Hist 352 Final Exam Study Guide
Hist 352 Final Exam Study Guide
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History 352 Final Exam 10th Amendment 0 1791 Amendment which establishes Federalism or the principle that unless a right was specifically given to the federal government it belonged to the states 0 Barry Goldwater often referred to the 10th Amendment in Conscience of a Conservative especially referring to the Brown vs Board of Education decision 0 Referred to the fact that the 10th Amendment gives powers of education to the states so any federal interference in education was unconstitutional 14th Amendment 0 1868 Amendment was supposed to give legal protection and equal rights to all people 0 Part of Reconstruction after the Civil War the southern states had to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress 0 Established right to vote for all male citizens 21 or older not women 26th Amendment o Moved the voting age from 21 to 18 passed in 1971 0 Significant because at the time the average soldier in Vietnam was only 19 years old not old enough to vote 1964 Presidential Election 0 Between Lyndon Johnson Dem and Barry Goldwater Rep Johnson won by a landslide o The South was largely Republican while the rest of the country was Democratic 0 Barry Goldwater voted against the Civil Rights Act and ran on a platform of criticizing moral decay and the welfare state 0 Lyndon Johnson voted for the Civil Rights Act and ran on a platform of social welfare programs and racial integration Af uent Society 0 Idea that after WWII America was becoming a society based on prosperity wealth and consumption 0 Perception that people s standard of living was increasing across the country 0 True for the middle class but not for everyone 0 Economic boom and increasing wages allowed people to engage in consumerism more than previous generations 0 Fed into the ideas of capitalism and democracy as superior to communism so consumerism took on a patriotic meaning Alfred Kinsey 0 Scientist who published reports on sexual behavior in 1948 and 1953 major founder of sexual science 0 The idea of bringing sex into the academic sphere was a product of the 1960s sexual revolution 0 Talked to over 20000 men and women 0 For his research he created a scoring sheet of sexual experiences including counting orgasms 0 Found a distinct gap between how people talked about sexuality and what they actually did 0 Most held the ideal of waiting for marriage but in actuality many had sex before marriage 0 Also found that about 10 of the population identified as lgbt a highly controversial statistic Allen Ginsberg 0 Poet and leader of the 1950s beat movement 0 His poem Howl was banned by US custom officials bringing him lots of fame o Involved in lots of political protests including the antiwar movement Anita Bryant 0 Leader of the Save our Children campaign against the gay liberation movement 0 Was opposed to federal protection of sexual orientation 0 Saw gay men as predatory and gay rights as attacking family values Anticommunism 0 During the Cold War many believed that Communism would take over the entire world unless it was stopped 0 US policy at the time was called The Consensus o The entire purpose of the Cold War and Vietnam War was to defend freedom and democracy against communism o All US presidents defended Consensus policy regardless of political leanings o The John Birch society was a conservative anticommunist organization devoted to exposing Communist conspiracies O Antiliberalism 0 Many Americans were opposed to both the political and cultural implications of the liberalism of the 1960s 0 Barry Goldwater believed that liberals had no concern for the soul or spirituality 0 Also believed that liberal policies were too dedicated to maintaining peace with Communist states rather than eradicating Communism and that this was weakening America s global power 0 Many were opposed to the Great Society and the welfare state 0 Ayn Rand defended the free market believed that welfare programs were going to destroy America by creating a socialist system where everyone would be enslaved to everyone 0 The white working class became resentful because the felt that minority workers were getting an unfair share of the benefits 0 Barry Goldwater believed welfare was a something for nothing policy and would lead to lower classes becoming dependent on the government rather than working for themselves 0 Goldwater also saw the expansion of the federal government during the Great Society as a socialist plot 0 Many Americans agreed that the federal government had no right to be interfering with issues of race 0 Some viewed civil rights activists as villains 0 After the Brown vs Board of Education decision there was a resurgence in the KKK and White Citizens Councils Baby Boom 0 Huge increase in birth rates after the end of WWII lasted until about 1964 Barry Goldwater 0 Conservative who ran for president against Lyndon Johnson in 1964 o