SOC 316 Final Study Guide
SOC 316 Final Study Guide SOC 316 - Pfaff
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SOC 316 - Pfaff
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucas Reller on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 316 - Pfaff at University of Washington taught by Pfaff in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 298 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociological Theory in Sociology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
SOC 316 Final Study Guide Week 12 0 A social scientific theory should be 0 O O O Falsifiable Generalizable Parsimonious saying a lot with little evidence using many assumptions Concrete 0 Theorydriven social scientific research should be 0 O O 0 Transparent Skeptical Methodical Inferential o A scientific fact is according to Durkheim O O O 0 Social solidarity Law Religion Social stratification o Assertions of Durkheim s theory of moral order 0 O O 0 Criminal punishment serves to strengthen solidarity Criminal conduct violates the collective norms Crime in some form or another is present in all societies of all types Crime is less likely where norms are strongest o Weber s principle of methodological individualism is premised on O O O The individual as the basic unit of social analysis Understanding microlevel motives behind macrolevel changes Explaining purposive social action 0 An ideal type is according to Weber 0 0 An analytical construct of generic properties of social phenomena Types I Community 0 Based on subjective feelings of togetherness solidarity emotional attachment and dependence I Association 0 Based on shared rational interests and common material purposes 0 Weber s idealtypes includes 0 0 Instrumental or purposive action I End rationality in which costs and consequences are calculated or anticipated in the achievement of a specified material goal I Most important in relation to sociology Valuerational action I A calculating purposive orientation to service an absolute value or moral good for its own sake and without expectation of material reward o Effectual action I Action that is motivated by specific emotions or ties of affection Here the calculation of costs and benefits is not the guide to action but rather deeply felt subjective experiences and motives 0 Traditional action I This is action undertaken because it corresponds to customary forms or action or deeply habitual practices IdealTypes Rational NonRational Purposive Instrumental Rationality Traditional Action calculation conformity to custom Expressive Value Rationality Affective Action emotion conviction commitment psychological reaction o The basic process that drives social change according to Weber is 0 Competitive selection 0 A parsimonious theory is one which 0 A few assumptions are used to build cogent propositions o A nonmaterial social fact 0 Something that must be inferred from influence on behavior 0 Cannot be easily observable 0 Ex The level of solidarity within a society 0 A material social fact is o Easily observable o Easily tracked o Reductionism 0 Similar to ideal type Making generalization that may never exist 0 A moral order is effective if 0 Social sanctions are applied for violations of the rules the offender must be punished or blamed If rules are good offender will feel guilt Social order is if those governed by the rules regard them as just Moral education must convince members of the rightness and goodness 000 o Morally integrated individuals desire regulation as a condition for group membership 0 Manifest function 0 The objective consequences of actions or institutional practices for an individual group institution etc that contributes to its adjustment or adaptation to its circumstances 0 Latent function o The unintended or unrecognized consequences of actions or institutional practices for a specified unit of analysis that contributes to its adjustment or adaptation to its circumstances 0 Manifest and latent functions offer social scientists advantages according to Merton Clarification of seemingly irrational social patterns o Directing attention to theoretically fruitful fields of inquiry 0 Discovery of important emergent properties of social life 0 Redirecting social science away from quotnai39ve moral judgments towards sociological analysis Objectively functional No Yes Subjective No The Freudian unconscious Latent function motivation Yes Primitive ignorance Manifest function 0 Rationalization of knowledge through 0 Concept specific model of truth theory 0 Experiment rational control of experience 0 Method reliable measurement and observation 0 Science offers 0 Means of control over the material world 0 Method of knowing o Clarity of thought through explicit concepts 0 Limits of Weberian approach 0 Voluntarism I The idea that individuals act upon their own interests without substantial structural or institutional restraint o Rationality postulate may be misleading idealtypes can t resolve all behavior 0 Overreliance on dualistic categories types and conceptual models 0 Problem of subjective understanding Week 3 o The Industrial Revolution was a period where rational division of labor and new technologies increased 0 The Enlightenment thinks generally thought that the condition of society was improvable through science and reason 0 Government should always stay out of economic matters according to Smith 