Study Guide For Exam 2
Study Guide For Exam 2 Bio 210
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Remmuel Marie C. Natac on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 210 at San Francisco State University taught by brinda govindan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 991 views. For similar materials see microbiology in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
1 What are the main differences between eukaryotes prokaryotes and viruses What are some ways in which you could distinguish between them just by microscopic observation Why is it important to understand the structural differences between these types of microbes Prokaryotes came first They don39t have a nucleus DNA oats in the cytoplasm They are simpler No organelles 10x smaller Eukaryotes have nucleus DNA is inside nucleus They have complex organelles Larger than prokaryotes Viruses are nonliving Have genetic material Have proteins No real organelles They don39t use energy they take over cellsreproduction Surrounded by a protein coat When viewing under a microscope you are able to quickly distinguish what type of microbe it is 2 What are the eukaryotic microbial groups Which of these are unicellular Multicellular Both What are some diseases caused by members of each group Protozoan are unicellular Diseases malaria amp dysemetry Fungi is both Yeast is unicellular Molds are multicellular Diseases are fungal eye infections and ringworm Algae is also both unicellular and multicellular Diseases caused are redtides 3 What is the theory of endosymbiosis What is the evidence to support this theory It39s an evolutionary theory which explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes Several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as symbiosis between separate singlecelled organisms There is evidence that the mitochondria and chloroplast were once primitive bacterial cells 4 How are DAMPs and PAMPs similar First of all what are they What observation led researchers to make a connection between the molecular basis of bacterial sepsis and SIRS severe in ammatory response syndrome Mitochondria and bacteria use the same mechanism to trigger immune responses DAMP is damageassociated molecular pattern PAMP is pathogenassociated molecular pattern They both result in the same immune response Severe In ammatory Response Syndrome SIRS fever increased heart rate low blood pressure amp shock Trauma damaged cells release mitochondria DAMP SEPSIS whichis a bacterial infection triggers the in ammatory response Bacterial pathogen PAMP 5Compare and contrast the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic agella Eukaryotic agella is used for locomotion doesn39t spin waves like an oar has a multiprotein complex has 9 doublet 2 singlet microtubules amp their dyenin arms use ATP to slide the tubules which results in exion Larger and more complex structure Has a bending movement Prokaryotic agella has a smallersimpler structure It39s made up on protein agellin 53KDa Subunit Has a rotary movement Is proton driven 6 What are endospores Which bacteria can form them and what diseases do they cause When do endospores form Resistant asexual spore that develops inside some bacteria cells Bacillus and Clostridium form them DISEASES Bacillus cause anthrax and Clostridium causes Gangrene Tetanus and Botulism Endospores form when there is nutrient depletion chemicals amp disinfectants are present radiation dessication in boiling temperatures and extreme environmental conditions 7 Do all eukaryotes have cell walls Which ones do What are some unique components of eukaryotic cell walls Not all eukaryotes have cell walls All except protozoan Fungi and Algae have cell walls Fungi cell walls contain chitin and Algae cell walls contain cellulose 8 Describe the causative agent and symptoms of cholera What risk factors are associated with contracting this disease How is it spread What is the cellular basis of the disease symptoms What is the treatment for cholera Vibrio Cholarae is the pathogen that causes it and symptoms include watery diarrhea vomiting shock fever and dehydration Risk factors are poverty contaminated water and lack of sanitation It is spread in places with inadequate water treatment poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene Cellular basis is that the vibrio cholerae has a toxin that contains a plasmid that affects Cl ion transporter Na concentrationis greater outside of the cell therefore water leaves the cell through osmosis which is what causes watery diarrhea Treatment for this is ORT Oral Rehydration Therapy which consists of salts and sugar in clean water 9 Describe distinguishing features of fungi algae and protozoa How can you tell them apart What habitats do they prefer If you Gram stained