CLA 322 Final ID
CLA 322 Final ID CLA 322 P
Popular in greek Mythology: Monsters
Popular in Classical Studies
CLA 322 P
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Andvari: The dwarf who cursed the gold in the Lay of Regin Andvari is the first instance of a dwarf guarding his gold (behaving like a dragon) o Unlike a dragon, he doesn’t pursue the thieves of his gold but curses it instead The curse of Andvari: (The two brothers being Regin and Fafnir—Otter already dead at this point) He (like Otter) can change his shape into a Pike fish, and this is how Loki captures him and steals his gold. What to know: 1. Significance of the curse a. The further lesson of the curse of gold that exists outside of a golden age (gold, where gold doesn’t belong) b. Gold=Greed=Gold c. Loki isn’t affected by the curse, even though he steals it. i. All the gods are already cursed by gold in general (as in they continue to look for it, in a world where it shouldn’t exist—similar to how they try to prevent Ragnarok, even though it is a natural process, and inevitable.) ii. What the curse represents for the dwarves (and later humanity)is what Loki represents to the gods a. In a sense Loki is a curse to the gods. He repeatedly (viciously) reminds the gods that there is no more golden age, there is only Ragnarok. No matter how they try to bring gold back, it fails or is tainted. No matter how they try to allude Ragnarok, it will come. The curse is, that no matter how you tell them, show them, beat it into them, they are incapable of realizing it. Baldr, the ring Draupnir, and Loki: The loss of goodness, and Gold— Loki’s lesson Frigg dreams Baldr was going to die by an arrow, so she asked all objects and all plants (etc.) in the world to swear to never harm Baldr. All did except the Mistletoe. Loki makes a dart out of the mistletoe and tricks Hod (Baldr’s blind brother)to kill Baldr with it He is beloved by all the gods Loki is punished Who is Vali? One of the sons of Loki Turned into a wolf, and made by Aesir to eat his brother Narfi. Out of his entrails they made Loki’s fetters (bound by the entrails of his own son) They placed a snake over his head, which drips poison on him continuously. This is his fate until Ragnarok where he shows his true loyalty (to the giants) and breaks free His wife tries to help, catching the venom Draupnir: Part of the 2 ndset of gifts given to the main gods, by agency of Loki after he cut the hair of Sif (wife of Thor) and had to replace it. Every ninth night it can reproduce itself into eight copies What to know: 1. Significance of Baldr’s death a. Baldr is associated with light, love fortune, essentially all that is good and just in the world. When he dies, there is nothing truly good left in the world 2. Loki’s Agency a. There is no real reason why Loki would kill Baldr b. Loki knows the one plant that can kill Baldr (a fact known to Frigg only it seems) c. Why use Hod? i. Perhaps a comment on how the gods are unknowingly destroying themselves? d. Loki’s lesson (See Andvari) i. Further showing the gods that Ragnarok is coming, there is no stopping it. Baldr can’t exist in this age (The Wolf Age) because goodness belongs in a golden age (Remember Baldr comes back) 3. The Ring (not the movie) a. Odin burns Draupnir with Baldr on his Pyre, which extends the idea that all that is good (gold) is gone from the world. The only hope for the return of gold (thus the golden age) left with Baldr. Chinese Imperial Dragon symbol of imperial authority and majesty Dragon=Emperor=Dragon 6 referents for Imp. Dragon: Sky Water Spiritual nobility Good omen Imperial power Nationality Feng Huang: Chinese Phoenix—Wife of Dragon Dragon=sun Phoenix=moon One of The 4 Guardians of the 4 Directions o Dragon: East, Spring, Green(/blue), wood o FengHuang: South, Summer, Red, fire o White Tiger: West, Autumn, white, metal o Tortoise: North, Winter, black, water What to know: In earlier accounts the Imp. Dragon is like this all powerful divinity from Heaven. Later, he is placed under another great being (Great god of the west, Jade Emperor, etc.) Remains higher than the Qilin (Chinese unicorn) on paper, but in iconography is conflated with the Qilin and other mystical animals. Cyclops: Polyphemus v. Odysseus, Golden age v. Reign of Zeus The Cyclopes neither plant nor plough, but trust in providence, and live on such wheat, barley, and grapes as grow wild without any kind of tillage, and their wild grapes yield them wine as the sun and the rain may grow them. They have no laws nor assemblies of the people, but live in caves on the tops of high mountains; each is lord and master in his