0 Crime could be deterred by creating a penal system in which punishment was according to Bentham 0 Swift 0 Certain 0 Severe 0 Factors that condition rational action according to sociological rational choice theorist are 0 Opportunity costs 0 Constraints imposed by institutions 0 Transaction costs 0 The principle of distribution justice in exchange theory states that people will feel aggrieved when they perceive that their contribution to the group is not rewarded proportionally o Utilitarian theorists of the 19th century were similar to Smith no government involvement 0 The origins of the Industrial Revolution can be observed in according to Smith 0 The rational division of labor 0 Smith assumes in regard to human nature 0 Humans are generally selfinterested o Humans are inclined to quottruck and barter to get what they want 0 The mechanism propelling the expanding division of labor in a capitalist economy according to Smith 0 Free economic competition 0 Division of labor advances through 0 Specialization o Reorganization of work factory system 0 Application of machinery 0 Government policies to advance economic welfare all lead to irrational outcomes 0 Mercantilism policy of promoting only export trade of one s own country 0 Imperialism capturing of other societies to exploit their resources or markets 0 Monopolies to protect desired industries from competition 0 Subsidies that favor one industry or set of producers over another 0 Government policies promote Corruption Inefficiency Rentseeking behaviors Favoritism 0000 Drive up consumer prices Week 4 o Legitimacy can be achieved in relations of domination through according to Weber 0 Tradition o Legality o Charisma 0 Using Weber s theory of the rationalization of administration organizations most closely approximating quotmonocraticquot bureaucracy in societies where o The economy is monetized and marketoriented o The scale of government activities is extensive o The scale of economic activities is extensive o The bureaucratic organization gives selective advantages to societies that adopt it because of its technical superiority as a form of administration 0 Ideal types of authority 0 Traditional Resting on the common belief in the sanctity of tradition and authority of custom o LegalRational This means conformity to rules which are formally correct and instituted through proper procedures or channels 0 Charismatic Rests on uncommon devotion and emotional attachment to the sanctity heroism or personality of an extraordinary individual such as a hero prophet or messiah o In the ideal type legalrational form of political order legitimacy rest upon common allegiance to the formal rules o In the ideal type legalrational form of political order leaders themselves are ruled by the rules Traditional forms of authority can be destabilized by charismatic leaders Charismatic political orders are often the result of revolutionary upheavals Characteristics of domination Secular Sacred Normative Legal rational authority Traditional authority Nonnormative Instrumental domination Charismatic authority o Monocratic bureaucracy according to Weber 0 Limited areas ofjurisdiction and specified official duties 0 Hierarchical control 0 Management based upon written files maintained by subordinate officials in formally defined offices 0 Formal training and qualifications specialization of functions specified working hours and duties assigned to the position 0 Formally stated and instituted rules technical experts master the rules and regulations 0 Weber s ideal type of bureaucracy includes 0 Training is formal o All actions during working hours are documented 0 Officials in the hierarchy are expected to hold only one office 0 Many officials share responsibility for the same task collegial management 0 The most important function of religious behavior for social order according to Durkheim is o Legitimacy o It heightens conflict with the secular world 0 Reinforcement of communally integrative emotions o Religions must contain according to Durkheim 0 Sacred objects 0 Rituals beliefs 0 Religious organizations Organic social solidarity based on the interdependence of group members According to Durkheim s functionalism a system of social control is most effective when punishments is reinforce moral consensus According to Foucault individualism freedom and rationallegal authority cannot be replaced by coercive power as a basis of social order Interaction ritual 0 Ingredients needed I Two or more people are assembled in the same place so that they affect each other by their bodily presence consciously or not I There are boundaries to outsiders so that participants have a sense of who is taking part and who is excluded I A common focus of attention upon an activity and mutual awareness of each other s focus of attention I A shared emotional experience 0 Outcomes I Group solidarity a compelling feeling of membership I Emotional energy EE an individual s feeling of confidence elation strength enthusiasm and initiative I Symbols that represent the group emblems or other representations visual icons words gestures that members associate with the collectivity I Morality a feeling of confidence the sense of group rightness respect for its symbols and offense at transgression Epistemology the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge It attempts to answer the basic question what