Final Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH131 at a university taught by Gamble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 385 views.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
California Culture Area Around 65 distinct languages spoken in California Chumash language considered Hokan for a while now not considered related to any language in the world Linguistic Prehistory Earliest people spoke Hokan Yukian and Chumash languages before 5000 years ago Penutian speaking people began migrating into California settling first in the Sacramento Delta region c 5000 years ago People speaking Algic and NaDene languages expanded into northwestern CA within last 2000 years UtoAztecan speakers migrated to Southern California about 3000 years ago Natural vegetation Lots of geographic diversity natural resource diversity California divided into culture areas Northwest CA people extension of Northwest Culture Area people Precontact population density in areas of CA as high as densest populations anywhere else on the con nent Highest in Sacramento Delta and along Santa Barbara Channel Access to water food resources important factor of population density Access to abundant diverse mainland food was important shi The Last Yahi movie Native American population precontact 37 million Driven to less than 100000 postcontact by disease and famine A solitary Indian leaves his homeland Saw his village massacred Living in hiding with survivors All survivors died no one else left who speaks his language Thrown in jail by insecure sheriff in Oroville CA Reporters and regular people came to gawk Last survivor of a river tribe of Yahi supposedly extinct Wild Indians had all but disappeared from US were all in reservations Anthropologists trying to preserve culture Alfred Kroeber in CA all Indians he contacted had been affected by White culture Heard of camp of last Yahi surveyors took all the camp s winter supplies shi singed off hairs in memory Kroeber sent assistants to Yahi knew a few of the Yahi language Sent translator didn t speak same diaect Old Yahi story Journey of the Dead Spirits travel south looking for hole to next world shi came to San Francisco to Kroeber Indian etiquette never tell someone your name when asked Capturing language before disappearance was pinnacle of anthropology shi found stolen goods at a museum showed no bitterness only surprise Culture was understood in things language grammar canoes art Kroeber contacted linguist Edward Sapir Only person who knew Yana Language Couldn t come shi spoke into recording device 6 hour story to reporters Yahi think of past identity differently CreationClan history quotI am here today Loved voice of Caruso SF was a learning experience Especially population quotMany white people 49ers populated uninhibited with Manifest Destiny Passive acceptance of Indian disappearance CA hunting Indians was legal and profitable Heads and scalps redeemed for money Dehumanized Indians Women proposing to shi Saw Lily Lania at Orpheum Theater Was most impressed with 2000 people packed into tiny theater Became his own exhibit at UC museum Showed of culturetraditions of Yahi Pneumonia after museum opened Public still demanded him Kroeber obliged Thought of Ishi as an alien jungle man bizarro Slow process of translating Yahi Used machine charting position of tongue as it forms words Knew enough English to get by alone Got job as janitor at museum after exhibit lost popularity Secretary of Interior investigated shi s treatment Didn t want to go to reservations enjoyed the Bay Area 1865 Workman Massacre 43 killed Gang of whites hunted Indians repeatedly attacked shi s tribe sold women to ranches killed and plundered shi s parents survived massacre by floating downstream with dead bodies Act destroyed Yahi tribe 1871 Kingsley Cave Massacre 37 killed Drove Ishi and his mother to hiding Kroeber found that history wanted to see how Ishi lived through it Convinced Ishi to go on expedition to Yahi territory Kroeber bargained with surveyors for old Yahi belongings Worried for spirits of lost relatives Disappeared into brush came back said his people had found their way to the afterlife relaxed after Coyote stories relate to unpredictability of life Ishi showed them how to fish with harpoon hunt with bow and arrow If you break hunting rules deer may not be available Kroeber s colleague stops smoking deer finally caught Ishi revealed more than 200 Yahi place names Many different aspects of Yahi culture Yahi prized liberty over all else Weren t found until robbed by surveyors Image of natives changed from savages to tragic romanticized Sapir finally worked with Ishi Told creation story Wrote even the subtlest nuances Ishi collapsed had tuberculosis Collaboration ended after 3 months valuable but incomplete Body must be whole for spirit to reach land of the dead Kroeber afraid of autopsy When too weak to talk spoke with hand gestures Cremated ashes put in local cemetery Kroeber wrote book about Ishi Informative probably somewhat biased Ishi was most impressed with white men s magic tricks Doing mystical things was a great honor in Yahi culture Gold Rush devastating to Native Californians Insensitivity of Kroeber him and Sapir working Ishi too hard objectifying him shi example of anthropology s unfortunate past California Indians Hou ng Thatched hemispherical houses common in south half of culture area Houses of long slabs of bark in parks of Norcal Pithouses used in lower