ENV 1301: Study Guide for Test 3
ENV 1301: Study Guide for Test 3 ENV 1301
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Anna Frazier Tuesday,April 26, 2016 ENV 1301 Review Sheet for Test 3 Chapters 10, 12, 15, 16 You should be able to answer all the questions at the end of each chapter and know the definitions of the bold faced words. **Anything in black is written by Dr. Larry Lehr, anything in red is written by the author of this study guide.** Ch. 10 Environmental Health and Toxicology 1. Distinguish between voluntary and involuntary risk. • Voluntary risks have to do with lifestyle choices. They are the risks that people take knowing that they may have consequences. • Involuntary risks are risks that people take either not knowing that they are at risk, or they are unable to control the fact that they are at risk, such as secondhand smoke. 2. What two factors determine the effect of a toxin? • Dose, duration 3. What is meant by a ‘toxic substance’? • Toxic substance—one that can have an adverse effect on an organism 4. List and describe the vectors of exposure? • Acute exposure—high exposure for short periods of time to a hazard • Chronic exposure—low exposure over long periods of time • Vector of exposure: • inhalation • ingestion 5. List and describe the risk categories discussed in class? • Age—health is best post-pubescent • Gender—sex cells are sensitive to environmental changes • Pre-existing health conditions—Latency period: the length of time it takes for a disease to manifest itself • Genetics (genetic predisposition) • dose—ppm…mg/L • duration 6. Differentiate between the four types of hazards? • Physical - (i.e. sunburn) • Chemical - something you ingest • Biological - organism you ingest • Cultural - hazards resulting from socioeconomic status or choices in our place of living or work 7. What are the units of ppm? • mg/L 8. What was the major thesis of the book “Silent Spring”? Who wrote it? Why was it considered to be such an important book at the time? • Rachel Carson published Silent Spring in 1962 • Brought together studies to show DDT risks to people, wildlife, and ecosystems • In the 1960’s, pesticides were mostly untested and were sprayed over public areas, assuming they would do no harm. • The book generated significant social change • Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring, which awaken to the public to the ecological and health impacts of pesti- cides and industrial chemicals. The books title refers to Carson's warning that pesticides might kill so many birds that few would be left to sing in Springtime. 9. What is meant by a ‘synthetic’chemical? • Compounds that are prepared by reaction of other compounds are known as "synthetic". They may be either com- pounds that already are found in plants or animals or those that do not occur naturally. 10. Many synthetic pesticides are endocrine disruptors. How do they affect an organism? ▯1 • Endocrine disruptors—toxic substances that interfere with the endocrine system 11. What is bisphenolAand in what product is it typically used? • a synthetic organic compound used in the manufacture of epoxy resins and other polymers. 12. Differentiate between the three types of policy approaches to environmental issues. • Address the issue through lawsuits in court • People can sue • Limit the issue through legislation and regulation • Command-and-control: a top-down approach to policy, in which a legislative body or a regulating agency sets rules, standards or limits and threatens punishment for violation of those limits Reduce the issue using market-based strategies • • Channel the innovation and economic efficiency of market capitalism in way that benefit the public, such as using financial incentives 13.What is the purpose of an epidemiological study? Differentiate between the three types of policy approaches to environ- mental issues. • Epidemiological studies—large-scale comparisons among groups of people, usually contrasting a group know to have been exposed to some hazard against a group that has not 14. Distinguish between a linear dose response curve and a threshold response curve. How is risk quantified? 15. • Risk can be measured in terms of probability, a quantitative description of the likelihood of a certain outcome. 16.Two types of risk were discussed in class; voluntary and involuntary. Distinguish between the two. • Voluntary risks have to do with lifestyle choices. They are the risks that people take knowing that they may have consequences. • Involuntary risks are risks that people take either not knowing that they are at risk, or they are unable to control the fact that they are at risk, such as secondhand smoke. 17. What is meant by ‘‘risk assessment”? • Risk assessment: trying to quantify the risk associated with a particular activity 18. List the steps of risk assessment? (Fig. 10.10). ▯2 • The Health and Safety Executive's Five steps to risk assessment • Step 1: Identify the hazards. • Step 2: Decide who might be harmed and how. • Step 3: Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions. • Step 4: Record your findings and implement them. • Step 5: Review your risk assessment and update if necessary. 19. What is the ‘precautionary principle’? • Precautionary principle—assume that substances are harmful until shown to be harmless 20. What is the scope of the Toxic SubstancesAct? • Toxic SubstancesAct—AnAct to regulate commerce and protect human health and the environment by requiring testing and necessary use restrictions on certain chemical substances, and for other purposes. 21.Which governmental agency regulates toxic substances? • In general toxic chemicals used in consumer products are regulated by three different agencies: the US Environmen- tal ProtectionAgency (EPA), the Federal Food and DrugAdministration (FDA), and the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). 