distinguishes true adequate knowledge from false inadequate knowledge Sacred is 0 True 0 Rational 0 Scientific 0 Valid Profane is 0 False o Irrational o Prejudiced o Superstitious o Invalid Implications of no quotright and wrong 0 Buried within modern notions of reason is the original social enchantment that classified a world of objects supernaturally making them knowable through social analogy 0 There can be no claim to truth outside of a shared moral and symbolic community and hence no objective universal truth Week 5 o The origins of both social solidarity and social classification lie in a kind of primitive religion no matter how secularized the modern mind Ruling varies on 0 Scope of rule 0 Intensity of rule Modern states nationstates have 0 Increasing resources economic development 0 Delimited scope of rule 0 Increasing intensity of rule Power as a social relationship obtains o The deployment of resources to achieve ends 0 Dominion over the activities of other human beings Power containers territoriallybounded administrative locales where rulers can effectively deploy resources and exercise control generally a modern state Depends on modern political organization which produce 0 Surveillance information gathering and control Officiadom agents that carry out rulers commands I Coercion milita ry police power Indoctrination ideological training especially of agents of the dominant classes Coercive surveillance was industrial democracies using 0 Management of a growing population esp of the poor and unproductive 0 Management of the growing militarization of the state 0 Management of largescale industrial production and control over large urban workforces 0 Effective exploitation of the advantages of the rational division of labor The basic institutional framework of societies 0 Family 0 Economy 0 Polity 0 Religion 0 Education Impression management the actor tailors behaviors to signify social meanings emotional states or status Facework is the effort to carry out social roles in a fashion that preserves social status honor prestige selfregard extend it or recover it from dishonor or humiliation Status performance uses 0 Idealization ceremony elevated dignity specialized consumption 0 Mystification an air of mystery a holiness or charismatic attribute o Dissimulation Action that is designed to give a selfsatisfying or selfserving behavior Intrinsic rewards pleasure or satisfaction in the experience Extrinsic rewards goods services produced by the exchange Creating disequilibrium in social exchange 0 Need for resources from unlike actors 0 Efforts among status equals to gain advantages over one another Week 6 Marx states The product of labor is labor which has been congealed in an object which has become material it is the objectification of labor Marx believes the evils found in capitalist societies is caused by private property Capitalism contains the seed of its own destruction Marx makes a basic assumption about human nature at odds with Utilitarian assumptions 0 Humans are by nature cooperative and creative 0 They are inclined to act altruistically when placed in communal settings 0 They want to alter the physical world through creative production and imagination and not simply subsist With the advent of private property coercive exploitation takes the place of cooperation Human alienation becomes evident in o The alienating reality of a labor process that estranges the worker from products of labor 0 The destruction of species being as humans should be conscious creative actors not coerced and desperate ones 0 The alienation of humans from humans One person is able to purchase and control the life and labor of another Marx calls for a quotpositive transcendence of private property a quotcomplete return of man to himself as a social being The transcendence of private property under Communism means universal emancipation Where Smith and Durkheim saw the rational DOL leading to new forms of spontaneous cooperation generalized trust and even solidarity Marx sees a fundamental conflict between the capitalist and working classes Marx argues quotwithin the relation of capital and wage labor the interests of capital and the interests of wage labor are diametrically opposed Labor theory of value The value of any article is the amount of labor socially necessary for its production Exchange value is represented through monetary price The price of labor is expressed through the wage Wages are not the worker s share of a commodity she is not a claimholder to the product of her labor Rather the wage reflects the social cost of labor Basic structure of Marx s class analysis Class position Explonation quoto i 39l39 l quoto i quoto i ii39 39 Relationship to Location in the Differential economic labor process control over assets of with respect to the produc of capital and relations of the labor labor dimination and suboridination Week 7 o The Communist Manifest Marx amp Engels 0 Basic differences between capitalism and socialism is I The sanctity of religion I The sanctity of the family I The ownership of the means of production I The importance of technology 0 History I The capitalist bourgeoisie is a revolutionary class it radically transforms the material foundation of society and with it the superstructure of society I Causes of industrial capitalism o The rise of an urban merchant class 0 The exploitation of the