Sacramento River Valley Excellent plant and animal food resources Hou ng Northwest CA culture area an extension of Northwest Coast culture area 0 Rectilinear wooden houses 0 Doors have important symbolic meaning transferring from one space to another Settlement Patterns Larger settlements villages often had multiple rows of houses particularly if they fronted a body of water A settlement consisted of one lineage or multiple lineages Spanish colonists referred to a settlement and its surrounding land as a quotrancheriaquot CA anthropologists have called it a tribelet not tribe 0 People still debating tribelet concept 0 Is demeaning to CA Indians Most settlements were politically and economically independent 0 No main chief uniting different villages Fun fact Malibu takes its name from the Chumash village of Humaliwu Subsistence Huntergatherers Acorns of different species of oaks were a major dietary staple Altered environment a lot Intensive processing of acorns 0 Filter out bitter tasting tannins in acorns 0 Take out nuts from shells pounded nuts with mortar and pestle Preferred acorn species in order of preference 0 Tan oak 0 Black oak 0 Blue oak 0 Valley oak 0 Coast live oak o Scrub oak Acorn Storage You could store nuts with or without shells Acorns were stored up to 3 years Granaries usually made of plant materials placed on platforms Waterproof lids placed on top 0 Lids and granaries made of willow Acorn Flour Leaching Leaching removed bitter tannic acid from acourn flour 0 Made mush with flour kind of similar to oatmeal 0 Put in seeds and dried fruit 0 Make cakes pancakes 0 Mix with plant foods meat and fish Making Acorn Mush Most of CA did not have pottery 0 Therefore could not cook directly over the fire Would heat up rocks over the fireplace 0 Remove rocks with tongs 0 Place them into a basket 0 Boil acorn mush in the basket Other Plant Foods A wide variety of seeds were collected throughout most of CA Carrying heavy loads on back in quotburden baskets makes distinguishable marks on bone structure Gathered seeds into baskets with seed beaters Salvia columariae Chia 0 Important plant staple 0 Sage sage have square stems 0 Wait for them to dry gather seeds with seed beater Aeschulus californica California Buckeye 0 Important in central CA 0 Needs to be leeched 0 Crack open kernels 0 Also need leeching o Kind of look like a deer s eye hence their name Bulbs and corms were important where wetlands existed In southern California agave and yucca hearts and young stalks were collected and pitbaked Blue Dicks Brodiaea Dichelostemma pulchellum o Ate a lot of these bulbs Yucca 0 Wanted to eat the heart in the base before it was sent up the stalk 0 Pound out leaves make twine and string out of them Agave 0 Heart or bulb Hun ng Large game animals were hunted with bow and arrow 0 Deer were the principal large game animal throughout the culture area 0 Generally they were stalked or ambushed Hunted sea mammals 0 Sea lions sea otters harbor seals 0 Otters almost hunted to extinction for furs after Russian contact Brought Aleuts to CA to help hunt otter o Rookeries Wait till wind was blowing in right direction of rookeries so animals couldn t smell you Would come up behind them and club them Fishing Salmon fishing in rivers and streams important in central and northern California Sturgeon and salmon caught in San Francisco Bay and the lower Sacramento River Ocean fishing along the coast particularly among the coastal and island Chumash Fowling Waterfowl were trapped where large bodies of water existed including lakes and rivers Strung nets across bodies of water trapped birds in them Transportation Reed boats tule balsa were used on large bodies of quiet water Dugout canoes were used in northwestern California Chumash used a plank canoe Transportation Dugouts of the Northwest Coast of California Transportation Plank canoes used by Chumash and Tongva SocioPolitical Organization Status ranking was prevalent throughout the culture area Social status was inherited Female and male chiefs High status positions were associated with wealth and leadership Cemeteries were excavated Lineageclan social organization was prevalent moieties existed among some groups Lineages and clans were either patrilineal or matrilineal in their structure Ex Cahuilla SocioPolitical Organization Divided into 2 moieties Coyote and Wildcat Each moiety consisted of named patrilineal clans each occupying a territory Each clan consisted of 310 lineages one of which was politically dominant Each lineage occupied a village site within a clan territory A husband and wife were of opposite moieties Each clan had a hereditary leader a net from the dominant lineage Economic Exchange Most groups in CA used shell bead money 0 Super important currency Three types of shell beads were used each with a different interaction area Dentalium shell beads came from the Northwest Coast the clam shell beads from the Pomo and the olive Olivella sp shell beads from the Chumash Shell bead money facilitated quotdelayedquot exchange of food resources The Chumash economy was the most monetized Huntergatherers had a lot of people to support 0 River people were able to do that by catching salmon in weirs 0 Need to remove weirs when done save some salmon for neighbors downstream 0 Could be cause for war if not careful Pomo Trade Feast 0 Hill people had huge acorn crop in Fall 0 Way too many acorns to store 0 Huge feast invite neighbors down the river 0 String attached to