Intro to Urban Planning Final Review
Intro to Urban Planning Final Review GPY 209
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddy Moldenhauer on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GPY 209 at Grand Valley State University taught by Houser in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Urban Planning in Geography at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
FINAL EWednesd,APRIL 27, 12-1:50 P.M. Optional Review Session: Tues., April 26, Eberhard Room 312 Intro to City and Regional Planning: GPY 209- 01 w e VOCABULARY i Groundwater – source of water for wells and springs v Surface water – source of water that moves along the ground’s surface e Aquifea body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit R groundwater Water tathe dividing line between the saturated zone and overlying unsaturatrock or sediments m Saturated groundwater layer where all available spaces are filled a with water Percolation – the seeping of water into the ground x Infiltration – when water passes through or into the ground through E filteringpermeating l Interception – when precipitation that does not reach the soil, but is plants and the forest floorthe leaves and branches of a n and thenagive off water vapor through pores in their leaves.e roots i F Condensation – the conversion of water from a gas to liquid Evaporation – the process of water converting from a liquid to a gas Photosynthesis – process by which plants and other organisms use sunlight synthesize foods from CO2 and water. Recharge area – area where water percolates downward to become groundwater Well – structure created by digging to access groundwater in aquifers sewage from arethat lack connection to main sewagek collects pipes. Sewage – waste water and excrement convey in sewers leaching – when a soluble chemical or mineral drain away from soil by the percolating liquid Pervious – when water is able to pass through Impervious (water doesn’t pass through) Runoff – the draining away of water (and its contents) from the surface of an area of land, building or structure Stormwater runoff – water that runs off a parking lot and into the sewer Point source pollution – when the source of the pollution can be identified Non-point source pollution – when the source of the pollution comes from an unknown source Contaminant plume – a volume of contaminated groundwater that extends downward and outward from a specific source Pathogen - a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease Infrastructure – the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society Low impact development – systems or practices that use or mimic natural processes that result in the infiltration, evapotranspiration or use of stormwater in order to protect water quality and associated aquatic habitats. Watershed – an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins or seas Storm sewer – a sewer built to carry away excess water in times of heavy rain 2 Combined Sewer Overflow – sewer system that overflows into nearby streams, lakes, etc when wastewater flows exceed the capacity of sewer collection systems. This discharges untreated sewage and stormwater into the environment. Wastewater treatment Plant (WWTP) – plant that converts wastewater that is not suitable for use into water that can be returned for use or enter into the water cycle with minimal environmental issues. Ecosystem services – the benefits people obtain from ecosystems Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – contaminants that form from the combustion from hydrocarbons (pollution left from cars on road surfaces) Vehicle miles travelled – Extremely higher in the U.S. than any other country Riparian Buffer – vegetated area near a stream that helps protect the stream from outside impacts Indicator Species – organism whose presence/absence/abundance reflects a specific environmental condition NPDES permit – prohibits anybody from discharging pollutants through a point source into U.S. waters unless they have this permit. It contains limits onwhat can be discharged, monitors & reports requirements, and other provisions to ensure that the discharge does not hurt water quality or people’s health (Clean Water Act) MDEQ (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) role in protecting water - The DEQ ensures Michigan's water resources remain clean and abundant by establishing water quality standards, overseeing public water supplies, regulating tdischarge of industrial and municipal wastewaters, monitoring water quality and the health of aquatic communities, developing policy, and fostering stewardship. Water- related program staff provide for the protection, restoration and conservation of Michigan's Great Lakes, inland lakes and streams, wetlands, and groundwater. 3 MDNR (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) role in protecting water- regulates the conservation, protection, management, use and enjoyment of the state's natural and cultural resources for current and future generations. 1972 Clean Water Act (CWA) - establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges ofpollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The CWA made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained. Hydrograph - a graph of the water level or rate of flow of a body of water as a function of time, showing the seasonal change. ZONING Euclidean/Conventional/Traditional zoning - separate zones/districts by their uses, density, and rules State Planning Enabling Act – Allowed for states to develop a master plan Zoning enabling act – Allowed for states to develop a zoning ordinance NYC Landmarks Law - purpose of safeguarding the buildings and places that represent New York City's cultural, social, economic, political, and architectural history Zoning MAP – physical representation of the zoning districts as part of the zoning ordinance of a municipality Home Occupation – job based on a home lot Ground Level Active Use – when the ground/street level of a building are occupied by stores/restaurants/cafes that add usage to the bottom level of a building/parking complex Rezoning – assigning land or property to a different planning zone/use 4 general plan – comprehensive plan for the entire city and needs of the community master plan (MI) – not forced to have a master plan Comprehensive Plan (NY) – voluntary plan Plan of Conservation and development – master plan required zoning ordinance – “zoning code/law” that enforces the values of the master plan zoning code – contains concrete rules defining