GWSS 257 Final Exam
GWSS 257 Final Exam GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aaron Jin on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender at University of Washington taught by Ann Voorhies in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 251 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Gender in Women and Gender studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
GWSSPSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender Final Exam Review 17 February 2015 Constructed by Aaron Jin Final Three Weeks Review Melissa Tumas SARIS Presentation Not a key feature of a rapesupportive culture awareness of sexual violence 0 Acceptance of rape myths promotion of hegemonic masculinity and peer support are key features of rapesupportive culture Environments controlled by men were found in all environments examined NOT easilyidentifiable safe spaces for women and GSD women were central environment and previously unacquainted men made efforts to meet each other Women objectified by men more likely to interact with others outside of own social circle and men use alcohol to attract women and gain higher status Students unable to correctly identify scenarios describing rape as rape Social Ecological Model to Prevent Sexual Assault and Relationship Violence at UW Awareness is not enough for prevention anymore taking it further in the presentation Ultimate goal a UW campus free from violence What individuals can do 0 Learn about dynamic of sexual assault and relationship violence in college 0 Practice enthusiastic consent 0 Support survivors of violence with empathy and understanding 0 Speak up when witnessing situations that could lead to violence 0 Know the resources available at UW What can you do in your community 0 Collective knowledge of sexual assault and relationship violence consent and empathy o Policies that support intolerance of violence accountability and safety 0 Group norms that encourage speaking up in potentially violent situations 0 Group norms challenging the myths What we can do as UW institution 0 Support for resources and services at UW o UW norms and traditions that promote being an active bystander Spectrum of relationship violence from least to most severe Jealousy amp possessiveness put downs isolation stalking tracking control money crazymaking lying threatening suicide threats physical aggression destroy things of important using weapons sex when you don t want chokingstrangling causing injuries murdersuicide Sexual assault is any type of sexual activity that lacks consent Students most at risk during first 2 years on campus Most survivors know the perpetrator and happen in homeapartment of survivor or perpetrator Most survivors tell friendsroommates but do not report to police Alcohol is most common drug used to facilitate sexual assault 0 64 college men reported perpetrating or attempting rape averaging 58 rapes each 63 perpetrators commit repeated rapes Rape culture exists because we don t believe it does 0 Not because men innater violent power structures use rape as tool as oppression or because women aware of how they are treated in media and culture Consent is an active process of willingly choosing to participate in sex of any kind enthusiastic yes 0 Everyone participates 0 Best way to know is ask can be retracted at any point o It is a process and can never be inferredimplied o If you re unsure check in If they don t want to keep going accept and respect Empathy vs sympathy empathy connection and sympathy disconnection o Empathy recognizes emotion and feels with people a vulnerable choice 0 4 qualities of empathy perspective taking ability to take perspective of another person staying out ofjudgment recognizing and communicating emotion in other people 0 Sympathy is quotat least trying to silver line etc o Rarely can a response make something better what makes things better is the connection How to support a friend listen believe offer support and resources and check in Resources at UW 0 Green Dot a movement action and choice to make UW safer Solutions are direct distract and delegate o Advocates Health amp WellnessSARIS UW Police Victim Advocate 0 Mental Health Counseling Center Hall Healthy Mental Health Lizzie Neilson Sexual Violence Begin and continue this conversation who are we talking about Who is being left out What different systems are at work Sexual violence unwanted sexual contact verbal physical or emotional Sexual assault unwanted sexual contact sexual coercion incapacitatedforced rape Rape is not about sex it is an act of power and control and varieties of this men on women men on men and historically people on people 0 Process of intimidation tool of patriarchy and tool of colonialism and racism Historical perspectives rape as a tool of war indicator of defeat spoils of war and psychological backdrop for expressing views of gender tool of colonialism and racism ethnic cleansing o Instill domination of natives as natural through patriarchy Colonialism rooted in patriarchal European society and need to place hierarchy of European society on Native peoples o Accomplished with sexual violence as tool of colonization and recast Native men as oppressive to Native women 0 Boarding school abuses generational 0 Sexual violence as a consequence of assimilation and elimination of culture Sexual violence within colonies rape as the violation of man s property men s privilege and right to the woman s body woman s value in ability to marry and produce legitimate children 0 Female chastity and fidelity as cornerstone of society 0 Burden of proof was on women to prove that she resisted and immediately told someone about it Otherwise might not be believed Exception was interclass assault Perpetuation of racism slavery allowed for ongoing rape of black women 0 Creation of myth of sexually