Often connected politics and religion talked about the laws of God and nature 0 In contrast believed liberals had abandoned spiritual needs 0 Believed in defending maximum freedom for individuals that is consistent with social order 0 Based on federalism and the 10th Amendment 0 Stated that people are equal in the eyes of God but in no other way 0 Government had no right to interfere in people s lives in an attempt to establish equality 0 Voted against the Civil Rights Act because he saw it as the federal government imposing its will on the American people 0 Was opposed to 0 00000 O The War on Poverty The welfare state Organized labor and unions United Nations US sending aid to other countries Nuclear disarmament Communism 0 Supported 0 National defense 0 State s Rights as superior to Civil Rights 0 Legal protection of property 0 Making victory over communist states the ultimate goal of US foreign policy The Beat Movement 0 Small literary movement on the cultural fringe of the 1950s 0 Created a link between 1950s radicals and bohemians to 1960s counterculture 0 Allen Ginsberg was one of the most prominent leaders of the movement Betty Friedan 0 Author of The Feminine Mystique hugely in uential in secondwave feminism o Helped found the National Organization of Women NOW and was first president 0 Wanted to help bring women into the mainstream of American society in fully equal participation with men 0 Strong supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment Black Panther Party 0 African American selfdefense organization formed in the North 0 Socialist in nature had a variety of social welfare programs most famously providing free breakfast for children 0 Associated with Malcolm X o Believed in using any means necessary to advance black freedom struggle Bracero Program 0 Program where agricultural workers from Mexico braceros were temporarily brought to work on American farms during harvest time 0 Created to meet food demands of postWWII America 0 Program was discontinued in 1964 due to complaints that it was taking jobs away from American laborers Brown vs the Board of Education 0 Supreme court decision that overturned the previous Plessy vs Ferguson decision by saying that racial segregation was not constitutional o Raised anger from conservatives who believed it wasn t the place of the federal government to tell states to integrate schools Civil Rights Act 1964 0 Law that outlawed discrimination based on race color religion sex or national origin 0 Made segregation officially illegal 0 Passed by Lyndon Johnson Coming Out 0 Involved coming out as homosexual but was considered an act with political consequences as well as individual 0 Goals of coming out o Desire for individual freedom 0 Assertion of collective pride and identity 0 Integration and inclusion 0 End to legal punishment and discrimination ConsciousnessRaising 0 Part of the feminist movement involved women forming groups to share stories about their lives and experiences 0 Allowed them to see their problems as systematic not just individual Consumer s Republic 0 Idea of the US becoming an af uent society based on consumerism 0 After WWII cars homes and appliances became more accessible to the middle class 0 Supported by dramatic federal spending the baby boom and suburbanization 0 Based on family structure of the male breadwinner and female homemaker Containment 0 Policy of preserving and defending noncommunist governments that were friendly to the US 0 Example US chose to devote military power to preserving democratic South Vietnam rather than allow elections to happen and the possibility of the country uniting under communism o Domino Theory any small country could be potentially decisive in the global balance of power Counterculture 0 A cultural movement in opposition to the repression of the 1950s 0 Largely led by young people trying to create a new alternative culture as opposed to simply protesting the current culture 0 Wanted a culture built on personal freedom and free expression 0 Used clothing and long hair as a way of showing opposition to mainstream standards 0 At the beginning the movement was motivated by optimism and idealism 0 Sometimes called ower children Culture of Poverty 0 Theory that poverty isn t just an economic reality but has a culture and personality 0 Desperate dangerous and unhealthy 0 Oscar Lewis anthropologist described it as a psychological adaptation to despair 0 Children born into poverty had trouble escaping Decolonization 0 Between 1945 and 1989 almost 100 new nation states came into being gaining independence from colonial powers 0 18 new African states were created in 1960 0 European colonizing powers were losing territories after WWII Economic Opportunity Act 1964 0 Part of the War on Poverty 0 Established Community Action Programs throughout the country 1600 were created by the end of the 60s 0 Served as a broad umbrella of Great Society programs like Job Corps Youth Corps work study