them how would they appear Fungi Yeasts are unicellular molds are multicellular They reproduce by budding They appear as a mass of hyphae called a mycelium and hyphae are long threadlike cells that make up the structure of a mold Molds have sporangiospores and conidiospores Characteristic features asexual spores Algae can be unimulticellular cell walls contain cellulose obtain nutrients by photosynthesis only harm caused to humans are redtides Characteristic features pigments Protozoan are unicellular thrive in aquatic habitats and are recognized for their motility pseudopods agella ciliagliding They have 2 forms Cyst water has disappeared not active protozoa rounds up and cyst wall starts forming Trophozoite active form feeding stage Gram stained Fungi would appear as rods Algae as coccus and protozoan as rods 10 Describe the functions of the following structures and understand what would happen to a cell with defects in each nucleus nucleolus nuclear pore rough ER smooth ER Golgi complex lysosome ribosome mitochondria cytoskeleton actin and microtubules plasma membrane Nucleus nuclear quotenvelopequot surrounds it Houses cell39s chromosomes made of DNA Nucleolus rRNA Synthesis Pores allow traffic into out of cells Rough ER continuous with nuclear membrane quotRoughquot ribosomes 80S Protein Synthesis Involved in lipid synthesis amp alcohol detoxification Golgi stacks of membranes protein trafficking centers import export processing quotpost officequot where modifications are made to proteins vesicles bud off and fuse with target membranes releasing the proteins Lysosome membrane bound vesicles contain hydrolytic enzymes and these enzymes degrade proteins nucleic acids lipids amp carbohydrates and are formed in the rough ER Ribosomes cell structure that makes proteins Mitochondria a quotpowerhoosequot geherates ATP Where eeihiiar respiratioh happehs have aa 2 memhrahess oater irmer eireiiiar ehromosome gehetie materiai divides hy hiriary fissioh eohmihs 7 S rihosomes erisme foidihgs ofirmer memhrarie iherease its sarfaee area Cytoskeleton dynamic protein matrix regulates cell shape division organelle transport amp cell motility Contain Actin polymerized into microfilaments Tubulin green polymerized into microtubules amp Intermediate Filaments Plasma Membrane bilayer of phospholipids w embedded protein molecules which is important for cells with no cell wall Selectively permeable 11 How do molecules such as nutrients get across the plasma membrane Describe and compare several different active and passive methods of transport osmosis simple diffusion facilitated diffusion endocytosis active transport Active transport requires ATP It is against the concentration gradient Endocytosis the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole only happen with eukaryotes Passive Transport doesn39t require ATP Simple diffusion concentration gradient movement from high concentration to low concentration Facilitated diffusion spontaneous passive transport of molecules by specific proteins Osmosis movement of water a solvent passes through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution therefore equalizing the concentration on both sides of the membrane 12 Compare and contrast a trophozoite and exist Trophozoite active form of a protozoan feeding stage Cyst water has disappeared it isn39t active protozoan rounds up then a cyst wall starts forming 13 How do fungi reproduce describe two ways Why is pseudohyphal growth dangerous in a clinical setting Explain the functions of the two types of hyphae Are fungi macroscopic or microscopic Explain Fungi reproduces by budding sexually or asexually but most are asexual Pseudohyphal growth is dangerous in a clinical setting because the buds that are attached in a row are much harder to get rid of Two types of hypahe Mycelium a mass of hypahe macroscopic Mold hypahe are long thread like cells microscopic 14 How are bacteria fungi algae protozoa and viruses both friends and foes of humans Give specific examples of how all of these microbes affect our daily lives Archaea FRIEND their cool chemistry is used by humans FOE they are nonpathogenic Bacteria FRIEND they digest our food make vitamins protect us from pathogens make antibiotics responsible for yogurt cheese wine beer bread chocolate etc FOE They cause diseases Protozoa FRIEND They are good for the ecosystem FOE They cause diseases like malaria and dysemetry Fungi FRIEND They are decomposers they help with our food FOE Cause food to spoil and diseases Algae FRIEND They make up 70 of our oxygen and help our food as well FOE Red tides Viruses FRIEND Help with vaccines gene therapy amp cancer treatment FOE Cause diseases like SARS Ebola Flu Mesales West Nile Virus etc
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