which uses (commercial, residential, etc.) that are allowed in each area of a town and specifying certain restrictions on those uses, such as economic impact standards or limits on the scale of buildings. The plan is implemented through the zoning code Consistency – when the zoning ordinance conforms with the master plan of a city “Element” in a master plan - – a part of the plan that deals with the discrete subject (transportation, parks, open spaces, Population, natural resources, cultural resources, community facilities, housing, land-use, etc) urban form - the physical shape and quality of a city, such as . . . Layout of streets Size and design of buildings Building material Orientation of buildings Type and number of public squares The transportation Shaped by . . . Site (landscape setting) and natural characteristics Available building materials Climate Technology urban design - process of shaping urban form (physical elements that make up a city) “the art of arranging buildings to form unified compositions” Urbanism (urbaniziation) – the shift of an area from rural to urban 5 urbanist – expert in city panning (Jane Jacobs, Robert Moses, William White) sitability – the likeliness of people to sit and stay in a certain area Le Corbusier – “Cities of Tomorrow” (1929) – the radiant city Public space – a social space that is generally open and accessible to people (roads, public squares, parks, and beaches) Wayfinding device – signs within a city or area Transparent street wall – a building wall facing the street/sidewalk that is covered by windows so that the pedestrians can see within the building Three things that make a street safe (accd. to Jane Jacobs) – 1. Must be a clear demarcation between public and private space 2. Must be eyes on the street 3. Must have users on it fairly continuously Setback – distance between a building and the street 6 Street ballet - streets form an orderly whole out of separate areas that are different in their own ways. Each portion has character and qualities different than the next. The street as a “centripetal force” – forces that pull you in (appealing areas) The street as a “centrifugal force” – being forced out of a place (streets that strike people off them) Lively places – places that are exciting/stimulating because a lot of things are happening in the area Scalloped edges – when a public space has activities in pockets around the outside to intrigue people so that they want to stay in the area Urban core – the city center Central Business District - the commercial and business center of a city Downtown – the central area or main business/commercial area of a town or city Suburb – an outlying district of a city (residential) inner suburb – suburban community that are generally located very close to the center of a large city that acts more like a neighborhood of the city than its own community outer suburb – lower density suburb further from the city core exurb – a district outside a city, prosperous area beyond the suburbs Strip commercial development – a linear patter of retail businesses strung along major roadways characterized by massive parking lots, big signs, boxlike buildings, and total dependence on automobiles for access and circulation sprawl – uncontrolled spread of urban development into neighboring regions 7 urban village – an urban development characterized by medium density housing, mixed use zoning, good public transit and an emphasis on pedestrian and public space greyfield – already developed areas building something new there Greenfield – building in agricultural/undeveloped areas Brownfield – cleaning up a toxic area and building on it Sprawl without growth – when the amount of urbanized and increases with little to no growth in population size (decentralization) Subsidy - Monetary/Financial assistance granted by a government to a person or group in support of an enterprise regarded as being in the public interest. Horsecar – form of transportation in cities in the 1850s Streetcar – electric mode of public transportation in cities in the 1880s Trolley - also known as the street car, is a vehicle that runs on track laid on the streets and is operated in single units driven by electric motor. Flat fare — a pricing structure that charges a single fixed fee for a service, regardless of usage. FHA – Federal Housing Administration (1933) was created to relieve problems resulting from bankruptcies and foreclosures. Standards for guaranteed mortgages included new construction. Mass Transit - a system of large-scale public transportation in a give metropolitan area, typically comprising buses, subways, and elevated trains. “Mass transit does not produce a profit. It is a social good, but a financial loser.” Foreclosure – the process of taking possession of a mortgaged property as a result of the mortgagor’s failure to keep up mortgage payments 8 Zoning lot – tract of land comprising a single tax lot or is subdivided into 2 or more adjacent tax lots (apartments) within a block. Basic unit for zoning regulations Lot line – boundary of a zoning lot Setback - a certain number of feet or yards away from the street and other building lots Bulk - the amount of space taken up by a building on a lot Density – dwelling units/acre Town Planner - the comprehensive planning of the physical and social development of a town, including the construction of facilities Planning Consultant - a specialist who provides guidance at the initial stages of a project, including securing of planning permission and coordinating the input of consultants including architects, structural engineers and environmental consultants. Town Board/Town Council – the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality or local government area. Planning Commission – the body with both the power and legal duty to prepare the comprehensive plan in most states Runs the process, main advisor Appoints subcommittees Produces master plan Zoning Board of Appeals - deals with variances Special Use permit – permit given by the zoning board of appeals to give permission for a property owner to deviate from the specified land use/regulations in the zoning ordinance (conditional use/variance) Conditional Use – a zoning exception which allows the property owner use of his land in a way not otherwise permitted within the particular zoning Variance - a request to deviate from current zoning requirements that allows the land owner to by permit to not follow the ordinance, but doesn’t change the actual ordinance itself 9 Permitted (as of right) use – a