VISTA etc 0 Most controversial aspect of the War on Poverty Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965 0 Part of the War on Poverty 0 Provided extra funding for schools especially schools with high concentrations of low income students 0 Trying to create equal opportunity through education Engele vs Vitale 0 Supreme Court decision that any form of prayer in schools is unconstitutional based on the Separation of Church and State Environmentalism 0 Movement criticizing mass consumption for its environmental impact 0 Primarily occurred in the 1970s Equal Rights Amendment 0 Bill introduced in 1923 saying that Equality of rights shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex 0 Failed to be ratified still not part of the US Constitution 0 Brought of controversy of whether the bill would cause women to be drafted Family Wage Ideal 0 Also known as Patriarchal Family Wage Ideal in which the father worked and provided for the family while the mother stayed at home 0 Was made possible by government benefits and subsidies at the time as well as booming economy 0 Many women were also in the wage labor force and female participation in labor force continued to increase during the period Family Values 0 silent majority and conservatives believed that family values were under attack during the 1960s 0 Emphasis on family monogamy and marriage Obedience to parents and authority Patriotism Christianity Respect for the law Hard work ethic 00000 First Vietnam War 0 Vietnamese war for independence first against Japanese occupation then against French colonizers 0 Ho Chi Minh led the communist army Viet Minh in Vietnam to oust the French succeeded in 1954 0 Vietnamese nationalists wanted an independent government of their own popularly supported Ho Chi Minh and the Communist party French Indochina 0 French colony of currentday Vietnam 0 After World War II the colony was brie y under Japanese occupation until they were driven out by the Vietnamese nationalists 1945 o The French evacuated in 1954 Gay Liberation o Homosexuality was considered a mental illness until 1973 and legally punished o Openly gay people couldn t work for the government be in the military and were often exiled from their families 0 The gay liberation movement is considered to have started with the Stonewall Riots in 1969 0 Gay liberation movement borrowed ideas from black civil rights movement believing that the political economic and cultural structures of heterosexism parallel the structures of racism 0 Namely that oppression of lgbt people was institutional not just a matter of personal prejudice o Raised question of whether lgbt people were a minority group 0 First gay liberation march was in 1970 o Focused on removing both legal and cultural discrimination o Advocates of gay liberation tended to dress very respectably to fight the stereotype of being perverts 0 So far there has been no federal civil rights bill that includes sexual orientation The GI Bill 0 Law passed in 1944 to provide benefits for returning WWII soldiers 0 Some of the benefits were lowinterest loans and low mortgages which helped build the middle class of the 1950s The Great Society 0 Domestic policy of the Johnson Administration included the War on Poverty and Civil Rights legislation 0 Most significant expansion of the welfare state since the New Deal 0 The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice to which we are totally committed in our time Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 0 August 1964 the American Destroyer USS Maddox was fired on in the Gulf of Tonkin northern Vietnam 0 Johnson claimed the attack was part of a deliberate campaign of aggression 0 Congress then passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution giving Lyndon Johnson authority to use military force in Vietnam wasn t an of cial declaration of war Homophile Activism o Homophile organizations worked for legal recognition and equality for lgbt people 0 Also worked against stigma and invisibility of the gay community 0 The Mattachine Society formed in LA in 1951 was one of the earliest gay rights organizations 0 The Daughters of Bilitis formed in San Francisco in 1955 was an organization focused on gay women s rights The Homosexual Closet 0 Idea that gay people had to remain in the closet hiding their sexuality but also acting in a way that was socially acceptable in order to avoid persecution 0 Openly gay communities could only exist in exile of family members and mainstream communities June Crow 0 Idea put forward by Pauli Murray comparing discriminatory laws against women with segregationist laws 0 Noticed that women were major actors when it came to the grassroots efforts of the Civil Rights Movement but when it came to leadership and highup activism they were kept out o No women were invited to speak at 1963 March on Washington Jim Crow 0 Series of state laws enforcing racial segregation mostly in the South 0 Also encompassed housing and