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KSU / Physics / GEOG 17063 / What is the difference between north africa and sub saharan africa?

What is the difference between north africa and sub saharan africa?

What is the difference between north africa and sub saharan africa?


School: Kent State University
Department: Physics
Course: World Geography
Professor: Molly delaney
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Exam graded notes
Description: Hey guys! his is a compilation of all the presentation notes and since we are getting an exam grade on them, I decided to make this a studyguide!!!
Uploaded: 04/27/2016
7 Pages 53 Views 1 Unlocks

First week of presentation notes:  

What is the difference between north africa and sub saharan africa?

Group #1: Erin, Joanna, Mackenzie

World Water Crisis:  

-Mainly in sub-Saharan Africa but also in parts of the US  in Africa people will travel miles all day looking for water.  Water sources are drying up and getting polluted by fertilizers  and run off from big factories and big farms.  

-80% of illnesses developing in countries are related to poor water  conditions.

-1.5 million deaths are caused by water-borne illnesses.  -causes: deforestation, drought, not enough sewage systems  -wetlands are disappearing

-Solutions: wells/dams/rain catchment systems, desalination.  

Mayan Culture:

-known for their calendars and basketball

-Mesoamerica: 3 parts of Yucatan Peninsula

How does agricultural waste cause water pollution?

-300-900 ACE cities all across Central America Don't forget about the age old question of What is buccopharyngeal respiration and which animals use it?

 not a unified empire

ritualssacrifices to appease the gods and to embrace their fear of death.  

-Art honored gods and leaders

 many artworks didn’t survive due to the moist climate -900-1000 ACE  Mayans abandoned their cities.  

Group #2: Jodi, Maria, Casey

Water Bottle Industry:  

-Water bottels morph together in the ocean and create these waste  islands there is one twice the size of Texas.  

-China has the biggest output of bottles

-first bottled water was in the 1700’s “mineral water” that was sold at a spa and said to be therapeutic.  

-bottled water doesn’t have to meet the same standards as tap water  does  could be not as clean and hazardous!!  

What led to the outbreak of bolshevik revolution of 1917?

Climate Change:  

-Global warming images of the earth have grown from green to brown over time.  

-ocean acidification due to rise in temperature (water) Great Barrier  reef is experiencing massive and permanent ramification.   Great Barrier reef calcification due to risen temperatures of the  water.  

-CO2 is one of the biggest green house gases that is in the air.  -What you can do: Recycle, eat locally, eat less meat, walk/use public  transportation, turn off lights and unplug anything you aren’t usingWe also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of beat in music?

Group #3: Abby, Jess, Nate


-monotheistic (one god)  

-5 pillars: pilgrimage, alms-giving, prayer, testimony, fasting -Muhammad is the prophet of God and is the last one.  -Sunni and Shia are the two main denominations of Islam but there are  a lot of different sects of Islam.  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of durkheim’s four types of suicide?

-majority of Islam is in the Middle East and Northern Africa but there is  a decent amount of Muslims in the US

 ~ 7 million of the US’ population is Muslim.  

-Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem are the three holy cities

European Union:  

-28 members (countries)  

-economic and political partnership that are interdependent on each  other and it helps avoid conflict

-helped raise living standards

-one of their goals is promote human rights

-designed to be accessible to all members by allowing 2 different cities  each year to be the “European Capitals of Culture” to give  opportunities to embrace their culture.  

Group #4: Connor, Zakery, Jeffery  

Cocaine Trafficking:  

-Dates back to Aztecs who would chew the coca leaves to raise their  heart rate to help with the high altitude they lived in.  

-Albert Nieman 1859 German chemist who turned it into liquid  cocaine.  If you want to learn more check out What are the “silver bullet” solutions?

-Bolivia supplies the majority of the coca leaves  

-Big penalties for drug use and possession: $2500 and jail time even  for just marijuana.  

History of Russia:  

-850 ACE

-not a lot physically Vast

- Mongols conquered lot: some cities surrendered before the Mongols  even got there We also discuss several other topics like How long until your stomach is completely empty?

- Feudal system (serfdom)  

-Russian Revolution 1917

 Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne

 new gov’t formed

 economy collapsed

-Cold war: Started with the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989)  -WW2Stalin and Churchill  

-Term: “Third World Country” is not being used anymore or considered  politically incorrect these days.  We also discuss several other topics like How does mutation affect gene frequency?

-1991 Soviet Union ends. Didn’t really tell anyone.  

 America didn’t really have that big of an influence on the  collapse of Russia lots of internal struggles.  

Group #5: Grace, Ashley, Aubrey

Conflict Diamonds:  

-Hardest rocks in the world  

-formed in the highest mantle in the earth

-the process can take 1-3 billion years

-composed of carbon and the heat and pressure gives the Carbon the  molecular alignment that makes them look the way they do.  -First diamond was found in 1866 along the Orange River.  -South Africa has more diamonds than India these days.  -38 known diamonds mines in the world  

-US is the biggest consumer of diamonds  

-Conflict Diamonds: sold to buy weapons


-system of gov’t: all means of production are owned by all parts of the  state Marxism  

-Socialism vs Communism (equal share vs. work for everything you  get)  

-good in theory

-communism results in a low standard of living

-characteristics: no private property, high income tax, everything is  regulated by the gov’t.  

-Began in 1917 with the rise of the Bolshevik party  

 spread to China (Maoism) in 1949

to Cuba (Castro) in 1959

 to Laos in 1975

 to North Korea in 1948

 to Vietnam in 1976

-Results: lower class, no freedom, gov’t has too much power.  