predatory black men still a phenomena today 0 Used as means of domination and maintenance of slavery o Demonize black men and portray white women as fragile and needing protection 19th Century changing sexual norms toward courtship rise of quotTrue Womanhood and quotFallen Woman essential purity and moral superiority to men s innate lust as vital to society 0 First Wave Feminists activists regarding marital rape exceptions and divorce Early 20th Century Disband FWF and introduction of quotsexual psychopath and rape as about sex 0 Reduce rapist s responsibility as uncontrollable and requiring treatment 0 Changing perception of rape survivors beginning of putting women s credibility on trial Mid20th Century assertiveness and involvement in public sphere becomes attack on traditional roles Loss of protection of benevolent sexism and threats through sexual violence 0 Reconceptualization of rape as an act of violence not overwhelming sexual impulses 0 Awareness of date rape and acquaintance rape it s people that you know 0 Awareness of rapesupportive culture and creation of term quotrape myths 0 However criticized for ignoring sexual violence as tool for racial oppression focus is on white women and depicting sexuality as the quotenemyquot Rape culture a culture in which rape sexual aggression and violence is normalized tolerated excused condoned validated andor celebrated o No means yes rape as a jokecommoditized etc Violent masculinity practice to guarantee dominant social positions of men and subordinate social position of women through violence 0 Violence results from a lack of power and attempt to regain power and assert masculinity Rape myths culture and status of women within culture that plays significant role in attitudes toward sexual violence held by individuals 0 Eg it s about what you re wearing doesn t happen to men done by stranger she made it up he comes from a good family etc Easier to ignore the status quo than change it individuals who challenge it are punished 1 in 5 women experience sexual violence in their lifetime 60 never reported to police 0 3 are American men and 10 of sexual violence survivors are male 0 Community sample found 43 men reported perpetuating some form of sexual assault Barriers to disclosure fear of retaliation shame humiliation selfblame not sure if it is rape if no intercourse more likely to report if visible injury or assaulted by stranger Groups of note women of color experience significantly higher rates of sexual violence but less likely to report it racist attitudes regarding sexuality community response cultural values Native women 25 times more likely than any other race to experience sexual violence 0 90 perpetrators are not Native peoples and 60 are White 0 Systemic barriers to prevention like law enforcement tribal law or state gov LGB and Queer communities 30 lesbian and 11 men report being sexually assaulted 42 homeless youth identify as LGBTQIA and 41 LGB youth report experiencing hate crime Trans 64 report experiencing sexual assault 0 Financial and housing vulnerability and struggles for appropriate treatment Men might not report bc issues of safety privacy selfblame and emasculation 1665 college women report form of sexual assault during college 1 in 12 college men admit to having raped woman 1 in 15 said could not cease sexual activity 0 Why on college campuses Alcohol attitudes and peer norms 0 Interesting phenomena where colleges were vastly underreporting sexual assault numbers Consequences emotional and psychological PTSD anxiety disorders withdrawal and isolation substance abuse occupational and educational potential for revictimization 0 Note not everyone identifies as a victim or a survivor Psychological theories of sexual violence Confluence model sexual aggression is result of confluence interactive combination of motivation disinhibition and opportunity predictor variables into two pathways impersonal sex and hostile masculinity 0 Child and adolescent trauma and delinquency hostile masculinity delinquency and attitudes about women impersonal sex hostile masculinity and impersonal sex sexual aggression How to talk about sexual assault without talking about alcohol 0 Alcohol usually ingested by both survivor and perpetrator Alcohol Myopia Theory cognitive processing deficits and misperception of cues see things as want to see rather than as is Alcohol Expectancy Theory belief that alcohol makes you do what you expect alcohol to do become sexually aggressive or sexually vulnerable Interventions for those at risk the dilemma is trying to intervene without blaming the victim 0 Cognitive ecological model gender norm expectations vs threat watching for cues where they would be at risk to be able to assert themselves 0 Goal to promote a sense of agency rape myths risk cues psychological barriers behavioral strategies Interventions for perpetrators the unknown very little is known Changing attitudes is not changing behaviors and long term followup show decay of effects 0 Previous models haven t worked lectures focusing on risk reduction multiple shorter sessions single gender audiences woman peer telling story focus on alcohol Interventions for bystanders the new idea get more people active bystanders involved and decreased attitudes condoning sexual and dating violence Interventions for community and social change talking and speaking up Emotional Double Standard Women are expected to emote more but only display powerless emotions fear crying etc Men are limited to emotion of anger dominance and aggression Similarities and differences in expression of emotion Similarities emotion is a response to a stimulus in the environment a survival instinct 0 About same reported frequency and observed expression However women report more frequent expression of fear and anxiety while men report more positive