family, and they take no account of their neighbors. They have no civilization (no laws or assemblies) or signs of civilization (manned agriculture) The land yields by itself, and even the cheese and goats are self-sustaining What to know: 1. Why does Polyphemus say he doesn’t need Zeus or his laws? a. The cyclops lives in a pseudo golden age (Reign of Cronos) during the iron age (our age—reign of Zeus), where everything he could need or want is provided for him by nature, or himself, not the gods 2. Why cannibalism, why cook the humans first? a. Adds on his in-between-ness and the strangeness thereof. He is a straddling figure who doesn’t belong in the Iron age, nor really in a Golden age (though that’s where he lives) 3. Defeat of Polyphemus a. He is defeated by the consumption of wine—under Dionysus, a civilizing agent- a symbol of the world of agriculture and community (the rituals of Dionysus is a community event, while the Cyclops are antisocial) with comes with the rule/order of Zeus 4. Polyphemus the Philosopher? a. The loss of his eye, is what fully brings him out of the Golden age. For the iron age is marked by loss b. His sight, which was clouded before (remember he rebuked Zeus and he order), and can now see clearer, even to the point of seeing Odysseus’s’ flaws. Dwarfs of Norse myth: Hope of the gods, prove useless The dwarves, created by the gods, are unable to take the gods out of the iron age (wolf age) and into the golden age. Created to mine for gold, and are able to make fanstastic things (these things seem to be useful for either bringing back the golden age, or prevent Ragnarok, but in the end they are useless) Notable Dwarves: Andvari, Regin, Otter and Fafnir. Also the sons of Ivaldi and the sons of Eitri. Picture: The sons of Ivaldi, commissioned by Loki o They Forged: Odin’s spear: Gugnir (not made of gold) that never misses. This is the spear that Odin used against Fenrir on the day of Ragnarok. Its power failed him when it mattered the most. The gifts of the dwarves don’t help the gods. Freyr’s ship Skidbladnir: The ship always has a wind behind its sails, and when you were done using it, you could fold it up and tuck it in your pocket. The god thought they could escape Ragnarok on this ship, but they die before they can get on the ship Golden hair of Thor’s wife, Sif: Nice, but doesn’t do anything for Ragnarok o Sons of Eitri forged 2 ndset of gifts: Thor gets his hammer (Mjolnir) made of iron and wood, used in Ragnarok against the Midgard Serpent and succeeds in killing him, but Thor dies too Odin gets a golden ring (Draupnir): Every ninth night it can reproduce itself into eight copies. Sounds promising, but he burns it along with Baldr—see Baldr, the ring Draupnir, and Loki: Freyr Gets a golden boar (Gullinbursti): Has golden bristles, and can glow in the dark. Can fly through the air and water. One time it was used: When Freyr went to the funeral of Baldr (he doesn’t use it again after) What to know: 1. The Dwarves are useless to the gods a. They are, again, the confirmation of the cluelessness of the gods who try to bring back a golden age that isn’t coming for them; only Ragnarok. Fenrir, Gleipnir, and Tyr: Fenrir eats Tyr’s hand Fenrir: one of the 3 children of Loki and the giant Angrboda (She who brings doom). He is a ravenous wolf, whose body continues to grow and grow. Kills Odin at Ragnarok. Gleipnir: name of the binding that holds Fenrir. Made of things that either don’t exist, are hard to see, or are hard to hold. Point: How can something that grows exponentially, break free from this intangible bond? The sound of a cat's footfall The beard of a woman The roots of a mountain The sinews of a bear The breath of a fish The spittle of a bird Tyr: god of justice and honor BACKGROUND: considering their formidable foe, how do the Aesir get Gleipnir on Fenrir? They make a bargain, which they don’t intend to keep. Fenrir demands that in exchange for his willingness to be tied, one of the Aesir has to pledge his hand as good faith—but they can’t because they are going to trick him and he’s going to eat it, as a breach of faith. Tyr, volunteers even though he knows the gods will betray Fenrir and he will lose his hand. What to know: This is the repeating, of the ever repeating idea that goodness (and gold) are forever gone from the world of the Aesir. Tyr as god of honor and justice, serves as a Baldr figure. In the Aesir’s trickery they have injured justice and honor, and he was a willing participant. Freyr & Gullinsbursti See Dwarves of Norse Myth Gullinbursti: Body made of gold with Bristle’s that glow in the dark. He can run swiftly