22. The European Union (EU) REACH program regulates manufactured chemicals in Europe. How does it differ from the way the EPAregulates chemicals in the US? • REACH—Registration, Evaluation,Authorization, restriction of CHemicals; largely shifts the burden of proof for testing chemical safety from national governments to industry and requires that chemical substances produced or imported in amounts of over 1 metric ton per year be registered with a new european chemicals agency 23.What are POPs? • Persistent Organic Pollutants—organic chemical substances, that is, they are carbon-based. Chapter 10 • Environmental health—assesses environmental factors • Biomagnification—toxic substances that bioaccumulate that influence our health and quality of life in an organism’s tissues may be transferred to other or- • Toxicity—the degree of harm a chemical substance can ganisms as predators consume prey inflict • Case history— the process of observing and analyzing • Toxicant—a toxic substance, or poison individual patients • Carcinogens—which are substances or types of radiation • Epidemiological studies—large-scale comparisons • Mutagens—substances that cause eugenic mutations in among groups of people, usually contrasting a group the DNAof organisms know to have been exposed to some hazard against a • Teratogens— chemicals that cause harm to the unborn group that has not • Neurotoxins—assault the nervous system; include ven- • Dose-response analysis—the standard method f testing oms and pesticides with lab animals in toxicology • Allergens—over-activate the immune system, causing an • Dose response—is the type of magnitude of negative immune response when one is not necessary effects the animal exhibits as a result • Pathway inhibitors—toxicants that interrupt vital bio- • Dose-response curve—the response is generally quanti- chemical processes in organisms by blocking one or more fied by measuring the proportion of animals exhibiting steps in biochemical pathways negative impacts (dose on the y axis, response on the x • Endocrine disruptors—toxic substances that interfere axis) with the endocrine system • LD (lethal dose — 50%) — the amount of a toxicant it • Acute exposure—high exposure for short periods of takes to kill fit percent of a population of test animals time to a hazard • ED (effective dose — 50%) — the amount of a toxicant • Chronic exposure—low exposure over long periods of that it takes to affect fifty percent of a population of test time animals • Bioaccumulation—the organism’s tissues have a greater • Threshold— response may only occur above a certain concentration of the substance than exists in the sur- dose rounding environment • Synergistic effects—interactive impacts that are greater than the simple sum of their constituent effects ▯3 Risk assessment—the quantitative measurement of risk Toxic Substance ControlAct (TSCA)—synthetic chem- • • and the comparison of risks involved in different activi- icals not covered by other laws are regulated ties or substances together • REACH—Registration, Evaluation,Authorization, re- • Risk management— consists of decisions and strategies striction of CHemicals; largely shifts the burden of proof to minimize risk for testing chemical safety from national governments to • Precautionary principle—assume that substances are industry and requires that chemical substances produced harmful until shown to be harmless or imported in amounts of over 1 metric ton per year be registered with a new european chemicals agency Questions from end of chapter: 24. What for major types of health hazards are examined by practitioners of environmental health? - Physical Hazards - Biological Hazards - Chemical Hazards - Cultural Hazards 25. In what way is disease the greatest hazard that people face? What kinds of interrelationships must environmental health experts study to learn how diseases affect human health? - These diseases are not spread from one person to another, but rather are influenced by genetics, environmental fac- tors, and lifestyle choices. - Infectious diseases account for almost one of every for debts that occur each year. Infectious disease is a greater problem in developing countries, where it accounts for close to half of all death. Infectious disease causes many few- er deaths in developed nations because their wealth allows for better public sanitation and hygiene as well as better access to medicine. - Toxicology is the study of chemical hazards - Many environmental health hazards exist indoors - Risks must be balanced against rewards 26. Where does most exposure to lead, asbestos, radon, and PBDEs occur? - Many environmental health hazards exist indoors 27. List and describes the seven general categories of toxic substances described in this chapter. - Carcinogens—which are substances or types of radiation - Mutagens—substances that cause eugenic mutations in the DNA of organisms - Teratogens— chemicals that cause harm to the unborn - Neruotoxins—assault the nervous system; include venoms and pesticides - Allergens—overactivate the immune system, causing an immune response when one is not necessary - Pathway inhibitors—toxicants that interrupt vital biochemical processes in organisms by blocking one or more steps in biochemical pathways - Endocrine disruptors—toxic substances that interfere with the endocrine system - Acute exposure—high exposure for short periods of time to a hazard - Chronic exposure—low exposure over long periods of time 28. Explain the mechanisms within organisms that protect them from damage from toxic substances. - Skin, scales, feathers - Possess biochemical pathways that use enzymes to detoxify harmful chemicals they enter the body. 29. Describe and contrast the processes of bioaccumulation and biomagnification. - Bioaccumulation—the organism’s tissues have a greater concentration of the substance than exists in the surround- ing environment - Biomagnification—toxic substances that bioaccumulate in an organism’s tissues may be transferred to other organ- isms as predators consume prey 30. What are epidemiological studies, and how are they most often conducted? - Epidemiological studies—large-scale comparisons among groups of people, usually contrasting a group know to have been exposed to some hazard against a group that has not ▯4 31. Explain the dose-response curve. Why do endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as BPApose challenges for toxicolo- gy? - Dose-response curve—the response is generally quantified by measuring the proportion of animals exhibiting nega- tive impacts (dose on the y axis, response on the x axis) - So many novels synthetic chemicals exist in very low