peasantry o The influx of gold and silver from the New World 0 Politics I Marx and Engels regard the state as no more than committee for managing the affairs ofthe bourgeoisie and protecting private property I Class polarization is transforming society into two classes the proletariat workers and the bourgeoisie owners of capital I What is the role of the Communist Party To form the proletariat into a politically aware social class and then help that class to seize power in its own name I Once this is achieved the primary political aim is economic Abolition ofprivate property nationalism is an obstacle 0 Revolution Marx and Engels paint a picture of the bourgeoisie as being like a quotsorcerer s apprentice it has unleashed upon the world a destructive and powerful force it cannot control The more productive is the labor the lower the pay Capitalism does not liberate humankind as it promises but enslaves it Socialism can only be achieved by revolution Revolutionary socialism maintains that Capitalist society contains the seeds of its own destruction 0 The capitalist state will be overturned by the worker s movement 0 After the revolution the state will eventually wither away Workers tend to radicalize when 0 They have been concentrated in large industrial firms 0 They have formed organizations of their own labor unions 0 They engage in collective action against the bourgeoisie strikes 0 They think the government will always take the side of the bosses Forming unions and political parties change the worker s situation but it o Invites repression by the capitalist elite 0 They pay union dues forgo wages while they strike and contribute to strike funds and 0 They risk dismissal from theirjobs Revolution didn t occur because 0 Reform liberal states did compromise with unions and socialist parties by improving wages regulating working conditions and introducing social welfare and insurance schemes Nationalism displacing class consciousness as workers felt included in democratizing states 0 Conservatism union leaders became selfinterested and avoided radicalism Enhanced productivity Modern capitalist economies relied on a skilled labor force Marx s theory historically was wrong in the case of Germany and other industrialized countries as there wasn t a revolution but 0 Marx s theory inspired social revolutions in agrarian societies failing to industrial rapidly Marx and Engel s descriptive model of historical development communism ultimately abolish the division of labor Historical stage Propertied class Dominated class Primitive society None None Despotism Patricians Slaves Feudalism Nobility Serfs Capitalism Bourgeoisie Labor Socialism State managers Proletariat Communism None None o Marx views 0 Rejects faith in divine guidance and support for human morality agrees with Utilitarian Rejects reformation gradual political emancipation Ideologies serve to mystify objective material relations between people and persuade them to accept domination 0 Crime is less likely where collective conscience is strongest 0 quotscientific socialism would negate ideology o Horkheimer amp Adorno 0 Culture industry and consumerism dominate ideological beliefs and ideas Foucault views 0 quotRegime of truth in modern societies is comprised of Scientific discourse and research institutions Political and economic contest between interested actors claiming expertise Widely diffused and widely consumed truth statements communicated through educational and corrective institutions Practices defined and enforced by a few powerful agencies within the economy and the state The limited set of terms around which debates confrontations and quotideological struggles among intellectuals and politicians take place 0 Lessons Week 8 o Marx Truth is a system of ordered procedures for the production of statements knowledge Truth is linked in a circular relationship with systems of power The quotpolitics of truth is what sustains or can destabilize political regimes Radical intellectuals can undermine domination by challenging the quotregime of truth 0 Capitalism was leading to a simplification of the class structure of the bourgeoisie and proletarians 0 Class positions are defined by their position in the market and their relationship to capital These classes are Employers of capital o Entrepreneurs that earn profits by employing capital in productive enterprises I Owners of property Landlords rentseeking capitalists or owners of physical assets earning profits by drawing rents without productive inputs I Laborers 0 People that earn their living by selling their labor for wages on the labor market their labor being a productive input and source of surplus value Marx s twodimensional class schema Relationship to capital Propertied Propertyless Productive Bourgeoisie entrepreneurial Proletariat skilled and unskilled capitalists workers in the labor force Unproductive Rentier capitalists speculators Lumen proletariat the jobless and profiteers landed gentry imprisoned the urban mob criminal class Weber 0 Social stratification in modern capitalist society is based primarily on achieved characteristics 0 Classes I Two dimensions to determine class position agreeing with Marx 0 Property 0 Productivity I Classes are not communities but rather nominal social categories different than Marx I A social class is 0 Shared economic characteristics 0 Property and income held