acorn little sticks marking how many days left until the feast 0 Practice of redistribution 0 Chief collect all the acorns from people in village 0 Huge pile of acorns cook them up feast dance potential marriage partners meeting 0 Chief would have all these beads made would bring them 0 River people would have lots of acorns 0 Would be reciprocated 0 Fish vertebrae invitation 0 Hill people bring all the beads 0 River people distribute their salmon 0 quotShell bead money facilitated delayed exchange of food resources California Native Americans SocioPolitical Organization Net hereditary leader from dominant lineage 0 Also called Wot by Chumash Husband of wife of opposite moieties moiety exogamy Economic Exchange Dentalia long necklace of tubular shells mostly in Northwest area Shells showed social status Shell beads location where they were used is important Central California Beads Clam disc beads Abalone shell pendants Magnesite beads o The gold of California shell beads 0 Have to be baked to turn bright red 0 Specific place in Pomo region where you find these stones 0 Only high status elite wear magnesite Economics Two levels of exchange took place throughout most of California 0 Ritual exchange between leaders independent settlements and typically in the context of trade feasts or fiestas o Secular exchange between individuals or lineages Olivella biplicata disc beads Religion Three major religious complexes occurred in California oversimplified 0 World Renewal complex in northwestern California 0 Kuksu complex in central California 0 Toloache complex in southern California World Renewal 0 Rituals to ensure abundance of food prevent disease and avoid unfavorable natural events 0 2 important rituals Jumping Dance Headdresses with hundreds of red woodpecker scalps Scalps saved for generations White Deerskin Dance Elkhorn purses where they keep their dentalia Bring out their wealth make sure there will be plenty of food for the next year Used albino deerskins accumulated them over the years Save dentalia to use for rituals Carry gigantic obsidian blades 0 Most important dances occurred when a fish weir was rebuilt or a house was constructed 0 Wealthy would display wealth during these ceremonies Regalia from NW CA coast 0 Jump dance headband o Yurok Dress Clam shells natural fibers 0 Jump Dance Basket Saved through generations Kuksu Religious Complex central CA 0 Dancers become spirits who come to a village to bring wellbeing o No mask covers the face 0 Dancers were members of a men s secret society and their identity while dancing apparently was unknown to the audience 0 Patwin had the most elaborate Kuksu 3 different levels of Kuksu Hesi Kuksu Waisaltu Would have to pay money for admittance to the secret society initiation is very stressful Ascend to different levels after a number of years Even spoke a different language 0 Dances would happen in roundhouses 0 Higher levels of Kuksumore danger o Ritual killing of some young recruits Shot with a bow and arrow Fall through smokehole Run out of the roundhouse bleeding Initiates would be acting crazy 0 Initiation involves a lot of fasting 0 You hallucinate without effort when fasting o Brought close to death brought back to life again a ritual idea Mothers would help revive them 0 Kuksu associated with danger o If you told someone about your secret society very bad things would happen to you 0 Tied in with political leaders power The smallest group with the most specific knowledge had bigger houses more influence Roundhouses of Central California 0 Some semisubterranean o Ceremonial buildings that could accommodate a large number of people often a village population 0 Precontract roundhouses apparently had earthen roofs 0 Had clowns making fun of people during rituals Toloache southern CA Ate Datura for rituals 0 Pretty dangerous 0 Most often ingested from leaves or roots 0 Taken primarily for 3 purposes To establish contact with a supernatural guardian who might provide protection or a skill For clairvoyance such as contacting the dead finding lost objects or seeing the future To cure effects of an injury evil omens or a breach of taboo Annual mourning ceremonies recognized those who recently died Adolescent boys drank hallucinogenic jimson weed toloache tea as part of a ritual to become mean Solstice ceremonies also took place Played reed whistles either made of reed or bones Chinichngish form of Toloache o Rituals adolescent boys to manhood boys and girls have puberty ceremonies 0 Boys whip them with stinging nettles sit them on top of a red ant hill or make them swallow a ball of red ants thought venom in red ants is a hallucinogen was actuallyjust very painful after fasting for days Basketry Served many purposes in CA 0 Seed gathering 0 Food processing 0 Cooking 0 Food serving 0 Storage 0 Transport 0 Attire hats 0 Infant care cradled infants 0 Identification of social status 0 Ritual o Historically articulation with the EuroAmerican economy Explorers highly valued them Used a wide variety of weaving techniques Weaving a large basket requires a large amount of time 0 Some even take years Ohlone woman named Linda Ahmani award winning basket weaver 0 Made basket with shells imbedded Some were utilitarian o Burden baskets 0 Water bottles made out of basket lined with asphaltum tar to make waterproof Serving baskets 0 Possibly for sale to whites Impacts of EuroAmerican Occupation Missionization of Native Americans Cabrillo came in 1852 first CA explorer