on land, as well as water. Freyr rides him to Baldr’s funeral and uses him no more after that. Not particularly useful, for either bringing back the golden age or inhibiting Ragnarok. Freyr: owns Gullinbursti as well as Skidbladnir the ship (see Dwarves of Norse Myth) What to know: Reiterate the uselessness of his gifts, however fantastic they may be. Explained further in Dwarves of Norse Myth. Grendel & his mother Imagined Grendel What to know: 1. Son of Cain a. As in the biblical cane. A race cursed by god. Points to the fact that Grendel may be more man than animal, but if he were a man, he would be a deformed version of one. b. Grendel and his mother are innately “Evil”, as hate the Christian God and wish to destroy everything he stands for 2. “Demonic” Characteristic a. As in something like a disembodied spirit who is often angry or vengeful. b. Can attack the Hall, but can’t touch the golden throne (symbolizing the Throne of God?) Grendel is defeated by God and Beowulf (acting as his agent): since Beowulf rips off Grendel’s arm, when Grendel flees from him. He is then left to the judgment of the Christian God. 3. Formless Mother a. Association with water, as she and Grendel live in a swamp (has an element of the serpentine). She is described simply as a sea hag b. She is considered so “evil”, so vile, that she cannot be destroyed by Hrunting (Sword given to Beowulf by Unferth the brother killer). She can only be defeated by a magical sword with a jeweled hilt, made in the age of the giants (Whom God destroys). She is so vile, her blood is poisonous and melts the blade of the sword. 4. BIG PICTURE: Only God (or objects and situation that represent the nature of his order) can destroy creatures like Grendel and his mother. Grendel is the representation of the king and his people as they have turned to Paganism Leviathan & Beowulf’s dragon Dragon: Angry that an unwitting thief stole something from his treasure hoard. Plaque on the Geats A different type of monster (much greater than Grendel) needs a different Hero Leviathan: A formidable beast of the sea that no one but God (who created him) is able to destroy What to know: Leviathan: Why would God create such a monster? o For the sole purpose of telling of his awesomeness Showing off that he is able to create, such a remarkable (seemingly) undefeatable beast Showing off that only he had the power to destroy this beast (man alone cannot) Dragon: Beowulf cannot defeat the dragon on his own, he needs the aid of the innately good (righteous) Wiglaf. Christian comradery, along with God, can destroy such formidable beasts as this Dragon Liu Bang: Villager and son of a Dragon Han Emperor A peasant by birth, claimed to be descendent of a dragon to legitimize himself What to know: He serves as an example of what the Imperial Dragon (the old style dragon) is supposed to represent. He the dragon is seen as more of a great emperor. There is also the idea that the Emperor can be related to a dragon (which makes sense if you think about it, which legitimizes him because, Dragon=Emperor=Dragon. Nidhogg & Yggdrasill (Arrow points to Nidhogg) The great dragon that randomly appears after Ragnarok has ended and the second Golden age is in full swing, and he is carrying corpses. Has been biting the roots (or trunk) of Yggdrasil and weakens it for Ragnarok Yggdrasil is the giant ash tree that holds all the worlds What to know: Nidhogg is representative this repeating cycle of the death of Golden ages. As the Aesir’s golden age ended, Ragnarok happened, the 2 ndGolden age happened, and Nidhogg appears as a foreboding sign that this golden age will not last either. Odin, Gungnir, and Fenrir Gungnir, Odin’s spear: part of the gifts commissioned by Loki. This spear always hits its target and kills it. What to know: The spear fails Odin (as do most things the dwarves make) and he is swallowed by Fenrir. This is the push off for the fall of the other gods. He is avenged by his son Vidar—who survives Ragnarok. Remember no matter what amazing gifts the gods own, they cannot save them from their fates at Ragnarok. Phoenix The (Western) Phoenix A Phoenix is not entirely mortal, though it does experience death it comes back Image of a special type of immortality, where he experiences mortality. Even to the point of getting tired of living for so long Born of himself (out of its ashes) A symbol of replenishing The Eastern Phoenix Feng Huang: represents the harmony of opposites (Yin and Yang) Consort of the Imperial Dragon (Empress) Represents “South”, as part of the 4 cardinal directions (celestial guardians) What to know: Common: Element of