job discrimination 0 Laws were disbanded with the 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1965 Voting Rights Act John Kerry Returned from serving in the Vietnam War and became the leader of Vietnam Veterans against the War Testified before US Senate Believed that nothing happening in South Vietnam could possibly threaten America Mass Consumption After 1945 there was a belief that a capitalist economy and free market could deliver better quality of life to almost all people Conspicuous consumption was a way of demonstrating status through nice house cars etc Between 1945 and 1970 the economy was growing faster than in any other period 0 Average income doubled People began to believe that material wealth had been a part of US history all along forgetting the recent Depression The increase in roads and car ownership led to new bigger shopping centers Television created a new way of advertising to people 0 Because of the baby boom most ads were focused on parents with young children 2 types of consumers 0 Citizen consumers made demands to advance public welfare on the basis of consumption I New idea that consumers had rights I Example regulating food safety 0 Purchasingconsumers saw private consumption as a public good on its own I Consumers made choices which came together to create a market based on supply and demand I Example George W Bush telling people to shop after 911 to help the economy Michael Harrington Author of The Other America Democratic socialist an member of the New Left Was involved in student activism and 1950s labor movements Believed in voluntary poverty pacifism and radical applications of the Christian Gospel Wrote on the culture of poverty believed that the middle class no longer understood that poverty still existed in the 1960s Believed that if people know more about poverty they would rise up and solve the problem 0 Proposed solutions to poverty involved the federal government creating new job programs and increased unionization and rights for workers Stated that poverty in the midst of af uence was morally intolerable The New Left 0 New liberal movement of the 1960s and 70s which consisted of social and cultural issues like poverty racial equality sexuality women s rights etc o The antiwar movement was especially significant to the New Left 0 The old left had been communist or socialist movements of the 1930s1950s that focused much more on the working class and labor movements The New Right 0 The New Conservative movement that emerged after the 1960s 0 Whereas previous conservatives had been concerned with state s rights and defeating communism the New Right was concerned with issues of morals and values 0 Were angry with the cultural changes resulting from the 1960s 0 Bill Clinton signed Welfare Reform Act of 1996 returning responsibility for welfare programs to the states 0 Also signed Defense of Marriage Act defining marriage as heterosexual institution 0 Believed in a war on American and Christian values 0 Patriotism Hard work Monogamy and heterosexuality Obedience to parents and authority Respect for law and order Localism OOOOOO Christianity 0 Tradition 0 Daniel Moynihan blamed African American matriarchal family structure for problems of black communities 0 Ronald Reagan was most prominent leader of the New Right Nonviolent Civil Disobedience o The idea of peacefully choosing to break laws that were unjust as a form of protest 0 Utilized by the black civil rights movement 0 Diner sitins o Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 0 Associated especially with the South and MLK Jr Pauli Murray 0 African American civil rights activist who studied law 0 She provided a link between the black freedom struggle and the feminist movement 0 One of the first African American women to be accepted to Hunter Women s College in New York 0 Drew on Gandhi s ideas of nonviolent protest to form the Fellowship of Reconciliation 0 Worked with a variety of Committees and Organizations and helped found NOW National Organization of Women 0 Helped add sex to the Civil Rights Act 0 1977 became the first African American woman to be ordained a priest in the Episcopal Church Phyllis Schla y o Antifeminist who opposed the Equal Rights Amendment 0 Formed the Eagle Forum to help defeat the bill 0 Based her views on the belief that God and nature made men and women fundamentally different 0 Based on the fact that women give birth and men don t 0 Believed that men and women s lives and choices should be similar 0 She believed that women actually held an elevated status and that equality would be a step down for women Rachel Carson 0 Environmentalist who wrote Silent Spring in 1962 0 Studied pesticides and their effects on agriculture 0 She was dismissed as hysterical and Monsanto and the Department of Agriculture brought lawsuits against her 0 1963 she testified before Congress which created a pesticide committee that ended up proving her claims true Reagan Democrats 0 Term