Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide History 225
Popular in U.S. History
Popular in History
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Sundberg on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 225 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Steven Reich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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If Madison isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Final Exam Study Guide ***Reminder: You Must Bring Bluebooks To Exam*** This Study Guide includes brief explanations on the majority of the topics that Dr. Reich outlined as possible Exam questions in his Review Guidelines. Below, I have outlined the ones I felt were most important to the class’s lectures and discussions, as well as quizzes. Why We Fight Film Clip: 22 min. mark to 35:21 Uses terms such as “other world” to set apart American ideals from others America had a smaller army than other countries (with less land than America) because the U.S. had become wrapped up in the “idea of peace” and “isolation” American citizens were torn between fighting and avoiding all foreign entanglements Narrator appears proud of social programs enacted by New Deal Social security CCC Federal Works Program o On the other hand, upset about other mistakes the American government made such as: Further attempts of isolation—tariffs Did not join League of Nations Prohibition Narrator emphasizes that America never lost what made it free—the ability to vote (democracy) o Germans only had the option to vote for “Hitler, Hitler, or Hitler” Americans still enjoyed freedoms that other people (in enemy countries) no longer enjoyed o Reading whatever they please vs. Book burnings o Right to practice religion w/o persecution o Enjoyed the aspect of traditional family life & children vs. Hitler Youth Programme “It was inevitable that Germany, Italy, and Japan would join forces” o Goal of world domination o “All that was left was Shangri La, and they’d take over that too, if they knew where it was” “The film portrays the war as a clash of two worlds, the slave and the free, the tyrannical and the democratic. The first 20 minutes of the film portrays the slave world---Germany, Italy, and Japan---as monolithic as places where people surrendered their civil liberties to master- dictators” (Dr. Reich, email announcement). FDR Voices of Freedom Doc. # 140 Linked freedom to economic security In order to free themselves from political tyranny (in 1776), they had to create political freedom o These political freedoms are forever enshrined in our Bill of Rights o The government cannot infringe on these rights Industrialization is the new tyrannical power o “Economic Royalists” are threatening the political freedom of the working man o “Economic Royalists” control competition, prevent workers from getting a decent pay, force people to work in dangerous conditions, and yet remain wealthy amongst mass squalor o This power needs to be restrained and the government is going to help But the government now needs resources in order to help FDR argues that political freedom is empty without economic freedom Argues that the men who do not support this idea of economic freedom are looking to continue to restrict the freedom of their workers o Concerned that the government will take away their power A necessitous man is not a free man Right to make a “living decent according to the standard of the time, a living which gives man not only enough to live by, but something to live for.” Men already have equal opportunity in the polling place, men must have equal opportunity in the marketplace Anarchy and aristocracy are the two greatest threats to freedom— however, now not only political freedom is necessary, but economic freedom is key to living the life that you have the right to live as framed by the Constitution FDR Voices of Freedom Doc. # 145 Essential Human Freedoms o Freedom of Speech o Freedom of Worship o Freedom from Want o Freedom from Fear The Four Freedoms became Roosevelt’s “favorite statement of Allied aims” (Foner, p. 187) Freedom from Want (most controversial) o Meaning: economic security Freedom from Fear o “World-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor” –FDR (Foner, p. 188) FDR felt that this was attainable at the current time A world providing the essential human freedoms is the exact opposite of the world run by dictators Uses the tyranny of militant countries to play up the importance of freedom and democracy to promote unity and purpose FDR Economic Bill of Rights (Canvas) “Plans” and “strategy” to establish a high standard of living in America Individual freedom is not possible without economic security Right to a useful or remunerative job Right to earn enough to provide adequate food, clothing, and recreation o New idea of leisure being a right The right of every farmer to raise and sell his products at a return which will give him and his family a decent living The right of every businessman to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies The right of every family to own a home The right to adequate medical care The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment The right to a good education Nixon Give Me Liberty p. 929-932 American National Exhibition