emotions Differences Social norms dictate when and how we can and should express emotion therefore expression reflects cultural stereotypes about femininity and masculinity 0 Females allowed to be happy or cry but not allowed to express anger unless crying 0 Men stoic and unfeminine only convey sadness and fear through anger and hostility Gender differences manifest in display rules and not actual experienced emotion Display rules Vary by culture collectivist cultures tend to express more guilt which is an acceptable emotion to visibly express Pride and contentment more highly valued in collectivist African cultures less so and guilt more acceptable with collectivist Asian cultures Personal failures result in shameloss of honor how others perceive you Individualist cultures pride more acceptable and personal failures result in embarrassment and selfconsciousness centered on you the individual Anger is not universally masculine this is mostly in Western cultures 0 Some cultures anger is a sign of weakness and lack of controlesp indigenous American and Asian cultures Maternal instinct Implication is that maternal emotions and behaviors are biologically innate rather than culturally influenced and treated as such Current gender norm women have inborn desire and skill to have babies and nurture whereas men are inadequate stereotype of the buffoon Origin in Victorian era in belief that women intellectually inferior to men and more emotionally responsive to babies also ability to gestate and lactate Are woman innately prepared to raise infants Harlow s studies with primates demonstrate maternal abilities are associated with emotional stability and social interaction during youth 0 Primates raised in isolation or only with mother had stunted nurturing ability Normal primates were those raised by a group of monkeys o Assumption was that infants prefer caregivers who provide sustenance over touch but experiments support the opposite No evidence that care can only come from biological mother infants form healthy bonds with any consistent caregiver consistency trumps biology without discrimination Gender stereotypes produces evidence supporting maternal instinct and paternal failure to nurture but no evidence that these are innate behavioral patterns 0 Tendency to perceive only mothers in caring role or the paternal failures Aggression gender differences amp similarities Behavioral displays of anger and hostility are associated with masculinity Male gender role express aggression and suppresses all other emotions Evolutionary psychology aggression advantageous to males 0 Overlooks necessity of aggression in females eg to protect offspring o Unchecked aggression is counterproductive to group fitness Aggression and impulsivity also decreases with age due to development of prefrontal cortex and temporary increases during puberty esp with males 0 Role of prefrontal cortex is to control emotion including stopping the expression 0 Prefrontal cortex takes a long time to develop humans always learning and adapting Parenting style and gender influences tend to influence display of aggression in children 0 Boys tend to be direct and use physical actionswords girls tend to use indirect aggression such as exclusion and social manipulation 0 Adult men and women tend to use more indirect aggression equalizes expression of aggression between genders 0 Men and women differ in display and purpose of aggression eg female expression usually limited to private expression supposed to be quotnice Violence and crime Stereotypes perpetuate behaviors which perpetuate stereotypes Perpetrators men are most common perpetrators of violent and sexual crimes 0 Note if people are marginalized to certain stereotypes they will be more likely to live up to those stereotypes o If women perpetuate the crime it is usually in response to victimization Sexual and relationship violence Victims the most common victims of violent crime overall are young AfricanAmerican men 0 Invisible phenomenon cognitive gender bias that see women as most common victims Most common victims of sexual crime overall are women one in five women one in 71 men Transgender people are at high risk for violent and sexual victimization 50 will be victimized Attraction Gateways to attraction progression from initial attraction to close connection to commitment frequent exposure physical appearance availability and absence of exclusion criteria quotI wouldn t date somebody who o Exclusion criteria usually develops out of failed friendships and relationships Sexual orientation and expression including work by Kinsey and Klein Sexual attraction characteristics one is drawn toward not exclusively sex anatomy Orientation assumes a durable attraction toward the same type of people Historically assumption of heterosexuality justified by reproduction purposes Invention of term homosexuality in 1869 through medicalization diagnosis of something not a problem also led to invention of term heterosexuality s sexual orientation durable Powerful social norms and lived experience of singular orientation limit flexibility but also some lived experience of sexual fluidity Kinsey developed Kinsey scale based on behaviors addressing relationships maintain gender binary because measured sexuality on continuum model 0 Linear scale encouraged researchers to primarily examine those identifying as 100 homosexual or heterosexual Klein developed Klein Sexual Orientation Grid addressing some limitations including self identification and time past present ideal4 Steinberg and Love not a topic but decided to include Steinberg s three dimensions of love passion commitment and intimacy o Passion oxytocin is hormone closely associated with bonding esp falling in love Obscures memory formation usually for first six months 0 Intimacy closeness through time spent