for voters who had previously voted Democratic but supported Reagan in the 1980 election Ronald Reagan 0 Conservative Republican elected president by landslide vote in 1980 0 His election marked a resurgence of conservatism in the US 0 Main ideas 0 Supported the free market and believed private business should be left alone by the government 0 The purpose of US foreign policy is to defeat communism and the best way to do that was to build up the military o The military deserves unlimited support as the one aspect of government that is not evil 0 Cutting taxes as a way to increase wealth for average Americans 0 Promised to restore glory and pride to the US 0 Reaganomics allowing participants in the private economy as much unregulated freedom as possible 0 Opposed to 0 Student activism o Communism 0 Big government 0 Vietnam Syndrome the opposition and division of Americans caused by the Vietnam War 0 Had a straightforward and optimistic view of politics that people appreciated Sargent Shriver 0 Leader of the War on Poverty 0 Helped found the Job Corps and Head Start 0 Was the first director of the Peace Corps Second Vietnam War 0 War between American soldiers and North Vietnamese Army 0 Began with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 ended with US withdrawal from Saigon 1975 0 Because the Vietnamese had recently ousted the French they saw the US as another western invading force not liberators as the American soldiers saw themselves Second Wave Feminism 0 Part of the sexual revolution 0 Secondwave feminists protested gender roles uneven pay in the work force the expectations of marriage and motherhood and the way personal choices were regulated o Slogan The personal is political 0 Focused on the distinction between biological sex and gender and the fact that gender roles are socially constructed 0 Discussions about how gender can be and has been regulated by law and custom 0 New idea that men and women s lives could be much more similar 0 Genderbased inequality 0 Married women couldn t establish credit or borrow money on their own 0 Colleges and grad schools had very small quotas for women 0 Gender discrimination was legal and socially acceptable o The labor market was sexsegregated with women occupying clerical positions 0 Many states had laws that women would lose their jobs automatically when they got married 0 Regulations 0 Until 1965 married couples couldn t get birth control 0 Until Roe vs Wade in 1973 abortion was illegal in parts of the US 0 Eugenics laws allowed the state to decide if someone was t to be a parent and had forced sterilizations for those who were not t 0 Liberal feminists focused on establishing rights through the legal system 0 Radical feminists focused on cultural liberation SexGender o Distinction between biological sex which is determined by anatomy and gender which is an identity 0 Also involves the idea that gender roles are socially constructed and subject to change 0 Important aspect of secondwave feminism Sexual Liberalism o The idea of separating sex from reproduction 0 Sexual liberals believed it was good for parenthood to be a voluntary choice 0 People wouldn t have to live in fear of unplanned pregnancies o Believed that motherhood shouldn t be mandatory 0 Sexual liberalism was aided by the FDA s approval of the pill in 1960 which made it possible for people to have more sexual experiences outside of reproduction Silent Majority 0 Term coined by Richard Nixon referring to the large group of US citizens who were not involved with the social movements of the 60s and were upset with the cultural changes happening in America 0 1969 Nixon spoke to the silent majority saying that only Americans can defeat and humiliate the US 0 Reference to antiwar protesters 0 Silent majority elected Reagan in 1980 State s Rights 0 Any rights that are not specifically given to the federal government in the Constitution automatically belong to the states 0 Barry Goldwater and the conservative party were concerned with preserving State s Rights opposed to expansion of the federal government s powers o Goldwater opposed school integration because the 10th Amendment gave states power over education so the federal government making decisions about education violated state s rights Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC 0 Part of the black freedom struggle participated in diner sitins and freedom rides o Helped organize the 1963 March on Washington 0 Worked to organize voter registration efforts in the South 0 The SNCC Freedom Singers incorporated music into the protest culture 0 Sang at demonstrations churches campuses etc 0 when we sing we announce our existence Stonewall Riots o 1969 police showed up at the Stonewall Inn to arrest gay men but they broke out into a riot 0 Seen as the beginning of the gay liberation movement Student Deferments 0 Students in college were exempt from the draft 0 The rationale for student deferments was that the US needed to