differences between lesbians and gay men

○ Lesbians tend to place more emphasis on emotional side of relationships

○ Lesbians are more likely to be in long­term, stable relationships – so have fewer relationships

○ Lesbians have less sex

● Lesbians and ethnicity

○ Women subjected to disadvantages/stereotypes of the different groups they’re a part of

○ Their primary identity may be different from heterosexual women

○ Latina lesbians:

■ Latino community more conservative, less accepting of homosexuals ■ Community more concerned with child­bearing/traditional family

■ As a result, Latinas are more likely to fall into white lesbian culture

○ Asian lesbians

■ Seen as a rejection of family (wife/mother role)

■ Homosexuals often rejected

○ African American lesbians ­ strong anti­gay prejudice in this culture

○ Some advantages to having triple minority status

■ More critical/aware of sexuality in mainstream society/media

■ They identify their sexuality at a younger age

■ More aware of inequalities toward women and minority groups

● Takeaway: lesbianism is a normal form of behavior

Ch. 14 The Victimization of Women

● Rape: non­consenting oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by force/threat; when someone is not able to give consent; when consent is initially given but then taken back ○ Men can be raped too

○ It is still rape even if the victim orgasms

○ Victim­blaming popular in society

○ Forced rape is one of the most underreported crimes

■ Women tend to blame themselves, especially with date rape

○ Majority of those arrested for rape are men

○ Women raped at a much higher rate than men

○ Rape not about horniness, but about power

○ Impact: depression, anxiety, trust issues, PTSD, sexual dysfunction ○ Jezebel Stereotype: idea that some groups of women aren’t rapeable because they’re already sexually loose (have lots of sex with lots of people) ■ Often refers to sex workers – they’re not taken as seriously when they claim rape

■ Awful, biased, racist stereotype

○ Possible physical consequences:

■ Trauma to mouth, throat, rectum

■ Pregnancy

■ Long­term: Pelvic pain, problems with periods, intestinal problems, sexual disorders (different for all women)

○ Half of college­aged women do not label the experience of rape as “rape” because it doesn’t match their schemas/scripts for what constitutes as rape ■ Most people think of rape only as assault from a stranger

(acknowledged/recognized rape) 

■ Don’t think rape by someone they know is considered rape

(unacknowledged rape/script)

● Rape can occur in instances of miscommunication

● Women may not feel the threat of rape with people they know ● Fear about making a scene, making a big deal out of something; want to avoid awkwardness, rejection

■ Alcohol is a vulnerability, but not excuse for rape

■ Many women fear rape and may take preventative measures ○ About 100,000 rapes a year – 40% involve a date

○ There’s no definitive profile of who is a rapist

■ But we do know of factors that predispose someone to raping ● Coming from a violent home

● Delinquency – think rule­breaking is okay

● Exposed to or having a hostile, masculine personality

● Goal of having as much sex as possible

○ Reducing likelihood of raping: if a man has empathy

■ Teaching kids to not be violent, to see others’ perspectives

○ Marital Rape: 

■ Misconception that wife must always be sexually accessible to husband ■ 7­14% experience forced sex in marriage

■ Men who rape spouses are often also physically violent with them ■ Women go through self­blame

■ 4 Theories about Rape: what causes it to occur

● 1.It’s precipitated by the victim (“she was asking for it”)

● 2. There’s something wrong with the rapist – he has some type of psychopathology

● 3. Social Disorganization Theory: When society has no order, people break rules (war)

● 4. Feminist Theory: rape happens as men’s expression of power ○ Society tells men to be dominant

○ Has to do with inequality between sexes

■ Prevention:

● What women do out of fear of sexual assault

● Being clear – saying no, not being persuaded, communicating ● Change the culture (rape culture) to decrease the idea of mistreating women to take away their power

■ Treatment:

● CBT ­ used to help women learn to cope with triggers associated with their trauma

● Restorative Justice: trying to restore justice

○ Rapist arrested

○ Meeting with your rapist under safe, controlled setting ○ Victim and her family expresses their feelings and rapist listens

○ If rapist agrees to be in this situation, he likely feels

remorse

○ They decide on how he can payback the damage –

educating other prisoners, work in a rape shelter,

advocating for victims, etc.

○ Repair the harm that has happened to the woman

○ Goal is to empower victim, give her control again

■ Treatment of rapists:

● Rapists who are treated go on to rape half as less

● Problem for data is that sexual offenders are all lumped together

● Biomedical treatments – reduce testosterone; chemical castration ○ Needs to be paired with therapy/education to be fully

effective

● Battered Women

○ Degrees of severity

○ High rates

○ There is no typical profile for a batterer or a victim

○ Characteristics of the batterer are a better predictor of situation of abuse than the characteristics of a victim

○ Batterer likely to be insecure to a pathological degree

○ Adhere to traditional gender roles

○ 3 types of batterers:

■ 1. Family only: only abuse family members

■ 2. Generally violent, antisocial: most violent to wives, but often to other people

● Often have Antisocial personality disorder

■ 3. Depressed­Borderline: engages in moderate to severe violence toward wife but not toward others

● Very volatile relationships thought of in extremes (love­hate)

● Most psychologically­impaired and distressed

○ Outsiders often ask “why do women stay?”

■ That’s victim­blaming

■ May stay because of man’s threats, hope for him to change, don’t feel like they have any other financial options, man may make lots of (empty)

promises or beg her to stay, women may have grown up in a violent

household and come to accept it (think it’s normal)

○ High impact on kids:

■ Batterer more likely to abuse children, too

■ Witnessing violence increases likelihood for psychological issues,

behavioral problems, repeating violence, aggressive, PTSD, etc.

Ch. 16 Psychology of Men

● Why should we care about the psychology of men?

○ To understand the psychological workings of those who commit crimes/violence against women

○ To better understand the men in our lives (relationships)

○ Feminism is equality for all people, including men

● Roles that men traditionally have in society:

○ Dominance, bread winners, protectors, promoting the lineage of a family, unemotional, aggressive, muscular (“masculine”), strong/confident, the oppressor ● Male Stereotypes:

○ The ones included above

○ They’re violent/aggressive, all unfaithful, better at math and science than women ● Men experience a conflict between the roles that society demands of them ● Male­Sex Role Identity Paradigm: 

○ Traditional psychology’s approach to the psychology of men

○ Assumption that to be well­adjusted in society you have to have a masculine identity

○ Men’s negative attitudes/behaviors toward women are the result of identity problems from how their mothers interacted with them

■ No evidence for this

○ Boys have problems in school because school is largely feminine (most teachers are female)

■ No evidence

● New View: Sex­Role Strain 

○ Gender roles of men are contradictory

○ A lot of men/women violate gender roles

■ Violating gender roles works out worse for men than women (e.g. boy who plays with dolls vs. girl who plays with trucks)

○ Some characteristics prescribed by gender roles are not adaptive ­ being aggressive doesn’t work in all situations

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