concentrations over wide areas, many scientists suspect that we may have underestimated the dangers of compounds that exert impacts at low concentrations 32. What factors may affect an individual’s response to a toxic substance? - Dose - Duration - Types of exposure: • Acute exposure—high exposure for short periods of time to a hazard • Chronic exposure—low exposure over long periods of time 33. How do scientists identify and assess risks from substances or activities? - Risk assessment—the quantitative measurement of risk and the comparison of risks involved in different activities or substances together • Risk assessment analyzes risk quantitatively - Risk management— consists of decisions and strategies to minimize risk • Risk management combines science and other social factors - Precautionary principle—assume that substances are harmful until shown to be harmless - Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)—synthetic chemicals not covered by other laws are regulated - REACH—Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, restriction of CHemicals; largely shifts the burden of proof for testing chemical safety from national governments to industry and requires that chemical substances produced or imported in amounts of over 1 metric ton per year be registered with a new european chemicals agency. Ch. 12 Fresh Water, Oceans and Coasts 1. List the component parts and describe the hydrologic cycle. • Components of the hydrologic cycle include water vapor and clouds in the atmosphere, but also include liquid surface waters (oceans, lakes and streams) on continents as well as groundwater. Other important components of the hydrologic cycle include glacial ice held on continents, and water contained in bio- mass. 2. The case study on page 248 described shrinking coastal wetlands in Louisiana. Why was this a problem? • Barrier islands fronting the Mississippi River delta plain act as a buffer to reduce the effects of ocean waves and currents on associated estuaries and wetlands. What has caused the wetlands to decrease? What impact has this had on biodiversity? 3. • As the barrier islands disintegrate, the vast system of sheltered wetlands along Louisiana's delta plains are exposed to the full force and effects of open marine processes such as wave action, salinity intrusion, storm surge, tidal currents, and sediment transport that combine to accelerate wetlands deterioration. • This has decreased biodiversity 4. Differentiate between surface water and groundwater. • Surface water—water located atop the earth’s surface • Groundwater—beneath the surface held within the pores in soil or rock 5. In what form is the largest amount of freshwater found on Earth? • Permanent ice is the largest freshwater storage on Earth, accounting for about 2% of the total global supply - or nearly 69% of the total freshwater supply 6. Why are watersheds generally considered the basic unit of hydrological study? • In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipi- tation falling on the basin. ▯5 7. Figure 12.6 depicts the various zones of a lake or pond. List and describe the general characteristics of the hydrolog- ic components of those ecosystems. • In lakes and ponds, emergent plants grow along the shoreline in the littoral zone. The limonite zone is the layer of open, sunlit water, where photosynthesis takes place. Sunlight does not reach the deeper profundal zone. The benthic zone, at the bottom of the water body, often is muddy, rich in detritus and nutrients, and low in oxygen. 8. Why are estuaries considered important? • Estuaries have been called the "nurseries of the sea" because the protected environment and abundant food provide an ideal location for fish and shellfish to reproduce. What is DO? 9. • Dissolved oxygen 10. What is the maximum saturation of oxygen in water? • 14.6 mg/L 11. What environmental factors affect the saturation of oxygen in water? • Dissolved oxygen concentrations are constantly affected by diffusion and aeration, photosynthesis, respira- tion and decomposition. While water equilibrates toward 100% air saturation, dissolved oxygen levels will also fluctuate with temperature, salinity and pressure changes ³. 12. Distinguish between ‘eutrophic’and ‘oligotrophic’bodies of water. • Eutrophic a term describing a water body that has high nutrients and low oxygen conditions. • Oligotrophic is a term describing a water body that has low nutrients and high oxygen conditions. 13. Describe the process of eutrophication? • Eutrophication is the enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or both. Eutrophication can be a natural process in lakes, occurring as they age through geological time. (nutrient pollution) 14. What is meant by ‘cultural eutrophication? • Cultural eutrophication—from fertilizer runoff and sewage discharge What role do mangrove trees play in an ecosystem? 15. • Like coral reefs, mangrove forests are extremely productive ecosystems that provide numerous good and services both to the marine environment and people. 16. Distinguish between BOD and COD. (What do the initials represent and how are the terms functionally different)? • COD—Chemical Oxygen Demand is the total measurement of all chemicals in the water that can be oxi- dized. TOC or Total Organic Carbon is the measurement of organic carbons. • BOD—Biochemical Oxygen Demand is supposed to measure the amount of food (or organic carbons) that bacteria can oxidize. 