conserve its skilled workers 0 Military also gave lots of funding to universities for research specifically into weapons technology 0 Needed students studying science and technology in order to win the arms race 0 Created an incentive to go to college 0 One of the primary reasons for the Working Class War gave the wealthier citizens a way out of the draft 0 Many workingclass men couldn t go to college because of the cost or because they were not academically eligible 0 Turned university campuses into the central location of the antiwar movement Students for a Democratic Society SDS 0 Biggest student activism group protesting the war in the US 0 Began questioning America s role overseas and Cold War policies 0 Led by Tom Hayden Port Huron statement was their manifesto 0 Ended up splitting apart over the issue of the Vietnam War in 1970 Suburbanization The WWII generation married younger and had more children than any other generation in American history Created need for new homes 0 Housing boom led to an increase in suburban neighborhoods away from the city By 1960 almost 25 of population lived in suburbs Suburbs led to need for new roads which led to more car ownership 75 of households owned a car by 1960 Teachins Open discussions about the Vietnam war and the draft on college campuses Both students and faculty members contributed Originated at the University of Michigan which was also where Students for a Democratic Society started Tet Offensive A powerful military offensive by the North Vietnamese army in 1968 which managed to reach the US Embassy in Saigon Tom Hayden Leader of Students for Democratic Society Drafted the Port Huron Statement calling for a participatory democracy reform of the Democratic party and for disarmament of US Attended 1968 protests outside of the Democratic National Convention The Vietnam War US chose not to support national elections on whether to reunite North and South Vietnam for fear that the country would unite under a communist regime Instead chose to send military aid to support a permanent democratic South Vietnamese state which would be friendly to the US After the Gulf of Tonkin incident August 1964 thousands of troops were sent to Vietnam By 1968 there were almost 550000 soldiers in Vietnam 0 Average soldier was 19 years old and from poor or workingclass neighborhood US began war with Rolling Thunder a huge bombing campaign Secret bombing invasion of Cambodia in1970 Laos in 1971 US withdrew fully in 1975 and country was immediately united under communist reg1me 0 Top secret documents including the Pentagon Papers exposed gaps in what policymakers were telling the American public and what they were actually doing in Vietnam 0 Shattered average American s faith in their government and political process 0 People also began to question that America s global presence was benign 0 Ended up as the most unpopular and divisive war in American history Voting Rights Act 1965 0 Law passed by Lyndon Johnson to help enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the 14th and 15th Amendments 0 Invalidated methods to disenfranchise African Americans 0 Including literacy tests used to prevent them from registering to vote 0 Gave the federal government the right to function as a registrar for voters War on Poverty 0 System of policies created by Lyndon Johnson to address poverty in the US 0 Part of the Great Society 0 JFK believed man holds in his hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty 0 Began with ordering massive research on poverty in the US 0 Wanted to help people out of poverty through employment opportunities 0 Programs included Vista Head Start Youth Corps Job Corps various community action programs 0 Created Office of Economic Opportunity 0 Appointed lawyers to represent the poor and the welfare rights movement 0 Medicare for elderly and Medicaid for poor 0 Founded National Welfare Rights Organization with 540 local chapters 0 Succeeded in lifting 10 of the population out of poverty but was largely defunded during the Vietnam War Wayne Morse 0 Democrat from Oregon one of only two Congressmen who opposed the Vietnam War and the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Weather Underground 0 Radical group that split off from the SDS 0 Wanted to wage war on the US government slogan was bring the war home 0 Clashed with the Chicago police in the Days of Rage 0 Bombed police military and academic institutions as well as the Pentagon 0 Between 1970 and 1980 leaders lived as fugitives 0 Because of COINTELPRO and other civil rights violations most did very little time in jail Welfare State 0 A state of devoting funds to social welfare programs for the lower classes 0 Examples food stamps MedicareMedicaid Job Corps community action programs 0 The Great Society was an expansion of the welfare state Young Americans for Freedom 0 Conservative organization of college students founded in 1960
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