together 0 Commitment enduring bond between people sharing life experiences facing challenges Just intimacyfriendship just commitmentempty love just passioninfatuation Passion intimacyromantic love intimacy commitmentcompanionate love passion commitmentfatuous love All three would be consummate love which is real but not always a foreverenduring thing Friendships Female friendships usually based on intimacy and trust built through communication dyads twos Male friendships shared activities less intimacy and larger groups 0 Less intimacy means that males don t have as much practice with intimacy Crossgender friendships are more common now than historically o Rely on flexibility of each friend intimacy and participation required for both 0 Provides basis for malefemale communication and finding balance Courtship Historically did not involve romance of independence couples paired by parents to maximize wealthpowerstatus Some cultures still practice arranged marriages 0 Some couples are paired based on compatibility of traits for successful relationships 0 These marriages tend to be based on commitment and restricted by strong social supportpressure for this type of marriage divorce less common Passion and intimacy comes later Modern western dating based on romance start with attraction passion preceded intimacy and commitment Sexual relationships and longterm partnership Dating and sexual relationships typically follow heterosexual script male initiator and dominant females submissive but makes ultimate decision 0 Gay and lesbian couples pressured to follow heterosexual script quotman and quotwomanquot in the relationships no homosexual script Freedom of script may be nice but may cause anxiety from lack of social normsscript o Reflect the sexual doublestandard men expected to have a lot of sex but women are discouraged from having sex eg in language Initiation of sexual behavior men initiate more straight men more than women both gay partners tend to contribute to initiating sex 0 Straight women follow script and lesbians statistically have as much sex but not as much genitalcentered sexual activity than gay or straight couples Longterm partnerships monogamy polyamory marriage 0 Monogamy one sexual partner within a committed relationship lifetime one for life vs serial succession of monogamous sexual relationships I Cultural ideal not necessarily truth and women more likely to be committed o Polyamory more than one committed relationship at one time I Emphasis on honesty trust openness and consent 0 Marriage has taken on several forms I Family duty model commitment to each other and the family no necessarily love I Companionships model distinct traditional gender roles for women and men I Independence model assumes equality between partners and values individual freedom and development I Interdependence model emphasis commitment and mutual support between partners I Many people do not marry for various methods eg stress of marriage title support of the patriarchal hegemony Communication styles Research focused on gender differences finds differences in styles and goals Stereotypically masculine communication direct and assertive aimed at task completion and social dominance Associated with less effective leadership outcomes Stereotypically feminine communication inclusive and supportive aimed at creating intimacy and avoiding conflict Associated with more effective leadership outcomes 0 Tentative language as a feminine trait expressions of uncertainty hedges lack of absolutes probably like etc tag questions seeking confirmation and intensifiers 0 Women do tend to use tentative language more but strongly context dependent and more overlap than difference in communication styles I Younger people tend to use more than older people also when in unfamiliar situation 0 Expression of interpersonal sensitivity not lack of assertiveness Body politics amp effects on mental and physical healthy care All physical bodies are not viewed and treated the same way Body politics norms practices and policies that regulate human bodies and how they are applied 0 Social regulation cultural expectations about how bodies are supposed to look be used and be valued thin young Caucasian objectification of women by men and women violence against women and transgender and racial minorities 0 Institutional regulation laws and policies that regulate use and treatment of human body eg legislation about birth control and abortion sodomy etc Limit physical and mental health care access financial access to resources Disparities in physical and psychological health and health care details on CVD cancer violent death reproductive health care eating disorders stress and coping mental disorders examine both diagnosis as well as incidence differences between genders Seeking health care women more likely to seek care than men stigma for men seeking care Treatment women are better patients seeking help following directions active listening 0 Doctor role consistent with male gender roles but feminine communication style may result in better overall care Morbidity and mortality do correlate with gender age and ethnicity Cardiovascular disease CVD 0 Men discomfort in their chest arm etc Women go in with same but diagnosed differently 0 Gender discrepancies in incidence and treatment 0 Women have higher incidence of fatal strokes and die more of CVD 0 Men have higher incidence of CVD die at younger ages I Women have higher mortality and men have higher morbidity I CVD recognized and treated more seriously in men and white people 0 Risk factors smoking highfat diet no exercise and synthetic estrogen 0 Race and socioeconomic statuses are highly linked to these risk factors Cancer 0 Gender disparities type of cancer I Mortality men higher mortality overall women die younger from cancer 0 Possibly