Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide Biology 152
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by BettyAnn Mead on Friday March 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 152 at University of Massachusetts taught by Peteh in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views.
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Date Created: 03/13/15
Vocabulary Depolarization Potential inside becomes less negative Grated sodium channels open sodium diffuses into the cell the membrane potential becomes less negative Hyperpolarization Potential inside becomes more negative Grated potassium channels open potassium diffuses out of the cell the membrane potential becomes more negative Neuron or Nerve Cell The functional unit of the nervous system Organ A structure that serves a specialized function and consists of several tissues Ectotherm Relies on heat gained from the environment 0 More vulnerable to cold weather 0 Able to thrive with much lower intakes of food 0 Greater proportion of energy intakes goes to reproduction Digestion slows down drastically EndothermProduces heat in it s own tissue Remain active in winter and at night 0 Must obtain large quantities of energyrich food Sustain high levels of aerobic activities running or ying Homeotherms Keep their body temperature constant Heterotherms Experience changes in body temperature Negative Feedback When the regulatory system makes a change in the opposite direction to a change in internal conditions Effectors Any structure that helps to restore the desired internal condition lntegrator A part of the nervous system that evaluates sensory information and decides a response is necessary to achieve homeostasis Sensor A structure that senses some aspect of the external or internal environment Regulatory Homeostasis A physiological mechanism that adjusts the internal state within a speci c value or within tolerable limits regardless of the external conditions Conformational Homeostasis Conformation to the external environment Homeostasis The maintenance of relatively constant chemical and physical conditions in an animal s cells tissues and organs TradeOff An inescapable compromise between traits Acclimatization A phenotype change that occurs in an individual in response to a shortterm change Adaptation A trait that allows an individual to survive in certain environments relative to individuals without that trait Anatomy The study of an animal s physical structure Physiology The study of how the physical structures in an organism funcUons Synaptic Terminal Nerve ending that relays signals via neurotransmitters to next neuron Synapse A place where synaptic terminals of one neuron come in to contact with another neuron Adaptations Evolution is a change in gene frequencies Adaptation can be behavioral physiological and molecular Tradeoff is a constraint on an adaptation Regulatory Systems 1 Sensor 2 Integrator 3 Effector Stimuli l Receptors l Sensors l Integrators FORM FUNCTION 0 Too hot 0 Lose shape lose function 0 Excessive water loss 0 Too cold 0 Metabolic processes slow down 0 Damage of structures TBODY gt TSET 0 Increased blood ow 0 Sweating o Panting TBODY lt TSET o Decreased blood ow 0 Shivering 0 Cellular Respiration Levels of Organization 0 Cellular 0 Tissue 0 Organ 0 Organ System 0 T Organism issue 1 Connective 2 Nervous 3 Muscle 4 Epithelial o Connective Tissue Cells that are loosely arranged Packing material between organs Blood transports materials throughout the body Cartilage and bone support the body 0 Nervous Tissue Nerve cells and neurons Delivers signals in the form of electrical signals 0 Muscle Tissue Muscle tissue functions in movement Three types 1 Striated 2 Cardiac 3 Smooth Striated Muscle 0 Most muscle tissue long cells Cardiac Muscle 0 Makes up the wall of the heart 0 Aids in structure 0 Connections help transmit signals Smooth Muscle 0 Makes up the wall od the digestive system and arteries 0 Neurons control contractions Ep heHal 0 Cover the outside of the body 0 Layers of tightly packed cells Neuronal Morphology Dendrite Cell Body Axon Hillock l Axon o Dendrite o Projections from the cell body 0 Receive information from other neurons 0 Cell Body 0 Contains nucleus and organelles o Axon o Nerve impulse propagates along single axon away from cell body 0 Axon Hillock 0 Where the axon joins the cell body Membrane Potential 0 Inside Cell 0 Mostly potassium K 0 Some sodium Na 0 Lots of macromolecules Outside Cell 0 Mostly sodium Na 0 Less potassium K 0 Lots of chloride CH The Action Potential All or Nothing Depolarization If graded potentials sum to 55mV a threshold potential is achieved 0 Then it triggers an action potential Voltage Grated Ion Channels and Diffusion Sodium o A fast opening gate 0 A slow closing gate 0 Potassium o A slow opening gate Stages of Action Potential 1 Resting state 2 Threshold 3 Depolarization 4 Repolarization 5 Undershoot 6 Back to resting state Electrical Signals VS Chemical Signals 0 Electrical Signals Within a neuron Chemical Signals Between neurons
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