Missionization primarily affected native populations in coastal areas from San Diego to San Francisco Bay First mission established in 1769 San Diego and the last in 1823 north of SF Bay Once living at a mission as neophytes CA were forced to remain there Franciscan priests thought Native Americans needed to be baptized so they would go to heaven and avoid hell Neophytes had less freedom than they did before Lived in dark dank barracks Built the missions aqueducts infrastructure surrounding mission Had to get pass to leave the missions Worked and farmed missions literally slavery Max number of neophytes at CA missions was reached ca 1822 Disease would spread fast through neophyte barracks By this time missions had recruited nearly all native Californians living nearby Why did the Native Americans go there in the first place Different theories 0 Livestock eating all the native plants 0 Ranchers buying land not letting anyone else use it 0 Massive drought Native peoples moved away from the missions shortly after secularization by the Mexican government in 1834 Thereafter many native people were employed in the ranching industry Would give native peoples small shitty unproductive plots of land that no one else wanted Some went back to the missions lack of options Postmission Settlements Many mission Indians reestablished settlements within their territories These communities had been acculturated Traditional culture persisted in some not all including language Some weren t members of a stable community California Gold Rush Between 1848 and 1880 at least 4500 Indians killed low estimate number doesn t include those starved to death or run off land Reservations Popped up shortly after CA statehood Almost 100 in CA Many are very small a few acres sometimes called rancherias Largest concentration of significant sized reservations is in San Diego and San Bernandino Counties Others in Sierra foothills near Clear Lake and northwestern CA Many CA native communities not federally recognized Today Many retain aspects of their traditional culture Use large roundhouses for ceremonies and events Politically active activism to preserve traditional sites from development Native Languages Very low numbers of native speakers Languages dying fast Many tribal groups attempting to revive their languages Prospects for survival of most native languages are not good California Indian Casinos Economically beneficial to inhabitants of reservations About 31 CA reservations have casinos Chumash Culture Language families divided into Northern Central and Island Precontact Occupation of the Santa Barbara area for 13000 years Daisy Cave on San Miguel Island might have been occupied beginning more than 11k years ago Mano and metate used for seed milling Mortar and pestle used for acorns House depressions evident in island landscape Deer bone used as needles for sowing strings of beads as awls for basketweaving Ethnography John P Harrington obsessed with collecting information about Native American groups 0 Recorded a tremendous amount of information 0 Didn t write that many articles just wrote information down Fishing Technology Plank canoes or tomols made byjoining blanks of wood together with asphaltum natural tar 0 Important for fishing commerce across the channel Subsistence o Controlled burns meant to favor certain types of plants 0 Only burnt every 23 years in appropriate times of the year Acorn milling o Mortar and pestle o Baskets attached to catch meal flying out Bead making 0 Villages specialized in making chert drill tips especially eastern Santa Cruz Island 0 Other villages just made shell beads Chert DrillTip Manufacturing 0 Quarried o Microblades made from chert cores 0 Brought back to village Shell beads heavily traded with Tongva Catalina Island Specialized in Making Steatite Ollas and Comals 0 Set them on fire and used them to cook food 0 Quarried the rock Chumash basketry o All have a special tick on the side Political Organization Hereditary chiefs Elite lineages Chief called the wot some villages had more than one wot Controlled significant wealth in a village owners of plank canoes on coast Using a canoe in the Santa Barbara Channel was dangerous 0 Thought if you didn t make a plank canoe correctly you could die Village chief had some influence over neighboring villages called the paqwot Paha also from elite lineage was the chief s assistantgave speeches organized festivals Antap society group of elite males who performed dances at festivals and ceremonies 0 Sometimes thousands of people would come to one festival 0 Not attending was a cause of death or war for chiefs Rock Art Pictographic among most spectacular in the world Ideological meaning social context unknown Fall victim to vandalism natural erosion o Painted Rock near Carrizo Plain almost completely destroyed 1824 Chumash Revolt Chumash from 3 missions and villages burned part of Santa Ines Mission down Held the mission themselves for a few weeks took the mission over Fled once troops arrived Went and lived with the Yokuts especially near Buena Vista Lake as refugees Chumash PostMission Missions secularized Chumash set free Didn t have anywhere to go after displacement Spanish created ranches on old lands Created communities Some stayed involved with missions Cieneguitas mission sateillite community near Santa Ynez Never received promised land from missions Chumash Today Reestablishing traditional culture Principal Characteristics of CA Food was stored