17. Why are coral reefs ecologically important? • Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems on Earth. • Coral reefs support more species per unit area than any other marine environment 18. Distinguish between the terms ‘pelagic’and ‘benthic’? • Pelagic—habitats and ecosystems occurring between the ocean surface and floor • Benthic—habitats and ecosystems occurring on the ocean floor 19. What effects have humans had on waterways? • People are withdrawing water at unsustainable levels and are depleting many sources of surface water and groundwater • People have intensively engineered fresh water waterways with dams, levees, and diversion canals to sat- isfy demands for water supplies, transportation, and flood control 20. Why did theAral Sea shrink? • Once the fourth largest lake in the world, CentralAsia's shrinkingAral Sea has reached a new low, thanks to decades-old water diversions for irrigation and a more recent drought. Satellite imagery released this week by NASAshows that the eastern basin of the freshwater body is now completely dry. ▯6 21. What are the ecological costs of bottled water? • Bottled water is expensive, often not recycled, and no better than tap water 22. Provide solutions to depletion of fresh water. • Increase supply or reduce demand • Improve irrigation and agricultural practices • Desalinization • Appropriately price water • Invent new water conservation technologies • Develop energy efficient desalination plants • Recycle wastewater 23. Describe the costs and benefits of dams. 24. Fresh water use has doubled between 1960 and 2000 (page 265). What were the reasons given by the author for the increase? • We use 70% more water for irrigation today than we did 50 years ago and have doubled the amount of land under irrigation 25. Pollution adversely affects water use. How? - Pollution—The release into the environment of matter or energy that causes an undesirable impact on the health or well-being of people or other organisms - Water pollution–comes in many forms and can cause diverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health 26. Distinguish between point and nonpoint sources of water pollution. Provide two examples of each. - Point sources—(some water pollution is emitted from) discrete locations, such as a factory, sewer pipe, or oil tanker - Non-point-source pollution—Cumulative, arising from multiple inputs over larger areas, such as farms, city streets, and residential neighborhoods. 27. List and describe the major classes of water pollutants. • Toxic chemicals—Pesticides, petroleum products, and other synthetic chemicals • Pathogens and waterborne diseases—Disease-causing organisms (pathogenic viruses, protists, and bacte- ria) that come from human waster due to inadequately treated wastewater • Nutrient pollution—Nitrogen and/or phosphorous enter a water body, causing the growth of algae, which die off. Their decomposition requires oxygen, depleting the levels of dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water, so that the ecosystem cannot be supported. • Biodegradable wastes—Introducing large quantities of biodegradable materials into a waterway also de- creases DO levels for the same reason ^^ ▯7 • Sediment—High sediment concentrations (from runoff) in water impair aquatic ecosystems interfering with the restoration of fish and invertebrates and smothering benthic organisms by clouding waters, Blocking the sunlight needed by rooted aquatic plants • Oil pollution—Comes from oil spills from underwater wells and kills marine and other wildlife, causing gene mutations, population declines, and poisoning animals • Nets and plastic debris—Discarded fishing nets, fishing line, plastic bags and bottles, and other trash can be confused for food by wildlife and aquatic mammals • Thermal pollution—When we withdraw water from a river and use it to cool an industrial facility, we transfer heat from the facility back into the river where the water is returned. Elevated water temperatures can cause physiological stress in overheated plants and animals.Also, water's ability to hold a dissolved oxygen decreases as temperature rises. Too little heat can also cause problems when rivers are dammed and released, suddenly dropping the temperatures and affecting wildlife. 28. Describe the phenomena of oceanic garbage patches. • Ahuge floating mass of debris including tires, plastics, chemical drums, coat hangers, fishing nets,And other items. This is the manifestation of plastic pollution in the oceans. 29. What is a fecal coliform? How does it become a pollutant? • Fecal coliform is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Col- iform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. 30. What is the value of wetlands in terms of wastewater treatment? • Microbes, algae, and aquatic plants pollutants that remain in the water released from wastewater treatment plants. Water cleansed in the wetlands can then be released into waterways or are allowed to percolate underground. 31. What is meant by ‘industrial fishing? Why is it a concern? • Industrial fishing—the practice of industrialized fishing for commercial use in which huge vessels are em- ploye to capture fish in large numbers • Modern fishing fleets deplete marine life rapidly Chapter 12 - Fresh water—water that is relatively pure with few dis- - Wetlands—systems in which the soil is saturated with solved salts water and which generally feature shallow standing wa- ter with ample vegetation - Surface water—water located atop the earth’s surface - Currents—vast river likes flows that move in the upper - Groundwater—beneath the surface held within the pores in soil or rock 400 meters of water, horizontally and for a great dis- tances - Aquifers—porous formations of rock, sand, or gravel - Upwelling—the rising of deep, cold, dense water toward that hold water the circus; supports primary productivity - Water table—the upper limit of groundwater held in an - Downwellings—warm surface water rich in salt gases is aquifer displaced downward, providing an influx of oxygen for - Runoff—water that falls from the sky as rain, emerges deep-water life and “burying" CO2 in Ocean sediments from the spring, or melts from snow or a glacier and then flows over the land surface - Thermohaline circulation—a worldwide current sys- tem in which warmer, fresher water moves along the - Watershed—the area of land drained by a river and all surface and colder, saltier water its tributaries (after a storm) - El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—a systematic shift in atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, - Floodplain—the region of land over which a river has historically wandered & periodically flows and ocean circulation in the tropical Pacific ocean - El Niño—triggered when air pressure decreases in the Eastern Pacific and increases in the Western Pacific, ▯8 weakening the equatorial wins and allowing the warm - Dam—any obstructions place in a river or stream to water to flow eastward block its flow - La Niña—Cold waters rise to the surface and extend - Reservoirs—artificial