Rel 102 study guides
Popular in World Religion: Near East
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Georgia Belle Orgain on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 25288 at University of Oregon taught by Shoemaker in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
Terms Description Match Dualist religion thinks that light particles must leave the material world for the spiritual one Mamehaelsm 2 gods that stand for opposite things Dualism Manichaeist priest whose job is to free light particles Elect Normal Manichaeans whose job is to serve their priests Hearers Persian Emperor who supported Manichaeism Shapur I Persian Emperor who persecuted Manichaeism and crucified Mani Bahram I submission to god Islam Muhammad39s journey from Mecca to Medina in 622 Hijra quotRecitequot Qur39an Qur39anic verse Surah The examples of Muhammad Sunnah The teachings of Muhammad Hadith a chain of transmission for a hadith that validates its message Isnad commentaries on the Quran Tafsir a successor of Muhammad in political and somewhat spiritual authority cahp h founder of the Umayyad Dynasty Mu39awiya A confession of faith recited to convert to Islam a pillar of Islam Shahadah ritual prayers that take place 5 times a day pillar of Islam Salat an individual who announces the calls to prayer XEZZEEEMH an islamic place of prayerworship Mosque alms giving to the needy a pillar of Islam Zakat a specific month where fasting is undertaken a pillar of Islam Ramadan a once in a lifetime pilgrimage to Mecca pillar of Islam Hajj quotpartyquot these people are the quotparty of Aliquot Shi39a Shi39i a direct descendent of Muhammad that is a spiritual and political Imam leader for Shi 1 a small splinter group from Shi ism placed importance on All instead Kaysaniyah of Muhammad a small splinter group from Shi39ism felt that Hussein39s grandson Zayd Zaydis should be Imam a large group who split from other Shi39i groups over the succesor of Imam J afar al Sadiq Seveners or Isma39ili Shi39ites title given to the Isma39ili Imam Agha Khan an offshoot of Shi39ism considers the 16th Imam to be a manifestation ofgod The Druze A major group of Shi39ism disagree over the fate of the 12th Imam Twelvers or Imami Shi39ites An offshoot of Twelver Shi39ism believes Ali is an incarnation of god fairly liberal religious practices Nusay SAlaWIS a lawyer who studies Islamic Law Faqih Islamic Law Shariah the process of interpreting Islamic Law Fiqh using reason to interpret the law for a new purpose Ijtihad the basis for Sunni theology cons1sts of a blend of postponer and Aswaer Mu taz1li theology an islamic philosopher who set the basis for Islamic Philosophy al K1nd1 argued the Qur an could be proved true us1ng reason islamic philospher claimed reason and religion were 2 paths that led IbnRushd to the same conclus1on islamic philosopher rejected the use of reason preferred traditional A1Ghazali theology Islamic Mysticism Sufism an early sufi master wrote about desire to serve god a woman Rabia the leader or teacher of a Sufi Brotherhood Sheikh a master of esoteric sufism muhammad was a manifestation of God39s Ibn Arabi logos or mind greatest Sufi mystical poet Rumi a breathing technique combined with repetition of words in order to Dhikr achieve a trance hynotic music used to induce a trance Sama39 sufi39s who use a spinning dance in order to achieve a trance like state Whirling Dervishes Turkish leader who enacted major secular reforms Ataturk islamic hiloso her who ar ued that islam should acce t all of the p p g p al Afghani good things from the West an Islamic revivalist movement in Egypt Muslim Brotherhood an Islamic revivalist movement that advocated a return to the Qur39an Wahhabism a near eastern tradition that claims to be the descendents of the Mandaeans followers of John the Baptist a near eastern tradition that worships angels Yazidis a world religion with near eastern origin focuses on ethics Baha39i another name for the hidden Imam quotThe Doorquot quotThe Gatequot Bab Main Terms Manichaeism 0 Founded by Mani in 240 0 Dualism spirit struggles against the material world to return as light particles to spiritual world 0 Started in Mecca became very wide spread by Ausgtine who was first a Manichaeism 0 Came from Christian tradition Mani 216 76 0 Braham l crucified Mani and persecuted the religion 5 Pillars of Islam Focused on orthopraxy correct and right practice 1 Shahada confession of faith Salet prayer 5 times a day washing rituals Zakat alms giving managed by taX now voluntarily Ramadan fasting sunrise to sunset Hajj happens in lifetime started by Abraham Mecca to Medina SAPS J Shi I split with Sunni Happened in 632 after Muhammad died and deciding on the next Caliph Supporters of Abu companion became the Sunnis those of ibn Ali cousin the Shiites Battle of Sif n Sunnis are way bigger 85 Muhammad 570 632 Founded Islam submission to God in Mecca Age 40 Vision from Gabriel Mecca not down so ees hajri to Medina 622 the last prophet Wrote to Qur an over 23yrs of Gabriel s Visits Sufism Mystical tradition and theology The desire to be closer to God Practice Dhikr samal whirling derVishes Poetry from Rumi Rabia women Sufi Sufi