newness, regality/rarity Difference: Western Phoenix Image of immortality through the experience of mortality (not emphasized in Eastern Phoenix) Ragnarok: The Doom of the gods The death of everything, even the vast majority of the gods. The gods are clueless, as they don’t realize they can’t stop Ragnarok. Loki’s 3 children: Fenrir, Midgard Serpent, Hel Don’t think of them as doom bringers (though they are active participants in Ragnarok) they are just part (and reminders) of the natural cycle of life and death Ragnarok Duels: st 1 : Odin vs Fenrir Signals the battle has begun When Odin is swallowed, it shows all the other gods will fall after him nd 2 : Thor vs. serpent Grows to a size that even this giant slayer cannot handler Nature is too big for the gods to handle rd 3 . Loki vs Heimdall Heimdall is the signal for the end to come and Loki is a symbol of the end that was always present in the beginning One of Odin’s sons, Vidar (who survives this day), avenges his father and kills Fenrir. The struggle continues into the next world, a link with the past, and the gods are not learning their lesson. They are expressly unable to look beyond the paradigm of the cycle. Regin & Fafnir (See Dwarves of Norse Mythology and Andvari) Dwarf brothers: Regin, Fafnir and Otter Background: Otter in said shape, goes to the waterfall and fishes for salmon. For no known reason Loki kills this dwarf otter (in said form) with a rock. Odin and his brother make a bag out of Otter’s skin. They come to the dwarf’s father’s (Hreidmar) house and foolishly accept his hospitality, and show him the bag (which he recognizes as his son. At this point Hreidmar and Regin, seize them and ransom their lives for the otter skin bag filled with gold and to cover the outside with red gold. Loki goes to Andvari to get it. This other dwarf (Andvari) has the ability to change shapes (a Pike fish). Loki catches him in the net, and asks for ransom for the price of gold. He does have a stash of gold, which Loki takes, but Andvari has only one gold ring left. He curses it. Loki ignores the curse, as he is not affected by it. He brings the gold to the Aesir brothers and they give it back to the dwarf father, who is instantly caught up in greed for it. So much so he forgets the reason he commissioned it (the memory of his son) Now enters the 3 son (Fafnir). The two remaining brothers asks for a share of the gold, which he refuses to do. Fafnir, kills his father for the gold, stabbing him while he is asleep deeply deceitful act, no?). Hreidmar calls to his daughter for help, but she refuse to kill their bother. He call her a name that alludes to her disloyalty and treachery—Wolf girl---After he dies, Regin doesn’t try to avenge his father but asks for a share, which Fafnir refuses to give. For the sake of gold and through treachery and betrayal, they will kill each other. Fafnir, at this point has so much greed towards his new wealth, he turns into a dragon and guards it. Regin turns to his sister, and she refuses again to aid in killing Fafnir and urges him to get the gold without violence. So, Regin has to turn to a mortal (Sigurd, a very young man) who gets humans involved with this curse good. Then something marvelous happens: Fafnir, literally turns into a dragon (as in, he has all this gold to guard). Dragons in this culture are not only guards of gold but desire the gold for themselves. Regin doesn’t kill his brother himself and instigates Sigurd to do it. Regin enables the youth to do so by forging him a special sword (Gram). The sword was so sharp that it could cut through a piece of wool floating down the Rhine and cut through Regin’s anvil. Involving the human in this treacherous plot, and links another species in this, now, universal curse. Here we see the dwarves further fail to bring everyone back into the golden age, but further into the treacherous Iron/wolf age Regin will hide behind a bush and egg on this innocent Sigurd to defeat this dragon. Regin advises him to wait in a whole in the path of the dragon for ambush. Fafnir falls into the hole and as he crawls around, Sigurd stabs his stomach with Gram. A conversation ensues: Fafnir warms Sigurd that he is going to be betrayed by Regin: Sigurd is aware of this Fafnir dies, and Regin reappears out of the bush. He drinks the blood of his dead brother, then tells Sigurd: Sigurd does what is told and roasts the heart, and he was checking to see if the heart was done and poked it with his finger and burns himself, and Sigurd tastes (unwittingly) the blood of the dragon. Somehow, tasting Fafnir’s blood, gives him the ability to understand the language of