Group #6: Mary Kate, Taylor


First: 1492 native americans by spread of disease and violent conflicts (Trail of tears ~16000 Cherokees forced out of homes and ~4000  killed)

Holocaust: Adolf appointed the chancellor of Germany in 1933 enforced more rules and concentration camps started -1939-1941: mass shootings, Jews forced from homes, concentration  camps established

-1942-1945: countless numbers of jews murdered

-Rwandan genocide: 1994, between Tutsis and Hutus ~800,000  killed.  

History of Oil:

-300 BCE first oils wells in China

-burning water

-America 1595

-1853drilled for commercial use  

-1913 Ford Assembly line

-over 950,000 wells worldwide

-50% of the oil used in the US is domestic

-19 million barrels per day

-fracking has become a big way to extract oil from the earth.  

Group #7: Alexandra, Nate, Caleb 

Great Lakes

-Conserving lakes  

-Helping wildlife

-Water levels rebound natural causes

-Conservation efforts: adopt-a-beach, awareness, less use of water.  

El Niño:  

-abnormal weather patterns as a result of risen ocean temperatures.  -different patterns of tradewinds warmer surface waters move  differently (currents)  

-Impacts: water supply above normal precipitation (in US); droughts  (South America, Indonesia, Australia)  

Agriculture: crops fail, abnormal ocean temperatures hurt fish Economical/social: Costly damage due to sea levels rising; seals left because of insufficient living environment (but they came back YAY!!)  

-Global effects: hurricane activity is suppressed; marine life suffers;  -Local effects: positive for us because of increased precipitationgood  for agriculture

Group #8: Jennifer, Anthony, Josh 

History of Slavery in Africa:  

-Slavery existed in early societies in Africa

-Atlantic Slave Trade was between three continents from the 1400s 1800s  

big deal because Africans were selling Africans

-3500 Years Ago Egyptians had slaves  buying/selling across the Nile  River

-Greeks/Romans raided Northern Africa for slaves

-Mid-15th Century trading posts were established along the East coast  of Africa

-In 1801 slave trade was outlawed in the US.  


-The rapid increase of desert and decrease of water and vegetation  mostly due to intense drought.  

 less than 10’’ of rain per year

-global warming  

-overgrazing by animals  

-Impacts of desertification:


 sandstorms

 migration

gullying: erode gullies (grooves in dirt) into land by movement  of water


keep soil from being washed away by water

plant trees: binds soil with roots

 keep animals from overgrazing  

fences to help keep soil in one area

-Theories: 50 million people will be displaced within the next 10 years  due to desertification

Underground Railroad:  

-System of houses to help fugitive/runaway slaves to the north to  freedom

-Important people:  

John Rankin: lived on OH River and hid slaves in his house to  help them to freedom

Levi Coffin: helped ~3000 slaves escape

 John Parker: Helped slaves cross the OH river on boats John Brown: executed for treason for trying to raid the Harper’s  Ferry; tried to stop slavery (Famous in this area in Kent, Stow, Hudson  area)  

-Fugitive Slave Law: Anyone harboring fugitive slaves would be sent to  jail for a minimum of 6 months.  

-At least 8 cities in the underground railroad in OH.  Cleveland,  Sandusky  

Group #9: Ryan, Allie, Jonalyn

Modern Day Slavery:  

-Threatened into work

- 6 Forms of slavery:  

Bonded labor: demanded as pay back for loans; ~11.7 million in China

Child Labor: used for profit of someone else; prostitutes, porn,  drugs; ~300,000 children; ~5.5 Million children in the world  Child Marriage: No consent, ownership of child in the marriage;  ~20.9 million worldwide  

 Descent: forced slavery based on class/property/women sold as sex slaves

Human trafficking: movement of people for exploitation;  promised fake jobs; ~2.9 million worldwide are subject to sex trade



helps promote awareness/education

helps finance conservation

Improves well being of local people and environment  Responsible travel

-Top 5 places for ecotourism:

1. Palau

2.Norwegian Fjords  

3. Costa rica

4. Kerala, India

5. Kenya

(Madagascar is another big location for ecotourism)  


Stratford (Delaware County)

 Sheldon Marsh state Nature preserve (Sandusky)  

Fun Fact: US doesn’t meet the high global standards  

Group #10: Noel, Paige, Peter 

Mercury Poisoning:  

-Everyone has mercury in their systems

-one effect: pins and needles feeling

-Stopping it by the “clean air and clean water act”  

-Ohio is a top contributor for Mercury poisoning because it’s in the fish


-Drilling into the earth for natural resources  

-it started by a civil war veteran (1865)

-in OH it’s in the Youngstown area

-8 million gallons of water are used per fracking site

Group #11: Tyler, Meshari, Mazen 

Coal Power Stations:

-the burning of coal to produce elecetricity

-single biggest air polluter in the US

-OH is known for this  

-Solutions: wind turbines or solar panels


-an area of land where all the water runs into the same area -everyone lives in a watershed

-nested system: biggersmallereven smaller -Mississippi is the America’s greatest area of watershed  

Group #12: AJ, Paige, Tyler: 


-removes minerals from salt water

-over 18,426 desalinization plants in 150 countries -plants use more than 200 million kilowatts each day -more people have phones than a toilet


-it helps people claim human rights around the world -made up of mostly voluntary members

-it is a global movement of people fighting injustices -they do work in many countries

Extra notes:  

Fossil fuels:


natural gas


-electricity is why we need fossil fuels


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