in Moscow Showcase of consumer goods and leisure equipment, large exhibit of a kitchen o “Kitchen debate” Exhibit’s real message was equating freedom to consumption Nixon devoted his speech to promoting high standards of living and “prosperity for all in a classless society” Represented the mass enjoyment of freedom within suburban America Nixon used “women” and “housewives” interchangeably o Implied gender roles Promoted consumer choice within the context of traditional family life o More opportunities for happiness for men than women Khrushchev said that the American consumer culture was materialistic and had an obsession with household gadgets Johnson Voices of Freedom Doc. # 172 Johnson identified closely with the civil rights movement Believed efforts needed to be made to “counteract the heritage of slavery and segregation” (Foner, p. 278) Compared African Americans to another nation “deprived of freedom, crippled by hatred, the doors of opportunity closed to hope,” (Foner, p. 279) “Freedom is the right to share, share fully and equally, in American society—to vote, to hold a job, to enter a public place, to go to school. It is the right to be treated in every part of our national life as a person equal in dignity and promise to all others” (Foner, p. 279) Compared black poverty to white poverty, but added that there are “deep, corrosive, obstinate differences” resulting from “ancient brutality, past injustice, and present prejudice” (Foner, 281). To begin solving the problem everyone must first help to fix the family Everybody, regardless of race, deserves the same opportunities Carter Malaise (Canvas) Address country about energy crisis Known for articulating the weaknesses of America “All the legislation in the world cant fix what’s wrong with America” “Crisis of Confidence” “The erosion of our confidence in the future is threatening to destroy the social and political fabric of America” o People thinking of themselves as part of a specific social group first, and as an American second “Too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption” o We can continue to consume our way to economic growth but we won’t be happy “Often you see paralysis, stagnation, and drift” “Restoring that faith and that confidence to America is now the most important task we face” Two paths o “The path that leads to fragmentation and self interest” o “The path of common purpose and the restoration of American values” Responses of Urban Works and Farmers to Industrialization (1870- 1900) Labor unrest Uprising in South and trans-Mississippi West due to falling agricultural prices and growing economic dependency throughout rural areas Small farmers faced economic insecurity—much like industrial workers Sharecropping systems locked millions of people into never-ending poverty The price of cotton on the world market dropped o Small farmers went into debt and lost their land Western farmers mortgaged their farmers and lost them when they were unable to pay back bank loans The Populist Party appealed to the working class Won support of miners, farmers, and urban workers Populists embraced modern technology but played to the familiarity of 19 center radicalism o Wanted federal government to regulate these technologies Railroad Telegraph National market Platform proposed to restore democracy and economic opportunity American Foreign Policy and Idealism vs. Realism Review Chapter 16 pages 610-613 and Chapter 17 pages 667-673 of Give Me Liberty A brief explanation on how this reflected a broader tension between idealism and realism: Many believed that the purpose of conquest of the trans-Mississippi West, the Spanish-American War, and the annexation of the Philippines was to spread democratic ideals, promote social reform, and establish political self- government (especially in Philippines), but the U.S. was determined to exercise continued control (again, more so in the Philippines than anywhere else). For example: after the victory at Manila Bay, a provisional government modeled after the U.S. was established in the Philippines, but McKinley wanted to retain possession of the islands, resulting in a long, bloody war that was widely debated in the U.S. after it was over. Open Door Policy Announced by Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 after the end of the Spanish-American war The “Open Door” referred to the free movement of goods and money— not people o Even though the U.S. banned the immigration of Chinese into America, they demanded access to the Chinese markets and continued investment opportunities within Asia Progressive Era (Chapter 18 GML!!!) The Response of Progressives Populist movement disintegrated by the end of the 1800s o The ideas don’t disappear Progressives began to reform some of the concerns the populists platformed What is the proper role of government in the economy? 