birds. There were some nuthatches (birds) commenting on his situation nearby and they say: WHAT TO KNOW: Understand the curse of gold (whether towards Dwarves, gods, or humans. There is nothing good about gold that exists outside of a golden age, it brings no joy to anyone who comes into contact with it. Scylla & Charybdis Scylla the 1 cliff: Scylla is immortal, and unlike the sirens, you cannot toy with her. There are no tricks to defeating her, the trick is to stay away from her, but there is a catch, because the creature on the other side is deadlier Charybdis in the second cliff: She is an actual whirl pool who follows a definite schedule At her center is an enormous Fig tree What to know: Scylla represents the old type of monster and monster experiments of the Greeks: Many heads, terrifying appearance, seeming formidability. Scylla, can’t really be defeated, but one would expect a Herakles type Hero figure if it were possible. Charybdis represents a new type of monster; the unstoppable forces of nature. This requires a new type of Hero (Odysseus) who requires quick wits and the ability to survive, not conquer (one cannot defeat a whirlpool) Sigurd For Background see Regin and Fafnir What to know: Sigurd is innately good and has no interest in Fafnir’s gold. He only aids Regin because he owes him a favor. However, later he too will fall at the hands of the curse of the gold. Svadilfari, Loki & the eight-legged horse Sleipnir Odin’s eight legged horse (Sleipnir) Result of union between Loki and the Stallion, Svadilfari BACKGROUND: during the first war (between the gods) the walls separating them was destroyed. One of the giants (disguised) offered to build the walls for Freya and the Moon and the sun (the fertility of the earth). Loki convinced the gods to employ a ruse, and give a condition that the walls had to be built in six months. The giant agreed but wanted aid from his (own) horse, Svadilfari. He is a good work horse. Everybody agrees. The works seems like it will be done in time, and the gods are worried and Odin threatens Loki’s life unless he finds a way to stall the giant. (Remember he’s a shapeshifter) Loki takes on the form of a mare and seduces Svadilfari into the woods. The giant fails to finish on time. Loki winds up pregnant, and bears Sleipnir. What to know: Sleipnir can ride through land, sea, air and even Hel. Loki gives Odin this horse (though it doesn’t help in Ragnarok. Thor, Mjöllnir, and Jormungandr Mjollnir: Thor’s hammer, made by the dwarves as part of the gifts commissioned by Loki Jormungandr: The Midgard Serpent (1 of 3 children of Loki). Line Fenrir, he continues to grow and grow. The gods want to control him, so Thor uses his hammer to beat him into the sea to contain him. Once the serpent is freed at Ragnarok, he and Thor battle. Thor kills him with his hammer, but dies do to the serpent’s poison. What to know: Reiteration of uselessness of the gifts of the dwarves, and so on. Unicorn Eastern: Qilin Commonality with Western Unicorn: 1 horn Elusiveness Differences from Western Unicorn: Qilin has a greater reputation for gentleness and wisdom Takes an interest in the government of china (though doesn’t involve itself in the actual govt—just oversees it) Appears at imperial court at the beginning of the reign of a good emperor, at the end of a successful reign, and at the birth of a End of horn is fleshy o Not used for a weapon as in the Western Unicorn Multi-colored o Unlike the western Unicorn (symbolizing innocence and Christ) is entirely white Seems similar to the imperial dragon (this underlying similarity seems to be on purpose) nd 2 Source: From Shu King 'Its call in the middle part is like a monastery bell. Its pace is regular. It rambles on selected grounds and only after it has examined the locality. It will not live in herds or be accompanied in its movements. It cannot be beguiled into pitfalls or captured in snares.' Cannot be captured or beguiled into traps o Very unlike the W. Unicorn Not meant to associate with humans, but at the same time it has an innate interest in human affairs. It wishes to oversee rather than get taken up into the human world o The W. Unicorn is vulnerable because he wants to get captured and killed (Christ association—part of the Christian narrative) Appears during the reign of good emperors and the birth of good man. Interested in the government, though doesn’t participate. . When the Qilin faces those who have done wrong (the unjust) he can take on a frightening form. His late association with the dragon, and a mix of other elements (the tiger, fish, fire of the phoenix, etc.) presents the idea