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USC / Sociology / SOCY 370 / Who coined the term student athlete?

Who coined the term student athlete?

Who coined the term student athlete?


Sociology Final Exam

who coined the term student athlete?

1. What is the NCAA?

- Non- profit organization

- National Collegiate Athletic Association

b. What does it do?

- regulates athletics at over 1200 educational institutions

- sets rules, policy, procedures, contractual issues

2. Be able to discuss “amateurism” as it relates to NCAA.

- the idea that athletes participating in sport should receive no remuneration  

- can be traced back to UK ???? through Ivy League schools

3. What does the term “student- athlete” refer to?

- student first, athlete second

- to deal with problems associated with work compensation (so universities do not have to pay)

4. Who coined the term “student athlete”?

What was the term cartel mean with respect to the ncaa?

- originated by Walter Byers

5. Explain Marxist “wheel of exploitation” as it relates to “student athletes” in the NCAA? -Student-athlete wants education or chance to play football Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between north africa and sub saharan africa?

-Student-athlete has no option but to play in NCAA (MoP); must be out of HS 3 years  -Student-athlete “hired” by individual institutions within NCAA

-Student-athlete produces; Universities own (ticket sales, posters, likeness rights) -Universities sell on-the-field product to market

6. What was the main thesis of the documentary “Schooled: The Price of College Sports”?

- the main argument is to include the student athletes at the table and for them to have a voice in all of  the decisions concerning them.

7. What was the term ‘cartel’ mean with respect to the NCAA?

How do athletic departments mask, hide or spread their revenue?

- A cartel is when a bunch of companies pull together to set the highest price for the market. BUT

-with respects to the NCAA, it’s when the Universities set up the lowest price, such as the scholarship  prices, for student athletes to play at their school.

8. Be able to discuss some of the main issues Dr. Southall discussed in his guest lecture.  Answers below in the Guest Lecture section

9. How do athletic departments ‘mask’, ‘hide’, or ‘spread’ their revenue?

- Schwartz (2014) argues that Universities “spread” revenue to other areas to mask profits while  overestimating costs

-hidden by subsidies from the University (which are not real dollars) We also discuss several other topics like What is cutaneous respiration and which animals use it?

10. Where is NCAA revenue going?

- rapid athletic/ institution infrastructure expansion  

Example: Williams Brice plaza

- To the University through the difference between actual cost of the education and the grant in  aid provided to the student athlete

- Coaches, trainers, athletic directors, facilities management  

11. What do the student athletes get out of the deal?

- some receive full scholarships

- room, meal plans, some money for books and expenses

- life skill training, nutrition advice, professional coaching, strength and fitness training, physical therapy,  national exposure

12. What is the approximate value of a student athlete’s full scholarship?

- between $13,821 and $14,660

13. What are the approximate chances of ‘going pro’ compared to completing a degree? - Chance to make the NFL from NCAA < 1.6%

approx. 1 in 100

-Chance to make NBA from NCAA < 1.2%

approx. 1 in 100 Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of rhythm and melody?

-Chances of a student-athlete dropping out prior to completion of degree? 19-29% (varies by year) approx. 1 in 4 to 5

Guest Lecture: Dr Richard Southall 

- Collegiate Model:

Emergent language used by the NCAA to protect the code of amateurism. Involves a redefinition  of amateurism by the NCAA in 2003 in anticipation of legal issues relating to the use of student athletes  names and likenesses.

- Amateurism:

o An athlete who cannot accept money or benefits, or accepts money or benefits under  restrictions by regulatory body. It applies to the participants (student athletes), not the  enterprises (NCAA).

- Profit- Athlete

o Grant in aid (scholarship) has lesser value than his or her market value

- Loss- Athlete

o Grant in aid (scholarship) has greater value than his or her market value

- Pay for play

o A situation in which payment is exchanged for the services rendered by student  athletes.

o Pay is defined as non-approved compensation by the NCAA

- Monopsony

o A specific person or enterprise is able to control the input of the means of production as  the only ‘purchaser’ of a good or service  

▪ in this case ‘labor’ in the form of the student athlete

- Monopoly We also discuss several other topics like What is protestants accourding to durkheim

o A specific person or enterprise is able to control the output of the means of production  ▪ Example: the commodity

o A single entity’s control of the marker to purchase a good or a service

Crime and Sport 

1. What is the difference between deviance and crime?

- Deviance:

o Is the absence of conformity (non-conformity) to usual or accepted norms of society  o Any action or behavior that violates social norms

▪ Formal rules

▪ Informal violations of social norms ( If I wore a skirt to class)

- Crime

o Is understood as a social construct

o Non-conformity to institutionalized rules

2. Highlight the different “determinants” of crime and explain which are relied on most in  sociology.

- Biological factors

o Hormones, genes

- Psychological factors

o Cognitive and development factors Don't forget about the age old question of What does crime mean?

- Geographic factor

o In the physical environment

- Economic factors

o Expected costs of crime- cost vs benefit

- Social factors

o Race, class, socioeconomic status

3. Explain the relationship between sport and crime at a general level (does sport reduce crime)? - Crime prevention is not the primary objective of sport, but research has shown that  participation in sport has a positive correlation

4. Explain Caruso’s main findings? (general thesis of the work) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the mediterranean eating pattern?

- Caruso’s (2011) findings suggest that there is a negative association between sport participation  and property crime and juvenile crime – there is, however, a weak positive association between  sport and violent crime

5. Explain some of the current sociological literature on how sport influences crime? a. Education and employment outcomes

b. Drug use

c. Happiness

d. Economic outcomes

6. How is sport viewed as an important factor in reducing crime, particularly for youth?

-There is little evidence that punitive sanctions (incarceration, community service, fines) have been  effective at reducing crime (Hoge 2002), particularly for youth

• - Particularly for youth, sport can act as a source of:

– Social cohesion and group bonding

– Feelings of positive identity (i.e., self-esteem) and empowerment

– A source of acquiring tangible skills (leadership, teamwork, self-governing skills,  decision-making)

– Source of employment and educational opportunities

– A way to legally let out aggression

– Social Capital

– Economic Capital

In other words, one could say that there exists a positive correlation between sport and non criminal behavior

7. Understand the NFL’s response to the ‘outbreak’ of domestic violence in the Fall of 2014.

In light of the Ray Rice, Adrian Peterson, Ray McDonald, and Greg Hardy Incidents of Fall 2014, the  NFL responded swiftly for several reasons:

- To ensure players were punished according to the CBA

- To repair any negative image issues created

- To make changes to current CBA in order to prevent future incidents

- Make changes to current CBA to punish previous incidents

8. Discuss how the NFL used legal structures (through the collective bargaining agreement) to  retroactively punish certain players.

In February 2015, U.S. District Judge David Doty overturned Peterson’s indefinite suspension under  the CEL

- He found that the league had promised to reinstate Peterson after his child abuse case had been  resolved

- He also found that Goodell retroactively applied his NEW tough-on-domestic-violence personal  conduct policy to Peterson’s case

- The judge did not determine:

- The fairness of the appeals process under the CBA

- The commissioner’s authority to use the CEL


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