brotherhood teach and become a master Sheika Asharism the basis for Sunni theology consists of a blend of quotpostponerquot and Mu39tazili theology founded by al Ash ari sides with postponers 0 Quran divne word entemal 0 Anthropomorphism not taken literally mystery Postponers A theology division about what to do about a serious sin God would judge you No free will God is responsible for everything Not open to Greek philosophy Christian philosophy Follow the Qur an literally Anthropomorphism Mutazili Theology division about how to deal with a serious sin Such a sin not in or out but will go to hell Open to Greek philosophy Christian philosophy Wanted perfect status of the Qur an and was created by God and was full of metaphors We are responsible for evil in this world Modernity Three main themes Experience of colonialism Secularism Islamic Revolutionist movements the Muslim Brotherhood went to Egypt Other groups Kaysaniyah Early Shi I group Don t strive in modern day Shifted focus to Ali Small Zaydis 0 Strive to modern day 0 Thought Zayd grandson of Ali becomes the imam 0 Small Shi I group Isma ili Severners 0 Split from other Shi I groups over the 6th imam 0 Jafar vs son of Ismail jafars grandson 0 Offshoot the Druze Druze 0 Offshoot of seveners 0 Consider 16th imam and incarnation of God 0 Origin Egypt 1000 0 Not Muslim 0 Super secretive Imani Shi I Twelvers 0 Follow line of Imam tell 12th then Musa goes into hiding 0 Offshoot the NusayrisAlawis NusayrisAlawis 0 Offshoot from twelvers 0 Ali was carnation of God 0 More liberal practices drink eat pork don t pray 5 times 0 MuslimChristian blend Dates 240 Mani forms Manichaeism 570 621 lifespan of Muhammad 622 Hikra MH journey from Mecca to Medina 630 Muhammad conquers Mecca 63 8 J ersulem taken by Muslims 650 Qur an completed 661 Ali diessplitUmyyad dynsty 765 J afar al Sadig 874 12th imam goes into hiding 941 12th imam goes into greater occultation 1207 73 Rumi s lifespan 1881 1934 Ataturk 1928 Muslim brotherhood in Egypt 1979 Iranian revolution 1844 Sayyid Ali muhammed declares himself the bab 1863 Mizra Husayn Ali Nuri declares himself prophet Dates 4 CE Jesus Birth 30 CE Jesus crucifixion and death 312 Battle of MilVian Bridge Constantine won and gained control of the Western half of the Roman empire 325 Council of Nicaea Set up by Constantine To discuss trinity issues and other issues 376 1st time canon Mathew Mark Luke John was proposed that looks like the modern one Was proposed by Athanasius of Alexandria 451 Council of Chalcedon official doctrine of Roman empire 476 Fall of Rome to Germany 1054 Division of East and West 1187 Saladin conquered Jerusalem part of crusades 1270 End of Crusades 1453 Fall of Constantinople 1517 October 31 Martin Luther s 95 theses and considered beginning of reformation 1534 Act of Supremacy Henry V11 named head of church of England broke With catholic church 1864 Syllabus of Errors official statement rejecting most of modernity 1871 First Vatican Council doctrine of papal infallicy absolute authority of the church 1895 Fundamentalism 1965 2ND Vatican Council Catholicism accepts modernity reforms catholic church Plato VS Aristotle Both Plato and Aristotle were GreekRoman emperor but Plato came rst Plato believed that there was a spiritual world on top of the physical world but the spiritual world is eternal god exists in this world and the physical is a poor re ection of the quotreal worldquot And philosopher Aristotle says in order to know something about something you have to have something in common with that and most of what we know comes from the quotmaterial worldquot The material world gives us most of our knowledge form observation The seven Characters of Religion Religious Organization and Hierarchy Doctrine Statement Ethical comments Belief of afterlife Sacred Scripture Separation of religion and state Exclusive commitments P P PWNquot The synoptic problem was theory of who copied who between Mathew M Mark Luke L Q Germany word lost early gospel and M Mathews special source M Mark Q L D DC DC D Mathew Luke The gospels were Mark 70 CE Matthew 8090 Luke 8090 John 90 Matthew Mark and john are very similar to each other by barrowing heavily between them and all in the synoptic problem of who was copying who in scripture John was more of an outlier being more philosophical But all were synoptic gospels in the cannon scripture Paul was a writer in the 50 s and shows up a lot in the New Testament He was a Jew and persecuting Christians but changed after he was struck blind on his way to Damascus and had a vision which converted him to Christianity himself He wrote 13 total letters and 7 authentic in them contains grace vs law God will save humans anyways because they can t save themselves Humans sinful even by following the Jewish laws so why follow it this also made it easier for Gentiles to convert to Christianity Paul also set up the Apostolic Council ofJerusalem in 48 CE with John and James to discuss what they should teach and get out before quotthe world endedquot Marcionism was a teaching during 100150 CE is rejected the law was a teaching that completely separated Christianity and Judaism and believed in dualism with an