because men do not go in for treatment I Highfat diets are the worse I Risk factors smoking diet occupational exposure sexual behavior Violent Death 0 Gender and ethnic disparities 0 Celebration of violent masculinity in the US 0 Men take more risks than increase the likelihood of violent death I Men more likely to participate in illegal activities drink alcohol have dangerous occupations not wear seatbelts etc I Black men higher rates of death by homicide I White men higher rates of death by suicide and accidents 0 Women have fewer risky behaviors and lower incidence of violent death Reproductive health care 0 Medicalized during the 19th and 20th century turned typical life experiences into conditions to be treated in a disease model I Excluded traditional models of women s health care 0 Decreased maternal and infant mortality 0 Improved treatment of problems associated with female reproductive organs 0 Midwifes played key role in helping with childbirth until 19th century when men took over Sexually transmitted diseases STDsSTIs o Affects both sexes though some affect each different like fertility I Some STDs treatable with antibiotics others are chronic 0 Some sexually transmitted viruses can lead to cancer I HPV cervical mouth and throat cancer I HHV89 Kaposi s sarcoma Birth Control 0 Most commonly women s responsibility usually requires medical intervention I Eg hormonal birth control IUDs intrauterine device diaphragms sterilization 0 Many birth control options present some healthy risks Overall risks lower than risks associated with pregnancy Abortion 0 Termination of an alreadyimplanted embryo medical definition that we will be using I Medical drugs to terminate pregnancy I Surgical 0 Used throughout recorded history 0 Legality influences safety but no occurrence I Safer than childbirth when performed legally in sterile conditions by doctor I Highly lethal when performed illegally in nonsterile conditions which happens when abortion is not legalized Body image and eating disorders 0 Cultural norms have powerful influence on women and men s relationships with bodies I Nourishment genderbased differences in consumption patterns I Body image Personal evaluation influenced by cultural ideals o Feminine ideal thin restricted eating 0 Masculine ideal muscular pressure to work out diet steroids etc Eating disorders 0 Anorexia nervosa failure to maintain body weight at 85 expected weight I Patient fears becoming fat and selfperception is abnormal Bulimia nervosa bingeing amp purging feelings of shame and guilt Most commonly seen in white adolescent females Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse is very high in ED patients Unless behaviors are recognized and treated early success rates are low I Possible treatments include hospitalization psychotherapy drugs therapy 0 Associated cultural standards of beauty that emphasize thinness for women and muscular physiques for men Q A disadvantage of the medicalization of reproductive healthcare was a increased infant mortality b increased maternal mortality c loss of traditional healthcare practices d decreased trust in medical practioners Answer C loss of traditional healthcare practices Stress and coping 0 General adaptation syndrome 0 General adaptation syndrome alarm reaction initial response resistance stage adjustment continued response exhaustion stage depletion collapse illness Q TF According to the reading all healthcare providers are equally supportive of sex reassignment procedures for them Stress o Lazarus a stresser usually personally important or gamewinning o McEwan stress is a condition in which demand exceeds the regulatory capacity of an organism Role stresses Strain experienced in a family or employment role that exceeds personal capacity 0 Marriage and employment are beneficial to men and woman 0 Lack of support for a beneficial to men and woman for a role producing stress I Married work working women experiencing more mush more than second sift I Single parents are at higher risk than married parents Violence Victimization leading to mental heatlh problems for any target men are the most proquently perpetrators and targets of violence 0 Women are the most frequent target s of interpersonal violence by loved ones OOOO I Side effects include depression anxiety disorders posttraumatic stress disorder Social disparities o Discrimination sexism racism homophobia transphobia and other discrimination with lasting stress effects on selfconcept and wellbeing 0 Poverty increases risk of risk of stress induced illness and diagnosis of psychological disorders I Poverty occurs along with divorce unemployment and homelessness compounding stress effects I Single mother are the largest demographic facing poverty Coping the process of changing thoughts and behaviors to adapt to stressful conditions 0 Appraisals influence coping can we shift our appraisals of a situation in order to reduce stress 0 Coping requires resources power money and social support 0 Comping strategies depend on situational conditions more than gender Psychological disorders 0 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM classifies mental disorders on five axes I Axis I major clinical disorders I Axis II personality disorders and intellectual disabilities I Axis III Medical conditions and physical disorders I Axis IV Environmental factors influencing the disorder I Axis V Global assessment of functioning Gender differences in diagnoses o Gap in many disorders reflects stereotypes and inequalities in power and roles gender race socioeconomic class 0 Women more likely to seek treatment but also more likely to be labeled as disorderd Social context may not be considered ethnic stereotyping also affects diagnosis Gender differences in misdiagnosis overdiagnosis in women and underdiagnosis in men Readings Garbacik Ch 