First week of presentation notes:
Group #1: Erin, Joanna, Mackenzie
World Water Crisis:
-Mainly in sub-Saharan Africa but also in parts of the US in Africa people will travel miles all day looking for water. Water sources are drying up and getting polluted by fertilizers and run off from big factories and big farms.
-80% of illnesses developing in countries are related to poor water conditions.
-1.5 million deaths are caused by water-borne illnesses. -causes: deforestation, drought, not enough sewage systems -wetlands are disappearing
-Solutions: wells/dams/rain catchment systems, desalination.
-known for their calendars and basketball
-Mesoamerica: 3 parts of Yucatan Peninsula
-300-900 ACE cities all across Central America Don't forget about the age old question of What is buccopharyngeal respiration and which animals use it?
not a unified empire
ritualssacrifices to appease the gods and to embrace their fear of death.
-Art honored gods and leaders
many artworks didn’t survive due to the moist climate -900-1000 ACE Mayans abandoned their cities.
Group #2: Jodi, Maria, Casey
Water Bottle Industry:
-Water bottels morph together in the ocean and create these waste islands there is one twice the size of Texas.
-China has the biggest output of bottles
-first bottled water was in the 1700’s “mineral water” that was sold at a spa and said to be therapeutic.
-bottled water doesn’t have to meet the same standards as tap water does could be not as clean and hazardous!!
-Global warming images of the earth have grown from green to brown over time.
-ocean acidification due to rise in temperature (water) Great Barrier reef is experiencing massive and permanent ramification. Great Barrier reef calcification due to risen temperatures of the water.
-CO2 is one of the biggest green house gases that is in the air. -What you can do: Recycle, eat locally, eat less meat, walk/use public transportation, turn off lights and unplug anything you aren’t usingWe also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of beat in music?
Group #3: Abby, Jess, Nate
-monotheistic (one god)
-5 pillars: pilgrimage, alms-giving, prayer, testimony, fasting -Muhammad is the prophet of God and is the last one. -Sunni and Shia are the two main denominations of Islam but there are a lot of different sects of Islam. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of durkheim’s four types of suicide?
-majority of Islam is in the Middle East and Northern Africa but there is a decent amount of Muslims in the US
~ 7 million of the US’ population is Muslim.
-Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem are the three holy cities
-28 members (countries)
-economic and political partnership that are interdependent on each other and it helps avoid conflict
-helped raise living standards
-one of their goals is promote human rights
-designed to be accessible to all members by allowing 2 different cities each year to be the “European Capitals of Culture” to give opportunities to embrace their culture.
Group #4: Connor, Zakery, Jeffery
-Dates back to Aztecs who would chew the coca leaves to raise their heart rate to help with the high altitude they lived in.
-Albert Nieman 1859 German chemist who turned it into liquid cocaine. If you want to learn more check out What are the “silver bullet” solutions?
-Bolivia supplies the majority of the coca leaves
-Big penalties for drug use and possession: $2500 and jail time even for just marijuana.
History of Russia:
-not a lot physically Vast
- Mongols conquered lot: some cities surrendered before the Mongols even got there We also discuss several other topics like How long until your stomach is completely empty?
- Feudal system (serfdom)
-Russian Revolution 1917
Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne
new gov’t formed
-Cold war: Started with the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) -WW2Stalin and Churchill
-Term: “Third World Country” is not being used anymore or considered politically incorrect these days. We also discuss several other topics like How does mutation affect gene frequency?
-1991 Soviet Union ends. Didn’t really tell anyone.
America didn’t really have that big of an influence on the collapse of Russia lots of internal struggles.
Group #5: Grace, Ashley, Aubrey
-Hardest rocks in the world
-formed in the highest mantle in the earth
-the process can take 1-3 billion years
-composed of carbon and the heat and pressure gives the Carbon the molecular alignment that makes them look the way they do. -First diamond was found in 1866 along the Orange River. -South Africa has more diamonds than India these days. -38 known diamonds mines in the world
-US is the biggest consumer of diamonds
-Conflict Diamonds: sold to buy weapons
-system of gov’t: all means of production are owned by all parts of the state Marxism
-Socialism vs Communism (equal share vs. work for everything you get)
-good in theory
-communism results in a low standard of living
-characteristics: no private property, high income tax, everything is regulated by the gov’t.
-Began in 1917 with the rise of the Bolshevik party
spread to China (Maoism) in 1949
to Cuba (Castro) in 1959
to Laos in 1975
to North Korea in 1948
to Vietnam in 1976
-Results: lower class, no freedom, gov’t has too much power.