that the separation fiercely imposed on paper, didn’t really matter as much in reality. Think: What does the Qilin have to do with the Unicorn? It is the embodiment of the respective values of the people who create them Western: Greek version: Ctesias (Greek Physician) “There are in India certain wild assess…” This animal doesn’t have its own name, but it has unicorn characteristics This animal has something unique: The one horn, and the Ankle bone Drinking from the horn protects u, the horn has positive magic Fast, so much so none can overtake it, and it’s hard to catch (alive) Only way to catch it is when it is protecting its offspring, and even then it can’t be taken alive You can’t eat it o It would be near sacrilegious to enjoy eating it Horn can free you from incurable diseases: It can do what seems impossible, it can resolve the unresolvable Takes care of human needs that humans can’t take care of Christ the unicorn St. Basil “Christ is the power of God, therefore he is called the unicorn on the ground that He has one horn, that is, one common power with the Father.” Unicorn as the symbol of innocence (Christ) You can Capture a unicorn with a virgin “Horn of Salvation” Horn of abundance Associated with Demeter and Ceres Used to symbolize the quenching of spiritual thirst/hunger (in Christian context) The pure maiden idea popularizes the unicorn: Putting all his trust in this maiden, gets him captured and killed every time What to know: Using the above info, you should be able to compare and contrast the Eastern and Western Unicorn. Vidar & Fenrir What to know: (See Odin, Gungnir, and Fenrir) Vidar is another son of Odin and he avenges his father’s death by killing Fenrir nd Survives Ragnarok, and into the 2 Golden Age nd Representative that some of the old gods make it to the 2 golden age and, sadly, so do their bad habits. Hence, he also forebodes the ending of this golden age too. Vritra & Indra FROM Rig Veda (our source): Rig meaning prayer (like to the gods) and Veda meaning Knowledge Indra (storm god) leader of the Devas (gods of heaven)-see pictures Vritra: the dragon (cloud) Indra defeated The Vedic Triad: Indra (Storm god), Surya (Sun god), and Agni (Fire god) As regulator of the gods he would be considered as guardian of the cardinal directions \ Japanese example: The four heavenly kings (Shitenno) here they guard the Buddha Back to Indra: He is the protector of the east (throws lightning bolts) He is said to have slain a dragon called Vritra Rigveda 1.32 This dragon was supposed to have been holding back the flood waters (that are precious o this agricultural society). The dragon is therefore a cloud that doesn’t want to yield its water onto the earth. Tvastar, an inventor for the gods (like the cyclops or Hephaestus), fashioned Indra’s Lightning Bolt called Vajra. Means diamond as well, something hard, gleaming, and “pure”. This weapon was not enough to defeat his enemy, he needed Soma Before going into battle with this cloud/dragon, Indra first drank a special beverage: Soma. 3. Impetuous as a bull, he chose the Soma and in three sacred beakers drank the juices. Maghavan grasped the thunder for his weapon, and smote to death this firstborn of the dragons. Rigveda 2.12 1. HE who, just born, chief God of lofty spirit by power and might became the Gods' protector, Before whose breath through greatness of his valour the two worlds trembled, He, O men, is Indra. 2. He who fixed fast and firm the earth that staggered, and set at rest the agitated mountains, Who measured out the air's wide middle region and gave the heaven support, He, men, is Indra. Indra gives stability to the world as well as giving fertility He protects the gods A force without which everything will fall to chaos and disorder, He is like the combination of Zeus and Atlas. As soon as he kills the dragon, he gives life to foundational elements of the cosmos: Indra is the god of victory, as well as the victorious (combination of Zeus and Athena). In the same way he led the Devas (gods of the skies) against the Asura (gods of raw nature—like the Norse giants), he was also thought to have helped the Aryan Tribe of conquering the native inhabitants of India (The Dayu—conflated with the enemies of Indra) Explaining Soma: Ancient for of Indian worship is characterized by high ritual practices, heavily reliant of properties like Soma o This drink that he absolutely needs to destroy the dragon is made by humans, this is part of their arrangement for his protection 14. Who aids with favour him who pours the Soma and him who brews it, sacrificer, and singer. Whom prayer exalts, and pouring forth of Soma, and this our gift, He, O ye men, Is Indra. 