lakes that store water for human westward in the Equatorial Pacific when winds blowing use to the west strengthened, and weather patterns are affect- - Desalination—a supply strategy that generates freshwa- ed in opposite ways ter by the removal of salt from seawater - Estuaries—water bodies where rivers flow into the - Pollution—the release into the environment of matter or ocean, mixing freshwater with saltwater energy that causes an undesirable impact on the health or - Salt marshes—occur where the tides washed over gen- well-being of people or other organisms tly sloping Sandy or Sophie substrates - Water pollution–comes in many forms and can cause - Mangroves—salt-tolerant forests that have unique three diverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health systems that curve upward like snorkels to attain oxygen - Point sources—(some water pollution is emitted from) or downward like stills to support the tree in changing discrete locations, such as a factory, sewer pipe, or oil water levels tanker - Intertidal, Littoral—ecosystems spread between the uppermost reach of the high tide and the lowest limit of - Non-point-source pollution—Cumulative, arising from the low tide multiple inputs over larger areas, such as farms, city streets, and residential neighborhoods. - Tides—the periodic rising and falling of the ocean’s height at a given location, how's with the gravitational - Harmful algal blooms—blooms of marine algae that produce powerful toxins pull of the moon and the sun - Red tides—some toxic algal cici's produce a red pig- - Kelp—large brown algae that grow from the floor of continental shelves ment that discolors the water… harmful blooms can cause illness and death in aquatic animals and people - Ocean acidification—The excess of CO2 has lowered and adversely affect communities that rely on beach the pH in seawater, slowing the onset of global climate tourism and fishing change - Waste water—what are you affected by human activi- - Pelagic—habitats and ecosystems occurring between the ties and a source of biodegradable wastes ocean surface and floor - Septic systems—the most popular method of treating - Benthic—habitats and ecosystems occurring on the wastewater; waste water runs from the house to an un- ocean floor derground septic tank, inside which solids and oil sepa- rate from water… the clarified water proceeds downhill - Consumptive use—the removal of water from an to a drain field of perforated pipe played horizontally in aquifer or from a body of surface water without return- ing it gravel filled trenches underground - Non-consumptive use—the use of water that does not - Primary treatment—about 60% of the suspended solids in the waste water settle out when the wastewater is al- remove, or only temporarily removed, water from an lowed to sit in settling tanks aquifer or surface water body. - Secondary treatment—water is stirred and aerated so - Sinkholes—when the land surface above aquifers be- that aerobic bacteria consume most of the small particles comes less able to support overlaying strata, and sinks in or collapses due to a loss of water of organic matter that remain in the wastewater - Flooding—a normal, natural process that occurs when - Wastewater effluent—treated water snow melts or heavy rain swells the volume of water in a - Bycatch—the accidental capture of nontarget animals river so that water spills over the river’s thanks ▯9 - Marine protected areas (MPAs)—areas of ocean where - Marine reserves—areas where fishing is prohibited; systems can function without human interference “no-take” reserves …………………………………… Questions from end of chapter: 34. Explain why the distribution of water on earth makes it difficult for many people to access adequate freshwater. 35. Pick one of the aquatic systems profiled in this chapter, and provide three examples of ways it interacts with other aquat- ic systems. 36. Why are coral reefs biologically valuable? How are they being degraded by human impact? What is causing the disap- pearance of mangrove forests and salt marshes? 37. Describe three benefits and three costs of damming rivers. What are the costs and benefits of levees? 38. Why do the Colorado, Rio Grande, Nile, and Yellow rivers now slowed to a trickle or run dry before reaching their deltas? 39. Name three major types of water pollutants, and provided an example of each. Explain which classes of pollutants you think are most important in your local area. 40. Define groundwater, enlist some anthropogenic sources of groundwater pollution. Why do many scientists consider groundwater pollution a greater problem than surface water pollution? 41. Describe and explain the major steps in the process of wastewater treatment. Okay an artificially constructed wetlands aide such treatment? 42. Name three industrial fishing practices, and explain how they create by catch and harm marine life. 43. How does a marine reserve differed from a marine protected area? Why do many fishers oppose marine reserves? Ex- plain why many scientists say no-take reserves will be good for fishers. Ch. 15 Nonrenewable Energy Sources 1. What is a fossil fuel and how are they formed. List three fossil fuels. • Fossil fuel—a nonrenewable natural resource, such as crude oil, natural gas, or coal, produced by the decomposi- tion and compression of organic matter from ancient life 2. Distinguish between ‘primary’and ‘secondary’energy sources. • Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas), biofuels, wind, waves, solar radiation and nuclear fuels are all primary sources of energy. Primary fuels—fuels we can burn immediately • Asecondary energy source is one that is made using a primary resource. Electricity is secondary resource, and can be generated by a number of different primary sources. 3. What is the unit of measure of crude oil? • Oil is measured in barrels 4. What role did OPEC play in oil supply and pricing in the 1970s? • In the 1970s, restrictions in oil production led to a dramatic rise in oil prices and OPEC revenue and wealth, with long-lasting and far-reaching consequences for the global economy. 