Fishing in oceans was important High population density Huntergatherers Lineages and clans Ranked social status elites and commoners Leadership positions are hereditary Economic exchange by shell bead money Chumash Today Santa Ynez band published dictionary of native language Samala Based on linguistic data collected by John P Harrington and other anthropologists Many Chumash are learning to speak Samala Principal Characteristics of CA Culture Area Huntergatherers living in densely populated towns packed houses situated close to each other 0 Almost all subsistence was based on huntinggathering Acorns very significant stored food resource Fishing very important near rivers and oceans 0 Salmon in central CA 0 Didn t fish very far into the ocean north of the Bay Area due to rough waters 0 Offshore fishing in calmer waters Baskets were important for all subsistence activities 0 Seed beater intensive form of huntinggathering Beating seeds off the plant into a basket speeding up gathering o Considered prizes by Europeans Clan organization Ranked social statuses 0 Everyone had a special seat in the dancehouse 0 Seating areas defined by class 0 Inherited wealth Political leaders with significant authority 0 Hereditary positions 0 Traits we normally associate with agriculturalists 0 Complex huntergatherer societies Economic exchange through shell bead money 0 Movement between villages of food resources and raw materials Plains Culture Area 2 cultural types on the Plains Equestrian hunters and horticulturalists Precontact and History Horse was essential o Brought over by European Bison focus of subsistence all of precontact era Farming practiced in river valleys over last 1000 years Horses acquired from Spanish began to be used by some Plains groups in the early 17005 0 Over next century groups living on margins of Plains migrated into Plains 0 Classic Plains Equestrian cultures existed between 1800 and 1870 AD Plains popularized by media are historic shortlived cultural phenomenon o Comanche middle men in horse trade to other tribes Subsistence Bison Bison hunting not as productive before horses Would cause stampedes so they would run themselves off cliffs OlsenChubbuck Site c8500 BP 0 Bed of bison bones filling an arroyo 0 Could tell which way the wind was blowing opposite direction the bison were driven bison have good sense of smell needed to smell to be blown away from them 0 Crowd behavior one bison runs rest of bison form protective mass and run from perceived threat 0 Flanks of side people directing them to the cliffs so they wouldn t run to the side 0 Goal was to induce the bison to run off a cliff butcher them at the bottom 0 Take best bison parts back 0 Use bison skins for tipis carrying things etc Hunting from a horse meant the hunter could pursue a bison over long distances 0 Used bow and arrows and spears Transportation Horse facilitated movement from camp to camp 0 Most Plains were mobile especially those who focused on hunting bison o Horticulturalists were sedentary Travois carried a family s belongings from one camp to the next 0 Long poles that made a kind of sled o Dragged on the back end of a horse 0 Would transport children goods on the back of travois Bullboats used by groups on or near rivers to cross rivers or transport materials like firewood 0 Most made on wood frame with bison hide 0 Only effective in calm waters 0 Round podlike boats very unique Dwellings Tipi main dwelling used by plains equestrian groups 0 Portable could be quickly erected and taken down 0 Adapted to relatively high mobility of plains equestrian hunters 0 Two layers of skin inner and outer made tipis very warm 0 Sometimes used canvas Tipi furnishings 0 Inner and outer skin 0 Heated stones to keep heat with coals in fireplace 0 Moveable flaps with poles to make sure smoke escaped 0 Buffalo skin bedding Earthlodges o Plains horticulturalists living along the upper Missouri River 0 Adapted to sedentary lifestyle 0 More permanent 0 Large enough to fit a lineage 0 Central area used for cooking and congregating o Perimeter for sleeping and storage GrassThatched Houses 0 Horticulturalists of southern Plains 0 Very substantial 0 Framework of poles bend some of them to create dome shape 0 Tie grass to the exterior Settlement Patterns Equestrian Hunters 0 Whole tribal groups aggregated during the summer 0 During other times of year they re divided into bands and smaller segments 0 Some divisions by bands and tribes 0 Pattern of fusion and fission adjusted to dispersal and aggregation of bison Horticulturalists o Sedentary except for several summer weeks when they would hunt bison o Palisaded villages fenced in for protection from hostile groups can also be offensive because men can raid other groups and leave few warriors at home Subsistence Bisonmajor food source of all Plains groups Source of raw materials for food and shelter Horticulturalists farmed corn beans and squash Also important food source to Horticulturalists Burning was done to manage plant resources was common throughout arid regions of western North America 0 Increased productivity of seeds important foods Food Storage 0 Horticulturalists stored food in underground cists located within or near their houses Agricultural products were dried prior to storage Bell shaped Food stored under ashes refuse earth grass and a circular skin cover in between Cooking 0 Equestrians used skin containers 0 Horticulturalists used pottery 0 Pottery containers decorated with