15. Thou verily art fierce and true who sendest strength to the man who brews and pours libation. Rig Veda 3.32 8. Many are Indra's nobly wrought achievements, and none of all the Gods transgress his statutes. He beareth up this earth and heaven, and, doer of marvels, he begot the Sun and Morning. 9. Herein, O Guileless One, is thy true greatness, that soon as born thou drankest up the Soma. Days may not check the power of thee the Mighty, nor the nights, Indra, nor the months, nor autumns. 10. As soon as thou wast born in highest heaven thou drankest Soma to delight thee, Indra; This drink brings him close to the humans who make it, it is part of their worship to him This dragon can remind you of Tiamat (and her assailant Marduk) The Babylonians share a common origin with the Aryan tribes who inherited Indian subcontinent (Punjab) The Punjab is where the Veda was composed by priestly poets What to Know: The Aryan tribes of India (who believe in this god) brought with them the idea of the dragon as the forces of chaos to be defeated. This influenced the rethinking of the Chinese (and other Asian) dragon. Ymir What to Know: st 1 st the Giants 1 god is born out of his armpit A frost Giant (makes sense since the setting of myth world is snowy and cold) Makes up the world. Out of his blood and veins, the Aesir make the Dwarves Giants represent the basic stuff that makes up nature. They are representatives of the natural cycles of life and death, and Defeat the Aesir in Ragnarok. Whenever a giant or giantess shows up, take that to mean an example of how the gods are doomed, and don’t know it. Yu (and his father, Kun) Dragon as symbol of China: story of Yu: Yellow Emperor There was a severe drought and 10 suns shone on the earth, just as the land was recovering, a flood almost destroyed it again, at this time china was led by the Yellow emperor. Kun (grandson of the emperor) decided to steal a small amount of magical clay from the yellow emperor and gave it to the peasants (without his knowledge). With this clay, they were able to absorb all the extra water and Kun was not content (as he loved his fellow peasants). He built dams, but over time they broke. Eventually the Yellow Emperor found out and ordered the fire god to kill Kun. The fire god follows him to the great frozen north, and smote him with his fire sword, trapping him in ice (alive). He is left there for 3 yrs., the emperor sends the god back to check on the body. He came back and saw that his body was preserved, and was curious as to whether he was alive. He cracked the ice with is fire sword, and pierced Kun’s skin a bit. Out of this wound, Yu was born not as a baby, but in the shape of a dragon. Becoming human again he assigned himself the job of marinating managing the flood (just like his father) instead of stealing the dirt he asked the yellow Emperor for it (respecting his authority). He built dams, canals, leveled hilltops, used the tail of the dragon to create river channels. For this role, he was chosen as successor. Why the ice? Preservation in ice was the preservation of the goodness of Kun (even though he didn’t respect the emperor, what he accomplished was for the good. Yu’s shape alludes he will be able to control the waters and become emperor Yu is truly a dragon, but takes on human shape to live amongst them and help them Zimwi: Note: There is just too much to cover as far as back story so rely on your notes for that. If you do not have the notes, or wish to see another perspective check out study soup and look me up. It’s the last set of class notes. What to Know: 1. Have some argument to what/who the Zimwi is a. Deeply associated to both dry and wet nature (particularly connected to the sea) b. Kidnaps Bimwili, but is not necessarily Heinous to her (even gives her back her shell) 2. What is the Zimwi’s purpose/lesson? a. To teach the fascination of nature? b. To teach the dark side of nature? c. To show the separation between the village (ers) and nature? d. Open season here, no wrong answers. 3. Compare/Contrast him with Loki a. They both have a lesson that needs to be taught, both to the characters they target and to the reader of their stories. b. Unlike Zimwi, Loki dies i. His lesson has been learned by his targets (through Ragnarok) and the reader (through reappearance of the allusive Nidhogg) ii. Zimwi leaves and even bids Bimwili goodbye. Perhaps she has learned his lesson? The fact that he’s back at the rock, seems to suggest that he has more ppl to teach and might do this again.
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