PSY 101, Exam 2 Study Guide
PSY 101, Exam 2 Study Guide 101
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bella on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at University at Buffalo taught by Larry Hawk in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 428 views.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
O 09 Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Sensation gt The awareness of properties of an object or event that occurs when a type of receptor such as those at the back of the eye in the ear on the skin is stimulated Perception gt The act of organizing and interpreting sensory input as signaling a particular object or event Psychophysics gt The study of the relation between physical events and the corresponding experience of those events Threshold gt The point at which stimulation is strong enough to be noticed Absolute threshold gt The smallest amount of a stimulus needed in order to detect that the stimulus is present lustnoticeable difference IND gt The size of the difference in a stimulus property needed for the observer to notice that a change has occurred Weber s Law gt The rule that a constant percentage of a magnitude change is necessary to detect a difference 9 v Signal detection theory gt A theory explaining why people detect signals independently of bias the theory is based on the idea that signals are always embedded in noise and thus the Challenge is to distinguish signal from noise 339 Sensitivity gt In signal detection theory the threshold level for distinguishing between a stimulus and noise the lower the threshold the greater the sensitivity 3 Bias gt In signal detection theory a person s willingness to report noticing a stimulus Reported Signal Yes No Yes Miss Signal Amplitude gt The height of the peaks in a light wave Frequency gt The number of waves per second that move past a given point Wavelength gt The distance between the arrival of peaks of a light wave measured in nanometers shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies Transduction gt The process whereby physical energy is converted by a sensory neuron into neural impulses Pupil gt The opening in the eye through which light passes Iris gt The circular muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil Cornea gt The transparent covering over the eye which serves partly to focus the light onto the back of the eye Accommodation gt Occurs when muscles adjust the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at different distances Retina gt A sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells that convert light to neural impulses 9 v Fovea gt The small central region of the retina with the highest density of cones and the highest resolution 3 Rods gt Rodshaped retinal cells that are very sensitive to light but register only shades of grey 3 Cones gt Coneshaped retinal cells that respond most strongly to one of three wavelengths of light the combined outputs from cones that are most sensitive to different wavelengths play a key role in producing color vision Cornea 7 Retina Fovea O t39 Blood vessels Iris Lens O 09 Gestalt laws of organization gt A set of rules describing the circumstances such as proximity good continuation similarity closure and good form under which marks will be grouped into perceptual units I Perceptual constancy the perception of characteristics that occurs when an object or quality such as shape or color looks the same even though the sensory information striking the eyes change I Size constancy seeing an object as being the same size when viewed at different distances I Shape constancy seeing objects as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes I Color constancy seeing objects as having the same color in different viewing situations Binocular cues gt Cues to the distance of an object that arise from both eyes working together Monocular static cues gt Used to determine distance short or long and can be picked up with only one eye Motion cues gt Specify the distance of an object on the basis of its movement and these cues work as well with one eye as with two Chemical Senses gt Taste and smell which rely on sensing the presence of specific chemicals v Extrasensory perception ESP gt The ability to perceive and know things without using the ordinary senses v Bottomup Processing gt Processing that is initiated by stimulus input v Topdown Processing gt Processing that is guided by knowledge expectation or belief v Perceptual set gt The sum of your assumptions and beliefs that lead you to expect to perceive certain objects or characteristics in particular contexts v Somasthetic senses gt Senses that have to do with perceiving the body and its position in space specifically kinesthetic sense vestibular sense touch temperature sensitivity pain sense and possibly magnetic sense 3 Kinesthetic Sense gt The sense that registers the movement and position of the limbs 3 Vestibular Sense gt The sense that provides information about the body s orientation relative to gravity 3 Trichromatic theory of color vision gt The theory that color vision arises from the combinations of neural impulses from three different kinds of sensors each of which responds maximally to a different wavelength 339 Opponent process theory of color vision O 90 O 90 O 90 O 90 gt The theory that if a color is present it causes cells that register it to inhibit the perception of the complementary color such as red versus green Retinex Vision Theory gt The perception of an image results from the retina and the cortex rather than just the spectral composition of light stimulus Afterimage gt The image left behind by a previous perception Opponent cells gt Cells that pit the colors in a pair most notably blue yellow or red green against each other Color blindness gt An inability either acquired by brain damage or inherited to perceive certain hues Chapter 5 Consciousness Consciousness gt A person s awareness of his or her own existence sensations and cognitions Altered state of consciousness ASC gt State of awareness that is other than the normal waking state