5. How are the components of crude oil separated? Describe the process. • At oil refineries, • Crude oil is boiled • Hydrocarbon constituents rise to a distillation column and separate based on boiling temperature, resulting in many different kinds of oil 6. What is meant by ‘fracking’? Why has it been so controversial? ▯10 • Hydraulic fracturing—process to extract shale gas, in which a drill is sent deep underground and angled horizon- tally into a shale formation; water, sand, and chemicals are pumped in under great pressure, fracturing the rock; and gas migrates up through the drilling pipe as sand holds the fractures open.Also called hydrofracking or simply fracking 7. Describe how electricity is produced. • Electricity—heat up water to make steam, which turns the turbine, and the pressure of the steam turns the turbine, which has a shaft with a copper wire on it, which disrupts the magnetic field and yields electrons 8. Which fossil fuel has the greatest amount of proven reserves? Which fossil fuel is considered to generate the most pollu- tion? • Coal—our most abundant fossil fuel, and the fossil fuel that generates the most pollutants 9. What is meant by decreasing the ‘carbon footprint’? • Becoming more sustainable in our habits, embracing conservation and efficiency 10.What environmental problems are created by coal? • Burning coal emits a variety of pollutants, increasing air pollution 11. Describe the combustion equation? What product is considered to be harmful? Why? • Acombustion reaction always has oxygen as one reactant. The second reactant is always a hydrocarbon, which is a compound made up of carbon and hydrogen.Acombustion reaction also always produces CO2 and H2O. • Carbon dioxide released from combustion reactions warms the planet • Emissions from fossil fuel combustion have risen dramatically as nations have industrialized and population and consumption have ground 12. Describe Hubbert's peak. What are the implications? • Hubbert’s peak—the peak in production of crude oil in the US, which occurred in 1970 just as Shell Oil geologist M. King Hubbert had predicted in 1956 13. What is meant by ‘directional drilling’? • Directional drilling—a drilling technique which a drill Boris down vertically and then bends horizontally in order to follow layered a deposit for long distances from the drilling site. This enables us to extract more fossil fuels with less environmental impact at the surface. 14.What are the effects of global warming? • Global climate change—systematic change in aspects of Earth's climate, such as temperature, precipitation, and storm intensity 15. Explain the mechanisms of global warming and acid rain. • Global warming—an increase in Earth's average surface temperature. ▯11 • Acid rain—acid deposition place through rain 16.What is meant by clean coal technologies? • Clean coal technologies—wide array of techniques, equipment, and approaches to remove chemical contaminants (such as sulfur) during the process of generating electricity from coal 17.What is meant by carbon sequestration? How can that be achieved? • Carbon sequestration—Technologies or approaches to sequester, or store, carbon dioxide from industrial admis- sions, in an effort to mitigate global climate change. The term can also referred to the natural sequestration of car- bon by plants through photosynthesis 18. Describe the two most promising energy sources (conservation and efficiency). increase efficiency—maximizing productivity • • conservation—only using what you need 19. How can nuclear power be used to produce electricity? • Nuclear reactor—a facility within a nuclear power plant that initiates and controls the process of nuclear fission in order to generate electricity • Nuclear fission—the conversion of the energy within an atom’s nucleus to usable thermal energy by splitting apart atomic nuclei 20. What is an isotope? • Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. 21.What is an unstable isotope? • Unstable isotope—an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable • Radioactive isotopes/nuclides—spontaneously emit particles and energy to balance the forces inside 22.What happened at Chernobyl? • Chernobyl—site of a nuclear power plant in Ukraine, where in 1986 an explosion caused the most severe nuclear reactor accident the world has yet seen.As with Three Mile Island and Fukushima, people often use a term to de- note the accident itself. How do breeder reactors work? 23. • Breeder reactor—will produce more fuel than it uses up (by producing isotopes with long half-lives) 24. Identify the risks and impacts of coal fired vs. nuclear power plants (table 15.5) ▯12 25. What happened (and how) at Fukushima? • Fukushima Daiichi—Japanese nuclear power plant severely damaged by the tsunami associated with the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake that rocked Japan. Most radiation drifted over the ocean away from the population centers, but the event was history’s second most serious nuclear accident 26. Discuss the issues related to nuclear waste disposal? • Nuclear waste continually emits radiation, harming all life on earth • Currently, this waste is held in storage in nuclear power plants Chapter 15 • Hydraulic fracturing—process to extract shale gas, in bitumen. Oil sands represent crude oil deposits that have which a drill is sent deep underground and angled hori- been degraded and chemically altered by water derision zontally into a shale formation; water, sand, and chemi- and bacterial decomposition. Widely envisioned as a re- cals are pumped in under great pressure, fracturing the placement for crude oil as this resource is depleted rock; and gas migrates up through the drilling pipe as • Oil shale—a sedimentary rock filled with kerogen that sand holds the fractures open.Also called hydrofracking can be processed to produce liquid petroleum. Oil shale or simply fracking is formed by the same processes that form crude oil but • Shale gas—natural gas trapped deep underground in tiny occurs when kerogen was not buried deeply enough or bubbles disbursed throughout formations of shale, a type subjected to enough heat and pressure to form oil of sedimentary rock. Shale gas is often extracted by hy- • Shale oil—a liquid form of petroleum extracted from draulic fracturing deposits of oil shale • Fossil fuel—a nonrenewable natural resource, such as • Methane hydrate— an ice-like solid consisting of mole- crude