5 Sexual Orientation In a society where men and women differ in access to power there will be important gender differences in structure of sexuality eg role of a lady objectified every facet sexual o For men mixed messages about monogamy showing emotion and rascal responsibility Sexuality is about desire human relationships and reproduction Before gaylesbianfeministgender studies viewpoints on sexuality could be categorized into essentialist and constructionist theories 0 Essentialists identity is natural and unchangeable quotborn this way biological or genetic o Constructionists cultures time periods relationships affect meaning of sexual act Also changes over course of one s life Essentialist seems conservative and constructionist liberal but sometimes essentialists argue homosexuality is genetic and constructionists argue homosexuality is learned behavior Term quothomosexualquot emerged around 1870 in medical literature 0 Before late 19th century homosexuality grouped with other corruptdepraved acts Development of family and earning to support own family families and sexual relationships have emotional value to create meaning and personal happiness Western female gender archetype allowed for more intimate relationships without social stigma 0 Claim that people have more negative feelings about women taking leadership roles than women engaging in relationships with other women Many major organized world religions condemn homosexual behavior usually because religion definitions of family focus on procreative genealogy of heritage o Tribal groups and different samesex actions whitewashed and replaced with oversimplified Western heterosexuality and homosexuality Psychology homosexuality asserted as a quotdevelopmental stage through which people pass Bisexual people individuals attracted to both male and femaleidentified people 0 Some backlash against bisexuals quotjust a phase or quotdoesn t exist Asexuality no sexual attraction to anyone can be romantically attracted to people though Experiment with rats comment that apparently homosexuals and heterosexuals are radically different but humans and rats are not 0 Fruit flies specific gene did change sexual behaviors but unlikely to find same gene in humans No one has reached conclusive evidence about whether or not brain linked to sexuality in gender Sodomy quotunnatural sex restricted and met with civil ramifications also public health policies discriminate against members of gay community quotHomosexualityquot does not cover full array of sexual preferences orientation and identity quotViews from both sides of the bridge Gender sexual legitimacy and transgender people s experience of relationships In the US idea of opposite sexes alive and dichotomy between men and women is reinforced Heteronormativity with implied idea of sexual legitimacy forms bases for how power relations shape what types of sexuality are institutionally accepted Violence used as regulation of masculinity gossip and marginalization as regulation of femininity Purpose of paper is to examine whether or not gender binaries are problematic to the development of positive transgender identities Transgender individual experiences widely vary many choose other category to reflect identity Both quantitative and qualitative data very normative eg consistency with mainstream romance Sexual orientation does not correlate with gender identity but selfidentified label is chosen based on gender identity as opposed to sex assigned at birth eg born as female identify as male attracted to females likely to identify as straight Dilemma performing masculinity or femininity as defined by the binary is a key to their sense of selves but those experiencing lower levels of internalized transphobia less likely to hold rigid gender stereotypes and more likely to have higher selfesteem and positive transgender identity 0 What are other ways to validate transgender identity besides rigid gendersexual scripts Move toward pleasurebased models of sexuality better encompassing range of human desire and experiences quotThe Relationship Between Multiple Roles and WellBeing among Gay Lesbian and Heterosexual Adults Prior studies examining relationship between multiple roles and heterosexual experience have been conducted but not with gaylesbian people quotRole strain perspective in 1960s suggested that multiple roles would results in overwhelmingly competing demands grew in relation to women s growing labor force presence quotRole enhancement hypothesize that multiple roles lead to variety of benefits which enables people to better cope with role demands and preserve wellbeing 0 Role enhancement has more empirical support although multiple role occupancy is not equally rewarding to all categories of people possibly because combining family and work roles has different meanings for men and women One expectation is that gay men and lesbians face more difficulties meeting multiple demands due to challenge of enacting role in heterosexist society and dealing with quotminority stressors unique life demands from coping with disadvantaged social status Gay men and lesbians also generally receive less social support and legal protection for work and family commitments On other hand gay men and lesbians may receive equal or greater benefits from multiple roles 0 Typically earn less so less wage discrimination although doesn t seem like a benefit to me Samesex couples more likely to fairly distribute roles without gender basis and have both working Sexual minorities have fewer opportunities to enact traditional family roles and more socially accepted to be single and childless in gay communities Purpose examine whether having multiple roles is as beneficial for gay men and lesbians as heterosexual men and women in roles occupied 03 and combinations worker parent partner 0 Control