incised and impressed designs could cook right over fires Clothing and Adornment Men wore little during summer legging and cloaks of leather during the winter Shieldsimportant o Warrior society warfare prevalent People wore moccasins Women wore leather dresses Cloth used postcontact Plains people known for bead art Social Organization Equestrians o Egalitarian status depended on age and skill 0 Not much lineageclan organization emphasis on associations with kin within one s own age group 0 Men s societies often composed on men of same ages 0 Some were warrior societies men who fought together and served as police during summer tribal gatherings and communal bison hunting 0 Residential groups 34 levels of organization 1 Nuclear or extended family based on matrilocality patrilocality or ambilocality normally occupants of a tipi 2 Bilateral group of such kin clusters sometimes called a kindred which traveled and pitched their tipis together aunts uncles basically extended family 3 Band consisting of several kindredlike groups 100550 people each 4 Whole tribe generally consisting of 1020 bands 0 Each band had a leader 0 All band leader of a tribe formed tribal council 0 Tribe chiefs depended on council members and did not have much authority separate from council 0 Leadership based on skill as warrior leader Horticulturalists o Egalitarian status differences based on age and skill o Lineageclan organization with named clans o Northerly groups matrilineal central groups were patrilineal basically the Plains were mixed 0 Some tribes had warrior societies like equestrians some societies were agegrades identify with that group as you grew older 0 Lineageclan organization became unimportant while away from villages during summer bison hunt o Villages within a tribe were politically and economically autonomous 0 Village chiefs did not have significant authority Religion The Sun Dance 0 Annual event held during a summer tribal gathering o Rite of passage to show strength and pain tolerance 0 Pierce men s nipple areas almost suspended from poles painfully pulling on them dancing until skewers pulled from the flesh still practiced today 0 Most Plains groups practiced this 0 Included singing dancing and praying o Prominent feature was selfinflicted pain by young adult males 0 Become men after doing the Sun Dance Sweating o A means of purification prior to major ceremonies ie Sun Dance 0 Sometimes done for medicinal purposes 0 Done is special sweat lodges 0 Bring in rocks heated in a hearth The quotIndian Wars and Reservations Number of Indian Reservations established after the Civil War Highly marginal areas 0 Not rich land where you could farm or gather crops 0 Can t raise many bison if you re restricted to one area The Lakota signed treaties at Fort Laramie Stationary life on government subsidies Lakota leader who didn t sign the treaty Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull Tensions increased between US and Lakota George Custer discovered gold in the Black Hills when looking for a spot to build a fort 0 Lots of gold miners came to Black Hills 0 Against the Lakota treaty invasion of land 0 US tried to buy the Black Hills back put price offered was rejected by all Lakota 0 Government told all Lakota to report to one area 1876 no one reported 0 US sent a lot of troops to the area 0 Lakota having annual Sun Dance while soldiers approached o Wiped out George Custer s troop o Cheyenne Arapaho and Lakota organized the ambush 0 Battle of Little Bighorn The Battle of Wounded Knee 1890 Last big battle between Plains peoples and EuroAmerican expansion Related to adoption of the GhostDance religion among Plains groups Wovoka founder of second version of GhostDance religion Troops went into Lakota camp in the dead of night to disarm all the troops A native fighter refused to give up his gun Things escalated someone shot a gun cavalry began firing indiscriminately A few escaped cavalry chased them down and shot them More of a killing than a battle most Plains people were unarmed the entire time Atrocious event in American history Only 25 US cavalry died US was still trying to get Lakota to sign off their lands Failed to feed clothe and house Plains people Ghost Dance Vision of Christ returning to earth as a Native American White would disappear buffalo would appear again everything would be nice Alcoholism became a major problem 0 Some were paid in alcohol for labor 0 Less resistance to alcohol than whites more liable to addiction We have 3rd world reservations in the US People restricted to terrible land Wounded Knee Occupation Some Native Americans went and occupied the Wounded Knee site Lived on limited resources Were wellarmed 0 Some shots were fired 0 An FBI agent was killed Occupation of Alcatraz Claimed it as their own land in the 1970s Lots of activism in the 1970s Raised awareness of Native American treatment in the 20th century Modern Conditions Some of the poorest reservations in the US are in the Great Plains Some reservations have casinos other liable casino areas Tradition of summer gatherings has continued sometimes as multitribe gatherings Characteristics of Plains Culture Area 2 basic cultural types equestrian hunters and horticulturists Bison was important food source for everyone Horse was fundamental to a dependence on bison Social organization was either generational equestrian or lineageclan horticulturalist Dwellings reflected contrast between mobility equestrian and staying put horticulturalist