BIO 240 Study Guide Exam 2
BIO 240 Study Guide Exam 2 BIO 240
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miriam Valenzuela on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 240 at San Francisco State University taught by Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 467 views. For similar materials see Second Semester Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
Vocabulary carotenoids organic pigments found in chloroplasts redorangeyellow xanthophylls yellow pigments of leaves that don t need light to be synthesized referred to as oxygenated carotenoids fucoxanthin xanthophyll which is an accessory pigment in the chloroplasts of brown algae phycobilins light capturing bile pigments found in cyanobacteria such as red algae phycoerythrin red protein pigment present in red algae Made up of phycobilins thylakoids compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria where light comes in and light dependent reactions take place for photosynthesis starch carbohydrate consisting of glucose molecules strung together tinsel flagellum hairlike projections which occur in various organisms that increase the power generated by the flagella alginic acid carbohydrate found in brown algae in the form of salts in the cell walls carrageenan polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds dichotomous branching simple branching pattern that occurs in plants where one stem develops into two branches each one of these two branches develops two branches themselves for a total of four branches This process is repeated vascular tissue complex tissue consisting of more than one type of cell which transport fluids and nutrients inside the cell Phloem and Xylem gametic meiosis process of meiosis which occurs at the time of gamete formation Produces gametophyte zygotic meiosis meiosis that takes place at the time of the zygote germination The process of a plant growing out of a seed sporic meiosis meiosis occurs when there s a formation of spores most commonly sporophytes alternation of generations the fluctuation between the diploid and the haploid stages that occur in plants Fluctuation between the gametophytes and the sporophytes desiccation a state of extreme dryness or drying mutagenesis process by which genetic information of an organism is changed resulting in a mutation littoral zone part of the ocean closest to the shore multicellularity having or consisting of many cells double fertilization process of fertilization for angiosperms One female gametophyte is joined with two male gametes sperm Pollen grain attaches to the stigma and then the pollen grain takes in moisture and begins to germinate forming a tube which extends to the ovary where the pollen tube enters the ovary and penetrates the opening to the ovule The pollen tube inserts two sperm into the megagametophyte autotrophic also known as producer Type of organism that produces organic compounds such as carbohydrates fats and proteins heterokont a lineage in the eukaryotes which contains different species of algae kelp and diatoms They have a motile life cycle in which the flagellate cells possess two different shaped flagella heterothallic two different and separate gametophytes Male gametophyte and female gametophyte heterosporic two different types of spores which differ in sex and size Produce different sporangia megasporangia and microsporangia heterotroph an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth They re dependent on complex organic compounds and cannot synthesize their own food homothallic containing only one type of gametophyte Bisexual Both the female and male parts of the gametophyte exist in one structure homosporous produce only one structure sporangia therefore only produce one type of spores gamete when a cell fuses with another during fertilization to form an organism gametangia found in protists algae and fungi it s an organ or cell in which gametes are produced This is a haploid structure and does not need meiosis gametophyte haploid multicellular stage of alternation of generations in plants which develops from a spore spore unit of asexual reproduction thats adapted for survival Produced by the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte sporangia enclosed structure in which spores are formed sporophyte diploid multicellular stage in life of a plant Formed from the zygote sporophylls a leaf that produces sporangia antheridia haploid structure containing male gametes archegonia multicellular structure that contains a single egg oogamy form of sexual reproduction which female gamete is larger than the male gamete and is nonmotile the male gamete is highly motile and