Group #6: Mary Kate, Taylor
First: 1492 native americans by spread of disease and violent conflicts (Trail of tears ~16000 Cherokees forced out of homes and ~4000 killed)
Holocaust: Adolf appointed the chancellor of Germany in 1933 enforced more rules and concentration camps started -1939-1941: mass shootings, Jews forced from homes, concentration camps established
-1942-1945: countless numbers of jews murdered
-Rwandan genocide: 1994, between Tutsis and Hutus ~800,000 killed.
History of Oil:
-300 BCE first oils wells in China
-1853drilled for commercial use
-1913 Ford Assembly line
-over 950,000 wells worldwide
-50% of the oil used in the US is domestic
-19 million barrels per day
-fracking has become a big way to extract oil from the earth.
Group #7: Alexandra, Nate, Caleb
-Water levels rebound natural causes
-Conservation efforts: adopt-a-beach, awareness, less use of water.
-abnormal weather patterns as a result of risen ocean temperatures. -different patterns of tradewinds warmer surface waters move differently (currents)
-Impacts: water supply above normal precipitation (in US); droughts (South America, Indonesia, Australia)
Agriculture: crops fail, abnormal ocean temperatures hurt fish Economical/social: Costly damage due to sea levels rising; seals left because of insufficient living environment (but they came back YAY!!)
-Global effects: hurricane activity is suppressed; marine life suffers; -Local effects: positive for us because of increased precipitationgood for agriculture
Group #8: Jennifer, Anthony, Josh
History of Slavery in Africa:
-Slavery existed in early societies in Africa
-Atlantic Slave Trade was between three continents from the 1400s 1800s
big deal because Africans were selling Africans
-3500 Years Ago Egyptians had slaves buying/selling across the Nile River
-Greeks/Romans raided Northern Africa for slaves
-Mid-15th Century trading posts were established along the East coast of Africa
-In 1801 slave trade was outlawed in the US.
-The rapid increase of desert and decrease of water and vegetation mostly due to intense drought.
less than 10’’ of rain per year
-overgrazing by animals
-Impacts of desertification:
gullying: erode gullies (grooves in dirt) into land by movement of water
keep soil from being washed away by water
plant trees: binds soil with roots
keep animals from overgrazing
fences to help keep soil in one area
-Theories: 50 million people will be displaced within the next 10 years due to desertification
-System of houses to help fugitive/runaway slaves to the north to freedom
John Rankin: lived on OH River and hid slaves in his house to help them to freedom
Levi Coffin: helped ~3000 slaves escape
John Parker: Helped slaves cross the OH river on boats John Brown: executed for treason for trying to raid the Harper’s Ferry; tried to stop slavery (Famous in this area in Kent, Stow, Hudson area)
-Fugitive Slave Law: Anyone harboring fugitive slaves would be sent to jail for a minimum of 6 months.
-At least 8 cities in the underground railroad in OH. Cleveland, Sandusky
Group #9: Ryan, Allie, Jonalyn
Modern Day Slavery:
-Threatened into work
- 6 Forms of slavery:
Bonded labor: demanded as pay back for loans; ~11.7 million in China
Child Labor: used for profit of someone else; prostitutes, porn, drugs; ~300,000 children; ~5.5 Million children in the world Child Marriage: No consent, ownership of child in the marriage; ~20.9 million worldwide
Descent: forced slavery based on class/property/women sold as sex slaves
Human trafficking: movement of people for exploitation; promised fake jobs; ~2.9 million worldwide are subject to sex trade
helps promote awareness/education
helps finance conservation
Improves well being of local people and environment Responsible travel
-Top 5 places for ecotourism:
3. Costa rica
4. Kerala, India
(Madagascar is another big location for ecotourism)
Stratford (Delaware County)
Sheldon Marsh state Nature preserve (Sandusky)
Fun Fact: US doesn’t meet the high global standards
Group #10: Noel, Paige, Peter
-Everyone has mercury in their systems
-one effect: pins and needles feeling
-Stopping it by the “clean air and clean water act”
-Ohio is a top contributor for Mercury poisoning because it’s in the fish
-Drilling into the earth for natural resources
-it started by a civil war veteran (1865)
-in OH it’s in the Youngstown area
-8 million gallons of water are used per fracking site
Group #11: Tyler, Meshari, Mazen
Coal Power Stations:
-the burning of coal to produce elecetricity
-single biggest air polluter in the US
-OH is known for this
-Solutions: wind turbines or solar panels
-an area of land where all the water runs into the same area -everyone lives in a watershed
-nested system: biggersmallereven smaller -Mississippi is the America’s greatest area of watershed
Group #12: AJ, Paige, Tyler:
-removes minerals from salt water
-over 18,426 desalinization plants in 150 countries -plants use more than 200 million kilowatts each day -more people have phones than a toilet
-it helps people claim human rights around the world -made up of mostly voluntary members
-it is a global movement of people fighting injustices -they do work in many countries
-electricity is why we need fossil fuels