age race educational level household income and community size Findings do support notion that multiple roles positively associated with happiness and healthy Sexual orientation modifies gender differences in relationship between multiple roles and wellbeing eg heterosexual women seem to experience greater burdens from family roles o Combinations do matter eg heterosexual women report being happier in workerpartner parentpartner and partner only combinations 9 not same benefits for all gendersexual categories Individuals lacking major adult roles maybe be at risk for less than optimal levels of wellbeing quotA Cultural Perspective for Understanding How Campus Environments Perpetuate RapeSupportive Culture Higher risk of sexual violence for collegegoing women than general population quot20 female students experience sexual assault during college 0 1 in 12 college men report committing rape but did not consider it rape Sexual violence in this study attempted or complete sexual act without proper consent Culture is collective pattern of traditions history practices beliefs etc where behaviors are created and provide a frame to make meaning of the experiences of the individual and community 0 Cultural artifacts physical behavioral verbal help us better understand environments Rapesupportive culture is environment containing set of beliefs and values conducive to and supportive of rape and all other types of sexual violence acceptance of rape myths promotion of hegemonic masculinity peer support 0 Rape myths are false attitudes and beliefs perpetuated by stereotypes and prejudices removing responsibility from man and encouraging sexual aggression towards women 0 Hegemonic form of masculinity in college described as the fraternal masculinity I Masculinity creates paradox for men as a group men are socially more powerful but incongruence between self and hegemony leads to feeling of powerlessness 0 Male gather together in male dominated spaces making women the weaker sex Data collected in residence center lounge tailgate event and selected bar Male control and need to express masculinity fosters atmosphere of aggression Men demean women as a means of creating bonds and conforming to hegemonic masculinity Peer interaction to establish male intimacy while females interact with people they don t know 0 These three do not have direct impact but do influence student experience Rape myth accepted by both men and women recommend wider understanding of sexual assault Few regulations at tailgate event to ensure that all students are of legal age quotTen Things to End Rape Culture quotRape culture exists because we don t believe it does Rape and male violence is a standard result of the culture of misogyny 1 The real problems are violent masculinity and victimblaming 2 Reexamine and reimagine masculinity to not include violence 3 Practice enthusiastic consent watch for the active yes 4 Speak up for what you really want 5 Be media literate ask questions about media profiting off the objectification of women seek media portraying women as complex wellrounded human beings etc 6 Globalize your awareness of rape culture and national impact 7 Know your history esp concerning US and state sanctioned violence 8 Take the intersectional approach consider income race sexuality citizenship etc 9 Practice real politics approach others from a place of empathy with clarity explanations and pa ence 10 Lobby your community online and on campus Don t laugh at rape or rape jokes and tell your story quotBeyond a catalogue of differences a theoretical frame and good practice guidelines for researching sexgender in human healthy Purpose to examine entanglement of sex and gender and articulate guidelines for assessing role of biological and social and biosocial processes 0 2 basic tenets sex is not a biological mechanism and sex and quotgenderquot are entangled US Institute of Medicine IOM defines sex as classification of living things according to reproductive organs and chromosomal functions and gender as selfrepresentation and response by institution Entanglement cannot discuss one element without incorporation of others Causal link between sex and gender thought to flow from biological to social difference but recent research supports the opposite direction Cardiovascular disease CVD historically research ignored women and then react by focusing on malefemale differences in sexlinked biology 0 Term gender used to draw attention to social and structural factors eg distribution of family responsibilities but use of sex avoided as standalone indicator of biology Guidelines for good research practices in sexgender and health research research plan development a priori comparison plan and interpretation amp presentation of results Research plan development assess whether or not biological malefemale difference research is warranted and possible identify and directly test biological mechanisms explaining malefemale difference and incorporate social and biological mechanisms together 0 Biological mechanism refers to specific mechanisms that can be described in molecular and biochemical terms A priori comparison plan identifying and operationalizing the outcome of interest incorporate control groups for all hypotheses include sufficient measures for confounders attend to issues of statistical significance and sample size and conduct sensitivity analyses o In CVD studies psychosocial risk factors like depression or different diagnoses or treatments of same treatments in presentation of symptoms based on gender may cause complications Inclusion of social and biosocial mechanisms alongside originally proposed biological mechanism will improve design because mediation and spurious associations are only observable when multiple mechanisms are considered Exploring variation within men and within