competitive over the egg oogonia the first immature egg or ovum phycoplast microtubule observed during cytokinesis phragmoplast structure that forms during late cytokinesis which allows cell plate assembly and formation of new cell wall to separate the two daughter cells fertilization fusion of gametes to form a new individual glycolate oxidase involved in nonhost resistance by regulating defense responses through the production of H202 zygote fertilized egg that results from the union of female and male gametes embryo unborn offspring in the process of development cuticle protective film covering the epidermis of leaves consisting of lipid and hydrocarbon polymers to make a waxy substance stomata structures found on the outer leafy skin which are responsible for gas exchange sorus cluster of sporangia in ferns and fungi mega vs micro micro is small Mega is large ovule structure that contains female reproductive cells Consists of the integument forming the outer layer the nucleus as the megasporangium and the female gametophyte as the megaspore in the middle ovary female reproductive organ in which ova or eggs are produced integument natural covering of an organism or organ to protect monoecious having both male and female gametes in same structure dioecious having male and female gametes in separate structures deciduous a type of plant or tree which sheds its leaves annually evergreen type of plant or tree which doesn t shed its leaves stamen pollen producing organ in the flower anther the part of the stamen where pollen is directly produced stigma female reproductive part of the flower stylelong slender stalk that connects the top of the stigma to the ovary pollen contain microgametophytes of seed plants which produce male gametes pollination process by which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma which results in fertilization and is a form of reproduction syngamy the fusion of two cells in reproduction plasmogamy fungi reproduction cycle stage in which the cytoplasm of the parent cells fuse together without their nuclei which results in two haploid nuclei together in the same cell karyogamy final stage in the process of fusing together two cells by fusing the two nuclei sepal protection part of the flowers of angiosperms which protects the bud and supports petals calyx tube that surrounds the petals after they ve bloomed which supports the sepals petal modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of the flower corolla term for all the petals of a flower endosperm tissue produced inside of a seed which surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition from starch oils and proteins seed coat protects the embryo from mechanical injury predators and drying out Made from the integuments which previously surrounded the ovule protandry male parts mature first protogyny female parts mature first scarification the cutting of the seed coat using abrasion heat and chemicals These processes encourage germination stratification process by which seeds are artificially exposed to cold and moist conditions to encourage germination in spring indehiscent structures that don t open to disperse seeds dehiscent the splitting of a plant structure in order to release contents such as sporangia gemma single cell or mass of cells which detaches from parent and develops into a separate independent individual carpel part of the flower that produces ovules and develops into fruits outbreeding breeding from parents that aren t closely related spindle fibers produce a protein structure that divides the genetic material of the cell Attaches to the end of chromosomes and separate them into separate sides to aid the production of two daughter cells hyphae long branching structures in fungus that forms underground mycelium group of hyphae mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between fungus and plants Fungus facilitates the delivery of water and nutrients to the plant while the plant allows the fungus to survive off of the sugars produced by the plant during photosynthesis plasmodium microorganisms which are parasites and affect a host extracellular digestion process by which organisms feed by secreting enzymes through cell membrane to the food and starting digestion that way until there are small enough molecules to be taken up by diffusion or phagocytosis endophyte endosymbiont fungus or bacteria which lives in a long term physical relationship with a plant and does not cause disease Fungi Chytrids aqua c contain flagella unicellular feed on pollen and other plant parts some parasitize protists plants and animals Zygomycetes form a thick wall structure called zygosporangia which