by individuals 0 Relative position in the system of economic production I Class inequalities are Patterned Structured Reproduced across generations I Meritocracy competitive selection on the basis of achieved characteristics 0 Status Groups I Status groups are communities linked by 0 Sense of solidarity 0 Shared interests 0 Common membership I Status group membership is linked to social prestige honor Based on o Lifestyle 0 Religious affiliation 0 Ethnicity or race I Some distinctions are ascribed and some are achieved distinctions I Closed status groups resembles castes I Status groups try to maintain in and out group distinctions and monopolize symbolic goods lifestyle differences maintain distinctions I Status is organized according to codes of 0 Behavior 0 Communal norms Specialized consumption I Education cultural training professional membership etc allow certain groups to claim an elevated status 0 Political Parties and interest organizations I The formation of interest organizations parties unions lobbies trade groups etc designed to influence politics for the benefit of its members or constituents I Interest organizations allow a claim of share of state power or public resources I This is most obvious in proprietary states where government regarded as the property of the political elites but also obvious in legalrational polities where officials become a selfinterested class Weber s ideal types of social power stratification and its relationship to political power Sources of social power Rationalized social relations Nonrationalized social relations Social honor Meritocracy prestige on basis Ascriptive status groups of achievement aristocracy Material conditions of life Class system capital labor Anscriptively based consumption groups castes Authority Rationallegal order Patrimonial rule chiefs amp kings bureaucracy 0 Pierre Bourdieu 0 Social stratification can be understood in relational terms based on three elements I Social positions structural and relational factors I Dispositions habits tastes mentalities I Positiontaking political choices behavior 0 quotCapitalquot refers to the resources that are produced by and organize distinctive fields of social action These are the principal factors generating social inequality I Cultural possession of education training I Social possession of interpersonal ties and position in social networks I Economic property assets and income sources forms of capital 0 The cultural formations of social classes in industrial societies 0 Dominant Class Richest in all fields of capital I Leading faction o The owners of financial and productive means leaders of states and major corporations I Intermediate faction o Highlevel credentialed professionals and executives of large corporations and government agencies I Dominated faction Specialists in symbolic production including top intellectuals and artists elite university administrators top entertainers writers and athletes 0 Middle Class moderate position in all fields of capital I Dominant faction 0 Owners of smallscale enterprises business people members of elite professions lawyers doctors business managers etc I Intermediate faction Secondtier professionals professors accountants pharmacists etc high ranking clerical and admin Workers I Dominated faction Teachers and instructors employees in social services and government agencies publishing nonprofit sector managers etc 0 Lower Class lowest position in all fields of capital I Dominant faction 0 Technical workers office and financial services workers workers in highwage manufacturing government and law enforcement sector employees I Intermediate faction o Semiskilled workers without credentials in fulltime regulated employment I Dominated faction Uneducated semiemployed unskilled workers seasonal and occasional workers in secondary labor markets Unprotected by work regulations Week 9 0 Olson o Rational selfinterested individuals will not act to achieve a group interest that would be shared equally including those that don t contribute o A public good is accessible to everyone regardless of contribution I These are nonexcludable and nonrivalrous goods 0 Freerider problem failure of collective action I Individuals seek to avoid paying costs for a good that would be shared more or less equally among all group members regardless of contribution I Worst when 0 The size of the group is large 0 There is no coordinating organization to monitor and control contributions Rivary and excludabiitv public qoods and other qoods compared Excludable Nonexcludable Private goods money food Commonscommon pool consumer articles etc resources Nonrivalrous Club goods consumers Public goods roads and cooperative churches business infrastructure public education associations national defense clean air 0 Solutions to the freerider problem 0 Olson argues that a rational actor will be most likely to contribute to collective action when I The actor is coerced Hobbesian I The actor is compensated through selective incentives or benefits for cooperation that are only available to cooperators 0 Ex through divisible goods Smithian I Somebody else subsidizes collective action 0 Ex pays the costs of coordinationorganization or rewards cooperation o Conditional cooperators people are prone to cooperate especially if they think that others are cooperating and collective action will be effective 0 Olson