land use that complies with all applicable zoning regulations. Mortgage - A loan to finance the purchase of real estate, usually with specified payment periods and interest rates. Mortgage insurance – is paid by the homeowners each month to protect the loan lender if the homeowners default on their loan payments. Redlining-- the practice of arbitrarily denying or limiting financial services to specific neighborhoods, generally because its residents are people of color or are poor. 10 WHO’s WHO Wangari Maathai – - Nobel Piece Prize 2004 - Founded the Greenbelt movement in Kenya in 1977 - “made the rivers run” by planting trees James Howard Kunstler – “ Geography of Nowhere” - critic of suburban sprawl - America in decline -- a nation of cookie-cutter strip malls, vacuous city centers, and dead spaces due to our dependence on automobiles - Kunstler calls suburban sprawl "the greatest misallocation of resources the world has ever known." Henry Ford - inventor of the Model T automobile, the assembly line, and significantly reduced the price of the automobile due to the increase in the factory efficiency. Robert Moses – Well known as the “Master Builder”, built many expressways for everyday use of the automobile, which led to further promotion of cars as the mode of transportation, not mass transit. Caused ¼ million people to be evicted from their homes to make room for highways. Jane Jacobs – “Death and Life of Great American Cities” - Successful streets = eyes on the street, always being used, demarcation (private/public) 11 - Centrifugal & Centripetal forces - A city is filled with strangers - “This book is an attack on current city planning and rebuilding . . .” - Opposed the construction of highways William H. Whyte – “The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces” - Took time lapse of public plazas, which he called the Street Life Project - “People like crowds. They pick the busiest, most bustling spot and head straight for it. They avoid great, empty plazas where there is nothing to watch, no place to sit, and no food.” Rachel Carson – “Silent Spring” - Marine biologist, environmentalist and writer who alerted the world to the environmental impact of fertilizers and pesticides Christopher Alexander – “A Pattern Language” - Any part of a town—large or small—which is to be identified by its inhabitants as a precinct of some kind, will be reinforced, helped in its distinctiveness, marked and made more vivid, if the paths which enter it are marked by gateways where they cross the boundary.” - Uses of gates, bridges, passage between narrowly separated buildings, an avenue of trees, a gateway through a building - “People want their house, and especially the entrance to be a private domain. If the front door is set back, and there is a transition space between it and the street, this domain is well established. This would explain why people are often unwilling to go without a front lawn . . .” - “Streets should be for staying in, and not just for moving through . . .” Richard Rediske – - Professor from the Dept. of Natural Resources Management - Lectured about lead pipes and their influences on water quality Landon Bartley – - Planner for the city of Grand Rapids - Discussed the different projects that will be occurring around GR - Discussed the unaffordability of housing in Kent County Scott Hanshue – 12 - Fisheries professional that is knowledgeable about the Fish Ladder in GR - Talked about the importance of the dams and how they keep the sea lampreys from travelling upstream - Stressed importance of wetlands and that there is a green buffer along the grand river for the protection of wildlife and water quality Kevin Lynch – “The image of the City” & “Good City Form” - Argues that people in urban situations orient themselves by means of mental maps.. - People who move through a city engage in way-finding - Proposes that mental maps consist of 5 Elements to organize mobility: 1. Paths 2. Edges 3. Districts 4. Nodes 5. Landmarks • Rezoning/downzoning (rezoning a tract of land for a less intensive use) • Rezoning/zoning variance • Conditional use/Permitted Use • Michigan Department of Environmental Quality/Michigan Department of Natural Resources • Setback/zoning lot • Urbanist/urban planner • Ground floor active use/zoning ordinance • Subsidy/sprawl • Gentrification/sprawl • Strip commercial development/urban village • Inner suburb/outer suburb TIMELINE TIMELINE—DECADES TO KNOW 1850’s –Horsecars were popular as a means of transporting urban population from one part of the city to another. 1880’s—the Electric Streetcar was developed 1887 – U.S. Physicians diagnose childhood lead poisoning 1908—The Model T automobile cost $825 (a year’s salary— good pay—was $1200) 1916—Model T cost $345 1923 Grand Rapids’ First Master Plan –Emphasizing the City Beautiful trend in planning 1926 – Euclid vs. Ambler 1927 –the Cost of a Model T was $290 13 1933 –The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) was created to relieve problems resulting from bankruptcies and foreclosures. Standards for guaranteed mortgages included new construction. 1935 - GM joined with the Omnibus Corporation to switch NYC from streetcars to buses over three years. 1949—GM convicted of criminal conspiracy 1949—Federal Housing Act—began the policy of Urban Renewal 1945-1960 –Agencies controlled by Robert Moses in New York State spent 4.5 billion on transportation projects—none of it on mass transit. 1956 - The Highway Act –40,000 miles of new expressways through and around (beltways) American cities. 1961 - Law that created an incentive for builders to provide a plaza (in New York City) 1961 - The Death and Life of Great American Cities—by Jane Jacobs 1963 - Penn Central Station Destroyed 1963 - Grand Rapids’ second master plan –emphasizing urban renewal 1965 - New York City Landmarks Law went into effect 1971 - William Whyte establishes the ‘Street Life Project” (began documenting the use of public spaces in New York City) 1975 - Revised New York City incentive for builders with requirements for open space 1978 - Fish Ladder Constructed at Grand Rapids 1980 - Publication of the Social Life of Small Urban Spaces by William H. Whyte 1986 - Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act places a “prohibition on lead pipes, solder and flux.” Also stated that a drinking water standard for lead should be established. 2002 - Grand Rapids’ most recent master plan was completed 2016 - No Drinking Water Standard for Lead 14
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