Sun Dance was a dominant religious institution Plains Indian culture as documented ethnographically existed only in the 19th century Northeast Culture Area Iroquois Confederacy Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Cayuga Seneca and Tuscarora Lands bordering each other in modern day New York Formed land to stop fighting among the Iroquois people Imperialist expansionist group Successful because they grew corn beans and squash Lots of war against Algonquins o Eventually Algonquins developed agriculture were able to hold their own Chippewa of Ojibwa 1845 Boy Chief traveled to Paris with 11 Ojibwe who had their portraits painted and danced for King Louis Philippe Dwellings of Northern Groups Conical dwellings covered in birch bark 0 Almost tipis but different 0 Not skin covered More common are dome shaped birch bark dwellings Dwellings of Western Great Lakes and Northern Margin Covered with reed mats Conical and dome shaped Settlements of Western GL and Northern Margin Subsistence both huntinggathering and horticulture Most dwellings easy to build winter dwellings more substantial Winter dwellings clustered together palisaded located farther to the south Groups made of 3 or more family nomadically moving throughout year in search of food Dwellings Longhouses Iroquois and neighbors Longhouses sapling framing covered in bark Iroquoian longhouses accommodated lineages sometimes large ones Ranged in size between 40 and 400 feet long and 20 to 30 feet wide Partitioned into compartments for one or two nuclear families Hearths in each compartment with cubicles for beds 0 Most activity happened around the hearths Palisades became more intense right before contact Subsistence and Settlement Patterns Northwestern Extreme of the Culture Area Wild rice gathering important in past and present 0 Sliced off rice storing in canoe 0 Process get rice out of it back at the settlement Iroquois and Neighbors Villages often palisaded against raids Agriculture basic subsistence corn beans and squash Hunting and gathering also part of subsistence Cooking Pottery containers used among horticulturalists Northernmost groups didn t use pottery Pottery decorated with incised lines Transportation Canoes important means of transportation traversing lakes Canoes had wood frame and covered with strips of birch bark sewn together Made trade easier faster to travel by boat than by land SocioPolitical Organization Western Great Lakes and Northern Margin Some groups had patrilineal clans and were patrilocal o Moieties also existed Others had extended families with patrilocal residence upon marriage but no clans A nuclear family or an extended family was the basic social unit which was autonomous during much of the year Summer aggregations could include up to a few hundred people Southern areas some village occupied year round agriculture more important Village or band chiefs sometimes came from particular clans or other social units n general social and political organization is not well known in part because of economic changes during the historic period SocioPolitical Iroquois and Neighbors Matrilineal lineageclans Man moved to wife s household on marriage Villages composed of several clans each composed of one or more lineages Longhouses occupied by lineages Each village had a civil and war chief Both civil and war chiefs were men associated with particular lineages ie they were hereditary A village civil chief had a group of advisors or was head of a council composed of representative from each clan segment Village civil chiefs were members of a confederacy council League of the Iroquois Grand council of the Iroquois League assembly of 56 Hoyenah chiefs or sachems Seats on council distributed today among Six Nations Southeast Culture Area Warfare War captains were important recognized roles among the Seneca Common precontact Archaeological evidence indicates that warfare was so prevalent in some regions that it affected subsistence The League of the Iroquois The Grand Council of the Iroquois League assembly of 56 Hoyenah chiefs or sachems Today the seats on the Council are distributed as follows 0 14 Onondaga o 10 Cayuga 0 Some other tribes she changed the slide too fast 0 Probably not that important Created to maintain peace among the Iroquois Started attacking their neighbors instead Wampum Shell beads Wampum Belts 0 Made of beads made from white and purple shells Had great value but did not function as money Usually used to validate an agreement or treaty White shell beads made the North Atlantic whelk shell Purple beads made from the Quahog clam I A lot came from New York State especially Long Island Woven into patterns 0 Dutch started making their own fake purple beads even set up factories I Eventually hired the Iroquois to make their beads 0000 O 0 Not considered to be owned by anyone owned by a group 0 Many groups are asking for their wampum belts back citing NAGPRA o Probably did not exist until after European contact Games Lacrosse was played by many groups in Northeast and Southeast Modern lacrosse is derived from the Native American game 0 Same basic game layout Warfare Prevalent throughout culture area Historic period warfare the result of competition to control fur trade with EuroAmericans Warfare also at least indirectly related to displacement of tribal groups as the colonies expanded into outer areas that weren t their territory Warfare became culturally institutionalized among many Iroquoian tribes