1890s-1920 What is Progressivism? Dominates local, state, and federal levels o Teddy Roosevelt o Woodrow Wilson Leading questions of the Progressive Era o Industrial relations o Women in public affairs o Social welfare o Immigration o United States’ place in the world Minimalist laissez faire government could not control/regulate the expanding economy Goal was to humanize industrial capitalism while finding a common ground in a society plagued by labor conflict all during a time of mass immigration Proposed to return to a competitive marketplace where the majority of those participating were small producers Attitudes of the Progressive Response Optimism Social Cohesion over social Darwinism o Common bonds o Denied the idea of “survival of the fittest” o Its the government’s duty to confront social issues Activists roles for the state Reformists—not radicals The Events of 1919 Turmoil within the U.S. (as well as the rest of the world) Worldwide flu epidemic Widespread racial violence Over 4 million workers participated in strikes The Great Steel Strike (GML p. 759) U.S.’s anti-immigrant sentiment Progressives felt that their efforts toward the war were a failure when Wilson was unable to establish just peace with the Fourteen Points The Great Depression Contributing Factors Stomach Market crash of 1929 Bank failure throughout the 1920s Trouble with real-estate speculations Wide income gaps Depressions within farm regions of the U.S. Reduced American purchasing power Stagnated sales in automobiles and consumer goods o Leisure goods o People could no longer purchase things they “wanted” Effect on Lives By 1930, tens of thousands of businesses had failed Mass lay-off of workers occurred Banks failed when consumers panicked and withdrew all their money Millions lost their life savings The economy hit rock bottom in 1932 More than 11 million Americans could not find work o Those who had jobs suffered from reduced hours and pay Many people travelled around the country to find work Families resorted to bread lines for food Families were evicted from their homes o Moved to “Hoovervilles” Suicide rate rose to the highest this nation has ever seen o Birthrates dropped to the lowest Hoover vs. FDR Hoover’s response was inadequate Hoover remained committed to “association action” o Counted on businesses to make voluntary steps to maintain investments and counter unemployment o Counted on charities to care for the homeless and hungry FDR attempted wholeheartedly to counteract the Depression o The New Deal Established government regulated social programs to pick America back up Roosevelt took the U.S. off the gold standard Gave the government the ability to produce more money in hopes of stimulating business activity Created Government Jobs Public-Works Projects Review GML pages 810-820 for the New Deal, it’s programs, and it’s strengths & weaknesses Civil Rights Why did the movement finally succeed in the 50s & 60s? o Destabilization of racial system during WWII o Mass migration from South making black voters a larger voice in the Democratic Party o America’s racial reality was an “international embarrassment” o Lyndon B. Johnson so closely identified with the movement and pushed for equality from the White House GML Pages 961-965 and Chapter 25: o Brown v. BOE o Warren Court o Montgomery Bus Boycotts o Greensboro, N.C. sit-in o March on Washington o Civil Rights Act passed o Voting Rights Act The Changing Black Movement Uprisings in ghettos outside the South sparked fear of “reverse discrimination” The first riots were predominately battles between black citizens and white police o Newark Riot o Detroit Riot Formation of the Black Panther Party SNCC CORE Malcolm X o Orator that insisted that African Americans must control their own political and economic resources and rely on their own efforts rather than working side by side with whites o Spread message of white evil and black self-discipline o Converted to the teachings of the Nation of Islam while in prison o Assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam while visiting Saudi Arabia Black Power o Freedom from whites that tried to dictate the movement Egalitarian Promise of Suburbia and the Golden Years of Affluence Freedom from want Secure livelihood through widespread material abundance Suburbia is the product of post WWII construction as well as post WWII legislature such as the G.I. Bill Late 1940s-50s the number of people who owned houses skyrocketed Majority of suburban homeowners were young, white, and middle class Suburban architects saw the single family home as the “new American Dream” “Savings in the form of equities” o House o Appliances Sign of a new moneyed middle class o This suburban dream is open to anybody o New classless America o Egalitarian America Suburban residents lived in comfort Lived in relative economic uniformity The Kitchen Debate- Nixon v. Khrushchev o Typical American home and it’s convenience of modern American technology o Nixon explained that nearly every factory worker could afford every appliance in the exhibit o Used exhibit as a means of showing how the U.S. is superior to the USSR Problems with segregation in suburbia Federal Highway Act Segregation led to new urban ghettos LBJ’s War on Poverty and the Great Society Welfare Programs 1965-1967—Great Society o Provided health services to poor and elderly: Medicaid and Medicare o More federal funds toward education and urban development o Addition of the Department of Transportation and Department of Housing and Urban Development o Addition of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and National Endowments for the Humanities and for the Arts o Expanded power of the federal government Extended social agenda o “Johnson and