Sleep gt The naturally recurrent experience during which normal consciousness is suspended REM Sleep gt Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and marked brain activity Insomnia gt Difficulty getting to sleep difficulty staying asleep or awakening too early Latent Content gt The symbolic content and meaning of a dream Manifest Content gt The obvious memorable content of a dream Activationsynthesis Hypothesis gt The theory that dreams arise from random bursts of nerve cell activity which may affect brain cells involved in hearing and seeing the brain attempts to make sense of this hodgepodge of stimuli resulting in the experience of dreams Circadian Rhythms gt The body s daily uctuations in response to the cycle of dark and light which occur with blood pressure pulse rate body temperature blood sugar level hormone levels and metabolism Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN gt A small part of the hypothalamus just above the optic chiasm that registers changes in light leading to production of hormones that regulate various bodily functions Nightmare gt Dreams with negative emotion they may be remembered the next day Night Terror gt Vivid frightening experiences the dreamer cannot be woken and does not remember the terrors Narcolepsy gt Sudden attacks of extreme drowsiness and possibly sleep Sleep Apnea gt Brief temporary cessation of breathing during sleep for up to 70 seconds following a period of difficult breathing accompanied by snoring the sleeper then startles into a lighter state of sleep and may have no memory of these events and may not feel rested after sleeping Hypnosis gt A state of mind characterized by a focused awareness on vivid imagined experiences and decreased awareness of the external environment O 09 O 09 Posthypnotic Suggestion gt A suggestion regarding a change in perception mood or behavior that will occur after leaving the hypnotic state Sociocognitive Theory of hypnosis gt The view that a person in a trance voluntarily enacts the role of a hypnotized person as he or she understands it which leads to behaviors and experiences believed to be produced by hypnosis Meditation gt An altered state of consciousness characterized by a sense of deep relaxation and loss of selfawareness Substance abuse gt Drug or alcohol use that causes distress or trouble with functioning in major areas of life occurs in dangerous situations or leads to legal difficulties Tolerance gt The condition of requiring more of a substance to achieve the same effect because the usual amount provides a diminished response Depressants gt Depress the central nervous system decrease behavioral activity anxiety and awareness impair cognition and judgment ex Alcohol barbiturates Disinhibition gt The inhibition of inhibitory neurons which makes other neurons the ones that are usually inhibited more likely to fire and which usually occurs as a result of depressant use Alcohol Myopia gt The disproportionate in uence of immediate experience on behavior and emotion due to the effects of alcohol use Stimulants gt Stimulate the central nervous system increase behavioral activity and arousal create a perception of heightened physical and mental abilities ex amphetamines cocaine MDMA Amphetamines gt Synthetic stimulants Crack gt Cocaine in crystalline form usually smoked in a pipe freebasing or rolled into a cigarette Narcotic Analgesic gt Depresses the central nervous system CNS dulls pain and creates an experience of euphoria and relaxation with chronic use the body stops producing endorphins ex Heroin Hallucinogen gt 1 LSD Alters serotonergic functioning 2 Marijuana Affects neurons in the hippocampus involved in learning memory and integrating sensory experiences Hallucinations and perceptual alterations the user s expectations shape the drug experience Adaptive Theory gt WHEN we sleep ie sleeping during a predator s hunting hours 0 v Restorative Theory gt WHY we sleep sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage Chapter 6 Learning Learning gt A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience Habituation gt The learning that occurs when repeated exposure to a stimulus decreases an organism s responsiveness to the stimulus Classical conditioning gt A type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired associated with a stimulus that causes a re exive behavior and in time is sufficient to produce that behavior Acquisition gt In classical conditioning the initial learning of the conditioned response CR Conditioned Response CR gt A response that depends or is conditional on pairings of the conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus once learned the conditioned response occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone Conditioned Stimulus CS gt An originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through pairings with an unconditioned stimulus US Unconditioned Response UR O 09 O 09 gt The re exive response elicited by a particular stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus US gt A stimulus that elicits an automatic response UR without requiring prior learning Biological Preparedness gt A builtin readiness for certain conditioned stimuli to elicit particular conditioned responses so less conditioning training is necessary to produce learning Conditioned Emotional Response CER gt An emotional response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus Phobia gt An irrational fear of a specific object or situation Extinction in classical conditioning gt In classical conditioning the process by which a CR comes to be eliminated through repeated presentations of the CS without the presence of the US Spontaneous Recovery in classical conditioning gt The event that occurs when the CS again elicits the CR after extinction has occurred Spontaneous Recovery in operant conditioning gt The process by which an old response reappears if there is a period of time after extinction Stimulus generalization gt A tendency for the CR to be elicited by neutral stimuli that are like but not identical to the CS in other words the response