oil, natural gas, or coal, produced by the decompo- cules of methane embedded in a crystal lattice of water sition and compression of organic matter from ancient molecules. Most is found in sediments on the continental life shelves and in theArctic. Nothing hydrate is a potential • Electricity—secondary form of energy that can be trans- alternative fossil fuel ferred over long distances and applied for a variety of • Proven recoverable reserve—the amount of a given uses fossil fuel in a deposit that is technologically and eco- • Net Energy—the quantitative difference between energy nomically feasible to remove under current conditions returned from a process and energy invested in a process. • Reserves-to-production ratio (R/Pratio)—the total Positive net energy values mean that a process produces remaining reserves of a fossil fuel divided by the annual more energy than is invested rate of production (extraction and processing) • EROI—the ratio determined buy dividing the quantity of • Peak oil—term used to describe the point of maximum Energy returned from a process by the quantity of energy production of petroleum in the world (or for a given na- invested in the process. Higher EROI ratios mean that tion), after which oil production declines more energy is produced from each unit of energy invest- • Hubbert’s peak—the peak in production of crude oil in ed the US, which occurred in 1970 just as Shell Oil geolo- • Coal—our most abundant fossil fuel.Ahard blackish gist M. King Hubbert had predicted in 1956 substance formed from organic matter (generally woody • Primary extraction—the initial drilling and pumping of plant material) that was compressed under very high the most easily accessible crude oil pressure and with little decomposition, creating dense, • Secondary extraction—the extraction of crude oil re- solid carbon structures maining after primary extraction by using solvents or by • Crude oil—fossil fuel produced by the conversion of flushing underground rocks with water or steam organic compounds by heat and pressure. Crude oil is a • Directional drilling—a drilling technique which a drill mixture of hundreds of different types of hydrocarbon Boris down vertically and then bends horizontally in or- molecules characterized by carbon chains of different der to follow layered a deposit for long distances from lengths (Petroleum, Oil) the drilling site. This enables us to extract more fossil • Natural gas—fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane fuels with less environmental impact at the surface. and including a varying amounts of other volatile hydro- • Clean coal technologies—wide array of techniques, carbons equipment, and approaches to remove chemical contami- • Oil sands—deposits that can be mined from the ground, nants (such as sulfur) during the process of generating consisting of moist sand and clay containing 1—20% electricity from coal ▯13 • Carbon capture—Technologies or approaches that re- result. This common psychological effect it can hamper move carbon dioxide from power plants or other emis- conservation and efficiency efforts sions, in an effort to mitigate global climate change • Nuclear energy—the energy that holds together protons • Carbon sequestration—Technologies or approaches to and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom. Several pro- sequester, or store, carbon dioxide from industrial admis- cesses, each of which involves transforming isotopes of sions, In an effort to mitigate global climate change. The one element into isotopes of other elements, Can converts term can also referred to the natural sequestration of car- nuclear energy into thermal energy, which is then used to bon by plants through photosynthesis generate electricity • Eminent domain—a policy in which a government pays • Nuclear reactor—a facility within a nuclear power plant land owners for their land at market rates and the land that initiates and controls the process of nuclear fission in owners have no recourse to refuse. In eminent domain, order to generate electricity courts set aside private property rights to make way for • Nuclear fission—the conversion of the energy within an projects judged to be for the public good atom’s nucleus to usable thermal energy by splitting apart • Energy efficiency—the ability to obtain a given result or atomic nuclei a amount of output while using less energy input. Tech- • Three Mile Island—nuclear power plant in Pennsylva- nologies permitting greater energy efficiency are one nia that in the 1979 experienced a partial meltdown. The main route to energy conservation term is often used to denote the accident itself, the most • Energy conservation—the practice of reducing Energy serious nuclear reactor malfunction that the United States use as a way of extending the lifetime of our fossil fuel has thus far experienced supplies, of being less wasteful, and of reducing our im- • Meltdown—the accidental melting of the uranium fuel pact on the environment. Conservation can result from rods inside the core of a nuclear reactor, causing the re- behavioral decisions or from the technologies that lease of radiation demonstrate energy efficiency • Chernobyl—site of a nuclear power plant in Ukraine, • Energy intensity—Energy use per dollar of gross do- where in 1986 an explosion caused the most severe nu- mestic product.Alower energy intensity indicates greater clear reactor accident the world has yet seen.As with efficiency Three Mile Island and Fukushima, people often use a • Cogeneration—a practice in which the extra heat gener- term to denote the accident itself. ated in the production of electricity is captured and put it • Fukushima Daiichi—Japanese nuclear power plant se- to use heating workplaces and homes,As well as produc- verely damaged by the tsunami associated with the ing other kinds of power March 2011 Tohoku earthquake that rocked Japan. Most • Rebound effect—the phenomenon by which gains in radiation drifted over the ocean away from the population efficiency from better technology are partly offset when centers, but the event was history’s second most serious people engage in more energy-consuming behavior as a nuclear accident Questions from end of chapter: Why are fossil fuels our most prevalent source of energy today? How are fossil fuels formed? Why are they considered 27. non-renewable? 