contain the zygote Referred to as the Bread Molds zygosporangia is resistant to freezing and drying Hyphae are coenocytic has multiple cell divisions without the pinching of the cytoplasm various nuclei in one cell nuclei fuse together to form diploid nuclei which then undergoes meiosis to form spores Asexual Phase haploid spores develop into sporangia at the tips of hyphae Glomeromycetes Endomycorrhizae symbiotic relationship with plants highly branched fungi delivers water and nutrients to plant to use and the plant gives nutrition to fungi Ascomycetes Mold Formation of sexual structures called asci Asci undergo meiosis to produce ascospores formed on fruit bodies ascocarps Reproduce asexually by producing spores called conidia which are dispersed by the wind conidia develop in long chains called conidiophores characterized by extensive heterokaryotic stage fusion of two genetically distinct nuclei in the same cell during the formation of the ascocarps Basidiomycetes Formation of basidia club like sexual structures which produce basidiospores Formed on fruit bodies basidiocarps Algae Decomposers break down cellulose and Iignin can be ectomycorrhizal symbiotic relationship with plants but does not penetrate individual cells Reproduce sexually by forming basidiocarps Diatoms Cell wall made of proteins and silicon wall divided in two parts which overlap each daughter cell receives half the parent cell wall and regenerates other half in cell division reproduce asexually unicellular but live in colonies Brown Algae Phaeophyta chlorophylls a and c carotenoids xanthophylls fucoxanthin brown three chloroplast membranes thylakoids in stacks of three Cell Wall made of cellulose alginic acid and proteins multicellular marine popular in temperate coasts with cool water and nutrients heterokont flagella Carbohydrate reserve Laminarin 13 glucose polymer Red Algae Rhodophyta chlorophylls a and d carotenoids phycobilins and phycoerythrin two chloroplast membranes Cell Wall made of cellulose agar and carrageenan and proteins multicellular lack flagella Contain calcium carbonate in walls warm coastal waters of tropical oceans Carbohydrate Reserve Floridean Starch 14 glucose polymer Chlorophytes Green Algae chlorophylls and b carotenoids yellow xanthophylls thylakoids in 26 forming grana two chloroplast membranes Cell Wall made of cellulose and proteins freshwater and terrestrial live symbiotically with fungi to form lichens gametic meiosis zygotic meiosis and sporic meiosis similar to plants store starch cell walls of cellulose ageHa Carbohydrate Reserve Plant Starch 14 and 16 glucose polymer Charophytes Green Algae chlorophylls and b carotenoids yellow xanthophylls thylakoids in 26 forming grana two chloroplast membranes Cell wall made of cellulose and proteins sister group of land plants Carbohydrate Reserve Plant Starch 14 and 16 glucose polymer Bryophytes LivenNorts First plants oldest fossil Sexual reproduction thalloid body archegoniophores contain archegonia antheridiophores contain antheridia Hornworts No fossils diverged from livenNorts thalloid gametophytes with grass like sporophytes tetrad spores gametophyte dominant Mosses oldest fossil diverged from hornwort gametophyte attached to sporophyte Heterothallic male and female gametophyte in different individuals Homosporous one type of sporangium Lycopods Club Mosses Tree sized group and herbaceous group homo and heterosporous Heterosporous two types of sporangia megasporangia gives rise to megaspore microsporangia gives rise to microspores Heterothallic strobilus cluster of sporangia Pterophyta Horsetails one existing genus all herbaceous today homosporous silica cell walls Whisk Ferns evolved from fern ancestor primitive vascular plant features dichotomous branching sporangia triplets homosporous diverse small rhizomeformers sporangia forcibly discharged first group with real leaves and roots homosporous and some heterosporous Gymnosperms Ginkgo Ginkgophyta living fossil deciduous sheds leaves once a year dioecious male and female gametophytes on different individuals Male and female plant have Cycads Cycadophyta compound leaves palmlike circinate vernation cone producers evergreen never sheds leaves dioecious male and female gametes on different individuals Gnetum Gnetophyta woody vinelike monoecious male and female gametophytes on same individual dioecious male and female gametophyte on different individuals Ephedra shrubs grows in dry areas herbal remedies dioecious female and male gametes on different individuals Welwitschia large tap root below ground large leaves dioecious female and male gametes on different individual Conifers Coniferophyta