s argument against the quotfallacy of group composition I There will always be a tendency of rational actors to freeride on public goods I There is often a divergence between what is rational for the individual and for the group I Compliance with group interests must usually be either purchased or coerced o Hechter 0 Individual dependence on a given group generally determined by I Supply of close substitutes I Lack of information about alternatives I Costs of moving from one group to another I Strength of personal ties to a given group eg degree of encapsulation 0 Some kinds of social change typically reduce dependence by increasing individual independence I Extension of individual rights at the expense of group I ReDistribution of resources egalitarianism reduces group dependence 0 Some basic propositions I Group solidarity increases to the degree that members are dependent on the group for a joint good I Group solidarity increases to the extent that member behavior can be controlled I Strong groups often mean weak individuals 0 Cook Hardin and Levi o The key problem isn t freeriding but rather coordination o Compacts I Assurances for people in a common enterprise I Credibility is enforceable by social norms Failure to comply results in a sanction I Often impose costs deters action or causes defection 0 Social capital can refer to either I Social networks that enable action or facilitate exchange quality of usefulness I Capacity of a group to act together because of its density reliability mutual obligations etc solidarity o Solidarity is facilitated by a closed social network Idealstructure social structure and norms town and city Villages Cities Social networks are dense local and overlapping Social networks are sparse but extensive Community is stable Population is fluid Norms are general Norms are specific Norm enforcement through violence or Norm enforcement through reputation and exclusion shunning exile etc reciprocity trust 0 Trust is unimportant in small towns but very important in cities 0 Trust is possible where I Actors have information about others interests I Information is available to assess another s character or disposition I Actors have an interest in maintaining a reputation for trustworthiness and make moral commitments eg Max Weber s example of US church membership 0 Lending institutions have tried to solve the free rider problem in which loans are enforced by repayment and collateral I This is done with Rotating Credit Associations 0 Join a group which gives money Social pressure is used 0 Relies on strong communal ties and ethnic or religious o Microlending Banks 0 Form a collective to vouch for them to a sponsor organization 0 Relies on resourceful third party and strong communal ties o Rational choice theorists argue that norms are only effective under certain circumstances such as 0 When group members can readily detect defection or violations of the rules 0 When norms are backed by coercive force 0 When social networks that compose groups are relatively closed 0 When actors are provided incentives to comply with the rules 0 Weber 0 Industrial capitalism longterm accumulation of many small gains instead of a quick fortune 0 Western Christianity s contribution to the rise of rational capitalism is due to I The Western Roman Catholic Church helped to rationalize law and bureaucracy I Protestant reformers sought to abolish magic from everyday life and laying the foundations for a rational and instrumental worldview I Protestant reformers introduced the idea of vocation of worldly endeavors and secular work as a Godgiven and sacred duty I The Calvinists raised worldy asceticism to the highest demonstration of religious election I Development of legal system protecting property through contracts institutional reason Idealtype of Calvinism compared with other world reiqions Roman Catholicism Buddhism Calvinist Protestantism Confucianism o Multicasual conjuncture coincidence of several factors at a single place and time result in a historical transformation 0 Protestant reformation I A revolution in individual values and belief intentional consequence I A new attitude towards work and profit unintentional consequence I The Puritans believed that the individual had to be sober selfcontrolled pious and industrious Puritans despised idleness o This inadvertently sponsored the increasing DOL I For Protestants all were equal in the eyes of God there was no longer aristocratic privilege only virtue o Protestant ethic encouraged thisworldly activity as proof of spiritual justification AKA worldly asceticism I The Puritan used their middleclass religious morality and practical ethics against both the old aristocratic elites to demand equality and against the poor to demand greater industry and selfreliance I The unleashed forces of reason and human effort created a more efficient and prosperous economy the first selfsustaining system of economic growth in world history 0 New religious ideology capitalist market economy Calvinist Protestantism institutional rationalization Change in individual values transformed patterns of economic behavior contra traditionalism Week 10 o Simmel o The opportunity for individuality expands if I The social circle surrounding the individual expands I Actors have the capacity to occupy crosscutting social circles I The group to which actors belong to lack the ability