generalizes to similar stimuli Stimulus Discrimination gt The ability to distinguish among stimuli similar to the CS and to respond only to the actual CS Operant conditioning gt The process by which a behavior becomes associated with its consequences Law of Effect gt Actions that subsequently lead to a satisfying state of affairsquot are more likely to be repeated Response Contingency gt The relationship that occurs when a consequence is dependent on the organism s emitting the desired behavior Reinforcement gt The process by which consequences lead to an increase in the likelihood that the response will occur again Positive Reinforcement gt Occurs when a desired reinforce is presented after a behavior thereby increasing the likelihood of a recurrence of that behavior Negative Reinforcement gt Occurs when an unpleasant event or circumstance that follows a behavior is removed thereby increasing the likelihood of a recurrence of the behavior O 09 O 0 Positive Punishment gt Occurs when a behavior leads to an undesired consequence thereby decreasing the likelihood of a recurrence of that behavior Negative Punishment gt Occurs when a behavior leads to the removal of a pleasant event or circumstance thereby decreasing the likelihood of a recurrence of the behavior Generalization gt The ability to emit a learned behavior in response to a similar stimulus Discrimination gt The ability to engage in a learned behavior in response to a particular stimulus but not in response to a similar one Discriminative Stimulus gt The cue that tells the organism whether a specific response will lead to the expected reinforcement Extinction in operant conditioning gt The fading out of a response following an initial burst of that behavior after the withdrawal or reinforcement Shaping gt The gradual process of reinforcing an organism for behavior that gets closer to the desired behavior Chaining gt Interval schedule gt Partial reinforcement schedule based on time Ratio Schedule gt Partial reinforcement schedule based on a specified number of emitted responses Fixed interval schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given for a response emitted after a fixed interval of time Fixed ratio schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after a fixed number of time Variable Interval Schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given for a response emitted after a variable interval of time Variable Ratio Schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses Cognitive Learning gt The acquisition of information that often is not immediately acted on but is stored for later use ObservationalVicarious Learning gt Learning that occurs through watching others not through reinforcement Associative Learning gt A learning process by which a certain stimulus comes to be associated with another stimulus or behavior as through classical or operant conditioning 339 Sensitization gt The process of becoming susceptible to a given stimulus that previously had no effect or significance 339 Reinforcement vs Punishment gt Reinforcement is an event that increases future probability of the most recent response punishment is an event that decreases future probability of the most recent response Be familiar with Little Albert and Pavlovian Ivan Pavlov experiments Operant Conditioning Types Wpe of Event Positive Avemive Anselmth rug Positive Negative Reinforcement The addition of a The removal of a positive stimulus negative stimulus following a response following a response I Giving a child I Mom stops nagging candy for a job well after you finally done take out the trash I Dog getting a treat I Scratching a bug for doing a trick bite reinforces I Getting a bag of scratching because chips by putting itchiness is taken money into the away machine I A bored child cries at a party so his parents take him home to stop the crying reinforces crying behavior because his boredom was removed Punishment I Spanking a child I Taking a toy away I Yelling at a dog for from a child jumping or barking I Not giving the dog I Getting a ticket for a treat after he is driving too fast naughty I Giving somebody the silent treatment after the other person yells at them Fixed Variable Ratio Applying the Applying reinforcement reinforcement after a after a variable number of certain number of responses behaviors I Playing the slot I Spanking a child machines and after asking him to getting a different do something 3 number of tokens times Child will back after each know that he she turn can always get I Sales commission away with 3 may have to make warnings before the same pitch to he she gets many customers punished They before somebody may or may not buys something change their but you never behavior until their know which last chance customer it could I Getting paid 20 be each time you mow I Fishing a lawn I Bingo Interval Applying reinforcement Reinforcing after a specific amount of time Mother counting to 5 before punishing children child will know how long he she can wait without being punished they might continue negative behavior while mom says 123 and then quickly change behavior before quot5 Getting reviewed or observed by your boss each March but not in between You may someone something after a variable amount of time Boss checking in on your work randomly you will probably work harder because you don t know when your boss will pop up Pop quizzes in class you will most likely stay on top of your material just in case Watching a sports game and waiting for the next goal Speed traps on the throughway you slack at work for most of the year but you get your shit together before you are reviewed I Test preparation when you know the date of the test ahead of time A lot of time may have passed and you haven t studied yet but you will likely pick up the pace right before the exam never know where the next one will be but if you drive long enough you know that you will drive through one Continuous Reinforcement A continuation of the same response to a behavior every time that it occurs
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