woody stems male and female cones needle shaped leaves monoecious and few dioecious evergreens and few deciduous dominate forests sunken stomata Angiosperms enclosed seed plants evolved from gymnosperms gnetophytes Pollination movement of pollen from stamens to stigma of flowers animal pollinated or environmentally pollinated Microgametogenesis Development of pollen Sporangia produce microspores which develop pollen through mitotic division s production of the gametophyte Megagametogenesis Ovule Development Megasporangium is produced through meiosis megaspore nucleus divides mitosis without cytokinesis 3x 8 nuclei stage nuclei rearrange three on one side three on the other and two in the middle cytokinesis Life Cycles Moss antipodals on one side the central cell with two nuclei in the middle and on the lower side there are two synergids with the egg in between Double Fertilization sperm nucleus fuses with egg nucleus developing an embryo one sperm fuses with cell in the middle containing the two nuclei to form endosperm nucleus seed coat formed from outer integument layers seed stores nutrition Enclosed ovary unique fertilization seed develops animal pollination vessels in xylem r Raindrop Male gametophyte n i Key i n Haploid n Diploid 2n gr quot Female Archegonia Gametophore i Spore i dispersal l Jga metoph39yte n E f P r Peristome i gegonium 39 Capsule sporophyte Sporanglum Foot 3 E Archegonium E Youug 77 A E sporophyte a N 2n Capsule with f peristome SEM gametophytes Comingth 2006 F39earsan Education Inc publishing as Pearson Beniamin Cummings Fern y Key in Hapluid n Diploid 2n Vole Yran n gametophyte Mature a SP gametaphyte 39 v N Awrchegonium Egi Mature N7 s1pompihyte aw Z ate quot spomph e Gamatophyta Fiddmehead Qumran D 2cm Mrsm Erlunallun m prhsMIg as Peaer Bangmin Humming Conifer Conifers Sporophyte is dominant gametophyte depends on sporophyte for nutrition Polilen grains Four meiotic products one is large and forms the megiaspore n b Microsporein forms poilen Poilerrlaearing grain Three meiotic r ipr oducts ciie MEIOS S t m Poilen grain Mother from cone Female Fe 2quot garnetopltyte n Archegonia 7 7 r M egaspore diiiriides to Embryo II Eggs in iormifernale g39iametoj 2m i i phyte n which produces i archegxonia andieggs sporophyte 2n l FER39IlL A A Only one egg is fertilized De Ve39opmg iPolilen produces and develops sporophyte Seed disperses sperm Via wind or animals Figure 2944c Biological Science Zle 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Flowering Plant Microsporangium Anther Perianth PetalCoroia Sepal Calyx Ovary Filament Floral axis Articulationli quotI Ma roslpore Microspore w e mother cell v 39MEIOSIS MEIOSIS lVlITOSIS MITOSIS l Antipodal Germinating seed Polar nuclei Egg Seed coa Generative cell Synergid Endcsper Tube celil Megarmetophyte Embryo MicrogametOphyte Embryo sac pollen quot Sperm 39 ollen grain Pollen tube Sperm Pollen tube Tube nucleus Polliination and Fertilization These pictures not belong to me nor were they made by methey re used as reference of the distinct life cycles Meiosis Gametic Meiosis amete 5 iridivid ual Zygotic Meiosis miicliiivicluals 3139 mare cells Sporic Meiosis i rlgaill MalE gam t phytes 9 3 v i gametes fertilizatiijry migrate meinsis 39 v indi vidnal n Sp r phrtai Pictures do not belong to me nor were they made by me They re used as reference for the different types of meiosis Pollination Gymnosperms wind pollinated ancestors nonselective random movement of pollen metabolically expensive Effective in meadows grasslands and fields Flower Design no petals no nectaries unisex flower projecting stamen Angiosperms beetle pollinated wind pollination developed enclosed seeds to protect against predation attraction of animal visitor for food development of odors as attractive radiation of flower morphology for attraction Pollination and dispersal strategies Flowers adapted and acquired features to aid in their attractiveness flowers developed food resources edible plants carpels clustered stamens clustered bisexual flowers How do flowers attract animals Scent Food Egg laying Sexual instinct Form shape symmetry Patterns color Different Pollinators Hummingbird hover while feeding require sugar red tubular and pendulous flowers Bat require sugar and protein feed on nectar and pollen nocturnal echolocation prefer white flowers accessible at night numerous stamens lay eggs in food source prefer dead meat smell shape and odor attracted thick petals extrafloral parts distinctive shape Yucca Moth moth lays eggs in flower yucca moth collects the pollen bundles in mouth and deposits them on the stigma
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