28. Describe how net energy differs from energy returned on investment (EROI)? 29. Define the term proven recoverable reserve. Explain why the proven recoverable reserves of a given fuel could increase over time. Now explain why it could decrease. 30. Describe how coal is used to generate electricity. Now to describe how we create petroleum products. Provide examples of several of these products. 31. Why do many experts think we are about to pass in the global production peak for conventional oil? What are two ways in which we could respond to peak oil? 32. Describe three ways in which we are now extending our reach for fossil fuels. List several impacts that these actions might have. 33. Give an example of a clean coal technology. Now describe how carbon capture and storage is intended to work. 34. In what ways did the events at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi differ? What consequences resulted from each incident? Now list several concerns about the disposal of radioactive waste. What has been done so far about this disposal? ▯14 35. Based on data in this chapter, explain to reasons why it is reasonable to expect that Americans should be able to use en- ergy more efficiently in the future as the US economy expands. 36. Describe two specific examples of how technological advances can improve energy efficiency. Now describe one specific action you could take to conserve energy. Ch. 16 No questions were given for this chapter, so I’ve included a summary of the chapter instead. - Central case study: • We harness geothermal energy for heating and elec- tricity • Germany Goes Solar • Heat pumps make use of temperature differences - Renewable energy sources: • Geothermal Power has pros and cons • We have alternatives to fossil fuels Renewable sources are growing fast - Ocean energy sources: • Renewable energy offers advantages • We can harness energy from tides, waves, and cur- • rents • Policy and investment can accelerate our transition • The ocean stores thermal energy - The science behind the story: - Hydro electric power: • Comparing energy sources • Hydropower uses three approaches - Solar energy: • Hydropower is clean and renewable, yet has impacts • We collect solar energy using passive or active meth- Hydro electric power is widely used, but it may not ods • expand much more • Concentrating sunlight focuses energy - Bio energy: • PV cells generate electricity We use biomass to generate electricity • • Solar energy offers many benefits - Waste products • Location, timing, and costs can be drawbacks - Crops • Solar energy is expanding - Combustion strategies - Wind power: - Benefits and drawbacks • Wing turbines convert kinetic energy to electrical • Biofuels can power vehicles energy • Is bio-energy carbon neutral? • Wind power is growing fast - Hydrogen and fuel cells: • Offshore sites hold promise • Some yearn for a “hydrogen economy” • Wind power has many benefits Wind power has limitations • Hydrogen fuel may be produced from water or from • other matter - Geothermal energy: • Hydrogen and fuel cells have costs and benefits ▯15 Chapter 16 - Feed-in tariff—Aprogram of public policy intended to - Geothermal energy—energy that arises from beneath promote renewable energy investment, whereby utilities Earth's surface, ultimately from the radioactive decay of are mandated to purchase electricity from homeowners elements amid high pressure is deep underground. Can or businesses that generate power from renewable ener- be used to generate electrical power and power plants, gy sources and feed it into the electric grid. Under such a for direct heating via pipe water, or in ground-source system, utilities must pay guaranteed premium prices for heat pumps this power - Ground-source heat pump—Apump that harnesses - Green-collar jobs—job resulting from new employment geothermal energy from near-surface sources of earth opportunities in a more sustainably oriented economy, and water, in order to heat and cool buildings. Operates such as jobs in renewable energy on the principle that temperatures below ground are more stable than temperatures above ground - Solar energy—Energy from the sun. Is perpetually re- newable and maybe harnessed in several ways - Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)—new approach - Passive solar energy collection—and approach in whereby engineers drill deeply into rock, fracture it, pump in water, and then pump it out once it is heated which buildings are designed and building materials are below ground. This approach would enable us to obtain chosen to maximize their direct absorption of sunlight in geothermal energy in many locations winter and to keep the interior cool in the summer - Tidal energy—energy harnessed by erecting a dam - Active solar energy collection—and approach in which technological Devices are used to focus, move, or store across the outlet of a tidal basin. Water flowing with the incoming or outgoing tide through sluices in the dam solar energy turns turbines to generate electricity - Concentrated solar power—Aof generating electricity - Wave energy—energy harnessed from the motion of at a large scale by focusing sunlight from a large area onto a smaller area. Several approaches are used ocean waves. Many designs for machinery to harness wave energy have been invented, but few have been ad- - Photovoltaic cell (PV)—a device designed to collect the equately tested sunlight and directly convert it to electrical energy by - Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)—a poten- making use of the photoelectric effect tial energy source that involves harnessing the solar radi- - Thin-film solar cells—photovoltaic materials com- ation absorbed by tropical ocean water pressed into ultra-thin light weight sheets that may be incorporated into various surfaces to produce photovolta- - Hydroelectric power (hydropower)—the generation of electricity using kinetic energy of moving water ic solar power - Storage—technique used to generate hydroelectric pow- - Net metering—process by which homeowners or busi- er, in which large amounts of water are in pounded in a ness with photov
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