Democratic liberals believed that economic growth made it possible to find ambitious new government programs and to improve the quality of life” (Foner, p. 987). The War on Poverty o 1964 o Weaknesses: “The administration attributed [poverty] to an absence of skills and a lack of proper attitudes and work habits. Thus, the War on Poverty did not consider the most direct ways of eliminating poverty—guaranteeing an annual income for all Americans, creating jobs for the unemployed, promoting the spread of unionization, or making it more difficult for businesses to shift production to the low-wage South or overseas” (Foner, p. 987). o Successes: Food stamps—offered direct aid to the poor Office of Economic Opportunity Head Start program VISTA (domestic Peace Corps) Job training Legal services Scholarships for college students in need of financial aid The Reagan Revolution Ronald Reagan Elected in 1980 Reagan Ascendant Conservative Counter-Revolution o Pragmatic resistance o Racial resistance and resentment White Hands Commercial (Jesse Helms) White Victimization o Welfare Queens Broken welfare system Libertarian Resistance/Critique Values resistance o Religious Neo-liberalism o Resurrecting the 18 century idea of liberalism Authority in power lacked popular mandate Free the individual and their liberties restricted by the aristocracy Liberate the people o Neo-liberals believed that a new governing elite threatens individual liberty Lower tax burdens Balanced budgets Limitation on regulatory power of the state 1980 Election Reagan and Optimism Crack in the New Deal Coalition (Reagan Democrats) Conservative synthesis o Anti-government at home o Anti-communist abroad Reagan’s Success Developed a new Brain Trust Regarded mainstream media as illegitimate Continuing the Reagan Revolution (80s and 90s) Doubtful that government is able to solve America’s problems completely o Rollback in the government intervening in social programs and civil rights o Free people from the stronghold the government has over the people o Commits self to moral reform Discusses “special interests” in inaugural address o Interests of different activists groups continues to fracture society Feminists Homosexuals African Americans Pro-life activists An example of this is reflected on vanity license plates o Horse enthusiast o Tea Party o GOP o AT Conservancy o Etc. o Not just “Virginians” or “West Virginians” Mainstream media had a liberal bias o Needed an alternative form of media to represent the conservative ideas Fox News The Promise of Privatization o Operating transit o Mail collection o Road construction o Water and sewer construction and delivery o Education o Trash collection Trust the private sector to deliver these programs rather than the public sector Drive toward efficiency “Running government like a business” Privatization promises to save government money One pays only for the services they use Pay-As-You-Go Pushes toward private self-interests Consequences of Privatization o If the government no longer provides these as a social service, but is now instead something one must purchases from a market, rather than receive them as a right of citizenship, then we see an erosion of the right of citizenship that has been so crucial to growth since the New Deal Reagan in Office o Attack Collective Bargaining Friendlier to investors and employers and less receiving of unions o Lower taxes 1982 Tax Reform Bill 1986 Tax Reform Bill Hoped to reduce tax burden Adjusted tax brackets Targeted at the highest income earners, not lowest income earners Clear evidence that tax reforms are effective o Cabinet appointments Appointed those who would promote privatization James Watt EPA Secretary of the Interior Find ways to privatize national parks for extraction of goods William Bennett Secretary of Education Find ways to privatize education Impose tests to measure the ability of public school teachers o Standardized testing o Deregulation Deregulation of government control over private enterprise Deregulation of Airlines Deregulation of Savings and Loans Industry o Regulated under the New Deal o Government backs up the deposits and private industry has the opportunity to reap the rewards o Government assumes all the risk Conservative Legal Revolution o Warren Court Gideon Decision Miranda Decision Griswold Decision Brown v. BOE Loving Decision Roe Decision o Restraining the power of the state in areas where the state had exercised power over o Stripped state of power to regulate in certain sections o Promoted “Originalism” If it is not written in the Constitution, the government does not have the right to do it Conservative Contradictions Growth of Federal Government in the 1980s o No return to tradition Brown v. BOE not repealed Advancing gay rights movement Prayer still kept out of school Abortion still legal o Expansion of the Military-Industrial Complex o War on Drugs… not on poverty Crack epidemic Just Say No to Drugs (Nancy Reagan) Works Cited Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty!: An American History. Seagull 4th ed. Vol. 2. New York: W.W. Norton, 2014. Print. Foner, Eric. Voices of Freedom a Documentary History. 4th ed. Vol. 2. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011. Print.
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