women can help illuminate practicalreal significant of a malefemale difference 0 Similarities should be considered with same level of sophistication and attention as differences Assessments of sex are made for individuals whose developments have been affected by gender Habit of viewing male and female as fundamentally different although there are no existing empirical evidence on which to base this expectation Call for greater attention to women s bodies in medical research and practice quotLesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender Healthy Disparities and President Obama s commitment for Change in Health Care Review current state of health care for sexual minorities Obama Administration s role and how medical and public health professionals can improve Sex is important because it is connected to power a culture will define acceptable and unacceptable sexual conduct to mandate normal from abnormal behavior 0 Biological sex is most important to parentstobe and not gender or sexual orientation where does gender rank in our society People less likely to disclose sexual identity other than heterosexual institution that doesn t recognize them may hinder them and segregate them as quototherquot magnifying differences further Communication and disclosure are issues because of fear that disclosure may lead to judgment discrimination and stigmatization 0 Important bc effective communication is essential to quality medical care Lesbians are at higher risk for certain cancers breast cervical ovarian bc typically fewer pregnancies increased risk of obesity increased use of alcohol amp tobacco higher likelihood of STDs Gay and bisexual men are at increased risk for anal cancer Hodgkin s disease STDS HIVAIDS related cancers eating disorders body image dissatisfaction and highrisk behavior in youth Transgender people feared transphobia and discriminated against basic health care and support systems lacking higher risk for unemployment and underemployment substance use mental disorders hate crimes etc Sexual minorities face discrimination that puts them at higher risk for mental health challenges Solutions educational opportunities expanded to increase public health practitioner s knowledge of sexual minority issues Obama issued memorandum April 15 2010 instructing relevant agency administrators to develop protocol to ensure individuals not discriminated against in medical settings on basis of sexual orientation or gender identity quotReluctant gatekeepers Transpositive practitioners and the social construction of sex and gender Role as gatekeeper difficult due to lack of consensus on how practitioners should make decisions in a way that affirms client s selfdetermination while avoiding irreversible effects of medical intervention Psychology and medical establishment critiqued for defining quotauthentic trans identity in way that privileges essentialist and bioreductive models of gender and sex 0 Those operating without essentialist model actively promote creation of fluid identities and bodies I Gender Identity Disorder in childhood GDC Diagnosis of GID psychiatrists benefit financially from role as gatekeepers and it justifies the treatment being paid for by insurance companies Gatekeeping role potentially setting up adversarial relationship between client and practitioner 0 Should be minimized to prevent policing gender identities and focus on other issues such as mental illness substance abuse and other life circumstances Practitioner s assumption about gender identity falls into 3 primary categories biological spiritual and social 0 Biological agreed nature offered blueprint for gender identity in brain spiritual say gender identity innate in psyche or soul while social less willing to commit to ideological assumptions Biological Lindsey Care and Karen Davis 0 Lindsey grants clients access to body modification by applying GID although distasteful of the term reject because firm belief that gender is immutable and characteristic of self while GID assumes clients have psychological and not biological problem 0 Karen believes gender identity is biologically determined sees role as helping clients find integrity between internal sense and external life through hormone therapy 0 Lindsey s client s understanding of variable gender contrasts with her own asserted her role as gatekeeper to specific body modifications 0 Karen s clients hesitant to quotfullyquot transition while in middle zone often due to fear which is based on external things and not selfreason discredits gender fluidity Spiritual Don Jettsa least people 0 Views gender identity as produced before birth a way to deal with life s obstacles by spiritually aligning oneself to accomplish one s life mission 0 Does feel uncomfortable when clients desire body not fitting in binary gender category but does not immediately deny authorization o Unconvinced about men desiring breasts distinction between transvestic fetishism autogynephilia and gender expression I Correspondence between gender identity and potentially resexed body eg breasts vs the desire to be a father Queering Gender Nicole Anchors Jessica French and quottwospirit client 0 Nicole Anchors rejects DSM and sees highly flexible gender Sees gender as part of larger power structure and worries that biological determinist models easily legitimate eugenic improving through offspring practices aiming to eliminate the undesirable trait 0 Nicole reject notion of persistent crossgender identification as prerequisite to body modification 0 Although Nicole relatively inexperienced Jessica French believed body modifications are meant to make clients feel more comfortable in their bodies I Jessica motivated by belief that trans people represent potential to undermine gender binaries in society
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