to prevent ties to other group o Individuality the freedom to exchange in social relations of our own choosing and the power to define ourselves in relation to the demands of group members 0 Groups are defined in terms of two properties their degree of I Internal cohesion I External repulsion o Simmel and Weber suggest that social closure is a key mechanism that explains how groups maintain their coherence and identity 0 Social circles People seek to occupy 0 Multiple o Nonexclusive o Crosscutting Social groups I Smaller social circles provide a strong sense of collective identity and a solidarity born of likeness I Family provides the elementary social circle 0 Personality occupies a space at the intersection of social circles as in a Venn diagram and for individualism to flourish some of these circles must be wide 0 Two social implication of modern individualism I Urbanism o The premiere site for the flourishing of individuality would then be the large diverse and highly differentiated city where social identities may be readily nested within social circles The more individualistic a society becomes the more its members will flee to the city I Inequality 0 Growth of individuality means increasing of difference including in the returns to social action Societies that abhor individualism will reinforce equality those that promote individualism must admit inequality Proximity and likeness as dimensions of groups Proximity Likeness High Low High Villagers quotvirtual communities Low Residents of big city Citizens of a large and diverse neighborhoods country 0 White 0 Two reinforcing properties of social structure that order social interactions I Categories cat 0 People being grouped as objectively alike from a sociological viewpoint on the basis of some relevant social traits or position 0 quotTotal integration refers to social categories and social networks that are almost completely congruent I Networks net A collection of points in which some points are connected by lines 0 May be limited because 0 Social constraints 0 Ex social institutions that limit or prohibit ties between actors o Ecological limitations that inhibit communication and exchange 0 Enormous numbers of possible combinations of social networks compared to Simmel s quotcrosscutting social circles 0 Cultural frames for social exchange I Social ties are institutionalized to the extent they are culturally recognized and regulated by rules that govern entry exit and the meaning of indirect ties 0 Ex friends of friends are acquaintances cousins of cousins are kin etc Implication of relational contexts on social mobilization Nexon 2009 Network density Categorical homogeneity Low High High Ephemeral collective action Sustained collective action stemming from identity based relatively easy and frequent triggers eg riots Low Prisoner s Dilemma Limited collective action mobilization obstructed by through interestorganization collective action problems and coalition formation Democracy 0 Democraticdilemma I In theory government must 0 Protect individual freedoms Have the capacity to deliver collective goods 0 Follow through in delivering these goods to the general benefit and not merely to those with power and privilege o Kant 0 Government should encourage scholarly discussion and debate but I This conversation should exclude the broader public I People in civil posts or government positions must be bound by their legal duties and obligations regardless of their intellectual convictions o If the state is to remain a reliable source of order officers in the service of the state do not have the freedom to I Debate with superiors I Questions their superiors authority I Disobey their superiors orders Tocqueville 0 Modern individualism poses a threat to society because it can so cripple the capacity for collective action that democracy fails and people call for a despotic solution Leviathan o Decentralization compelled people to engage in local collective action to achieve both private and public goods United States 0 Civic associations I Voluntary organizations that promote a collective interest 0 Ex Business people religious groups moral reformers immigrants charitable and benevolent societies social clubs sports leagues etc 0 Limited government and strong civic associationalism are the solution to the democratic dilemma o Habermas 0 Civil society I Realm of social life in between individuals and the state such as the economy politics and other institutionalized subsystems of society 0 Public sphere I A communicative network in which bundles of political expressions are transformed into public opinion 0 Political public sphere can be deformed through I Weak constitutional institutions I Disorganized and voiceless citizens I The asymmetrical influence of resourceful organized interests over citizens 0 Civic associations and a political public sphere I Improve performance of government I Promote political competition in civil society I Prevent misuse of power I Protect the autonomy of civil society from state control I Communicate the lifeworld interests I Foster trust and cooperation among citizens o The key sociological problems become I Identifying mechanisms that facilitate coordination I Promote communication and overcome freeriding I Designing institutions that are equitable robust and selfreinforcing
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