evil god in the old testament which is who the Jews worship and a good god in Christianity So they rejected the Old Testament and only kept part of the New Testament and Luke Acts 10 of Paul s letters The response was a new canon containing the OT 27 books in the NT Gnostics were active in the 24 centuries they believe a divine son of god becomes human to restore humanity to its ideal state and conquer death which is an orthodoxy view Jesus brought knowledge into the world and to save you need the knowledge to know but not everyone can gain this Constantine was an emperor during the imperial Christianity of the east and west Rome 30637 he won the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 He won because he got a vision of a Christian symbol the ChiRho which God sent to him meaning quotwith this sign you will conquerquot After he and the whole Roman Empire in the 5th century convert to Christianity He also sets up the Council of Nicea 325 which was to discuss the trinity The three main of Christology were during the 5th century are Nestorians Jacobites Monophysites the Chalcedonians The Nestorianis believe in 2 separate persons 1 divine and one human The Monophysites believe in 1 person 1 nature but both are divine they were very organized And Chalcedonians think 1 person 2 natures therefore humans can be saved had the Council of Chalcedion in 451 the of cial doctrine of the Roman Empire Augustine was a writer speci cally autobiography s about converting to Christianity marking the boundary between ancient amp medieval theology and Medieval period Most famous for The Confessions and Retractions which was all about his old writings and what he had changed his mind on Augustine doesn t think you have a choice to be Christian and you cannot avoid sin so the decision is in God s hands And his main opponent was Pelagius who believed in free will Monasticism was started by the Benedict of Nurcia in 480550 and started in the West There were many different religious orders the Cistercians 1098 reform Mendicant orders wanted to serve emphasis on poverty during this time the Catholic Church had gotten pretty wealthy involved in this was Francis of Assisi And the Dominicans who wanted to prevent heretics and emphasized learning and education Scholasticism was the rst reveal of theology started by Thomas Aquinas a great theologian Most famous for Summa Theological which focuses on experience 5 proofs of god which leads to the enlightenment eventually and makes observations and dedications based on reasoning The different reformations were German Swiss and English German reformation involved Martin Luther who was traditional had disagreements over practices of the church rejected that humans play any role in salvation only by grace of God On October 31 1517 posted his 95 thesis on the Wittenberg Cathedral which is the traditional beginning of reformation Luther had a huge emphasis on scripture quotsola scripturequot got rid of infant baptism Luther was not a literalist Ulirch Zwingli began the Swiss reformation in 1522 by challenging the church and he was the priest in Zurich Was in the debate catholic church vs Zwingli but the bishop wouldn t answer The catholic church was successful in killing him English reformation was more a quotpolitical meansquot less to do with faith and more with power With Henry VII whose story is he wanted a male heir which he didn t get with his rst wife so wants a divorce but the pope won t let that happen 1534 the Act of Supremacy were Henry is named the head of the Church of England pretty much Catholic but without a pope so he gets divorced But in 17th century settles on quotVia Mediaquot which means middle way to guide the English church and followed the Book of Common Prayer The catholic reformation had the main event of the Council of Trent in 154563 which had two main objectives 1 Eliminate Corruption and 2 Respond to Protestantism This determined catholic identity in 1620th centuries The enlightenment was during the 17th18th century with the birth of modernity With Deism reason and observation that believes in the existence of God Importance to worship the need for repentance reward and punishment both on earth and in heaven Didn t thinkJesus was divine but a great teacher Our founding father faith Jefferson made own enlightenment bible Key gure John Locke a political philosopher natural religion Pietism began in Germany with Lutheran Main founder Philip Spener 16351705 believed in bible study morality and experience wanted the return of living a Christian lifestyle Methodist founded on pietism Fundamentalism 1895 was a biblical criticism 1 lnerrancy of Scripture 2 Divinity ofJesus 3 Virgin Birth 4 Death on the cross in atonement for sins 5 Physical resurrection and impending returns This caused split in Protestantism in North vs South Issues of race In the 20th century started NeoOrthodoxy rejects fundamentalism and returns to the bible Humans are sinful God is needed Key gure Karl Barth a Christian theologian most important books Commetnary on the Romans and main work Church Dogmatics took four decades and died before he nished
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