Iroquois had a warrior society Lack of resources due to a bad harvest year can produce conflict Bow are arrows long accurate fighting Used shields as well Iroquois Religion Secret societies False face society secret society concerned with healing Masks associated with spirits of the forest Masks had grotesquely distorted facial features Each mask wearer carried turtleshell rattles A group of men would work together in a healing ceremony Would drive out the evil spirits infecting you and making you sick Wore cloaks and wigs as well Husk Face Society is also a secret society Also perform healing ceremonies Spirits associated with agriculture Secret societies important in the Northeast Associated with power and healing Individual secret societies had special knowledge that other secret societies didn t have Iroquois Acculturation By Revolutionary War Iroquois were already living in log cabin houses Able to maintain many aspects of traditional culture through the 19th century Syncretism adopted aspects of EuroAmerican life but still maintaining some traditional life Potawatomi of Michigan and Indiana were subject to intensive missionization and education programs Sent Native American children to boarding schools to force American ways language upon them 0 Root out any culture Make them quotcivilizedquot not savages Would shave the boy s heads Could not wear traditional clothes speak native language Beat them if they did Wiping out a native culture Some escaped these boarding schools One bright side met a lot of Native American children who they share bonds with OOOOOOO Iroquois Reservations and Reserves In the northeastern US and Canada Lands not desirable to whites Characteristics of Northeast Culture Area Agriculture and food storage important for most groups Hunting and gathering also relatively important among some groups Most groups used pottery with incised designs Groups that emphasized agriculture were mostly sedentary but groups emphasizing huntinggathering were more mobile Social organization was diverse although lineageclan organization was widespread Hereditary leadership was common Confederacies of neighboring tribes existed among some groups particularly among Iroquoian speakers Warfare was prevalent and many villages were palisaded Southeast Culture Area Late Prehistoric Period Cahokia 0 Large civic ceremonial center Abandoned by about 1400 AD Giant earth mounds as large as some Mexican pyramids Densely populated towns People buried with thousands of beads and slaves indicating wealth Max size was in 1200s over 8000 people Located in East St Louis Things had changed by time of European contact Just east of Mississippi River OOOOOOOO Dwellings Dwellings were thatched at least the roof was thatched South palmetto a type of palm was used Generally accommodated a nuclear or small extended family Homesteads Household group often occupied four buildings arranged around a courtyard Would have a summer house and a winter house Summer house was open air because it was so hot and humid Winter house was walled in to protect from cold 0000 Settlement Patterns Many palisaded villages Agricultural fields beyond palisades Larger villages and towns often had one or more earth platform mounds Lots of trade going on precontact Subsistence Agriculture was of varying importance throughout the area Maize beans pumpkins squash were the principal products Some semidomesticated plants such as sunflower were also grown Both men and women farmed but women controlled the farm labor Wild foods were of equal importance and in some areas were more important Wild foods included nuts greens berries and wild fruits fame animals and fish Tree nuts hickory nuts were important 0 Nutmeat could be eaten raw but often pounded into powder 0 Then mixed with water to make a soup 0 Or boiled to extract oil SocioPolitical Organization Matrilineal lineages and clans existed throughout the area Lineages were the basic economic group Some groups appear to have moieties Ranking and hereditary status were typical Chiefdoms of varying levels and complexity existed throughout the area 0 Class was important Some chiefdoms may have incorporated relatively large regions with paramount chiefs and villagetown chiefs Warfare often was instigated by competing chiefs 0 Especially chiefs with large swaths of land 0 Competition for land especially if it s good for agriculture Early Historic Impacts De Soto Expedition is the most significant of those occurring during the 16th century 0 Best descriptions of natives in Florida and Southeast at time of contact their lifestyles These expeditions and later contacts resulted in depopulation due to European diseases Franciscans began establishing missions in 1583 along the Atlantic coast By the time of the 1656 rebellion they apparently had 38 missions in northern Florida and Georgia By the 1670s there were many fewer missions in the interior These northern missions were abandoned by the beginning of the 18th century due to hostility from the English to the north John Lawson Significant source on Southeastern Native Americans Wrote about Native Americans habitat plants for the British Less racist than other explorers 0 Compared women to English women etc o Said they more respectful of each other than English women Early Historic Sources of Information In 1700 John Lawson a British explorer traveled about 600 miles into the Carolina back country He published a book which is one of the best sources about the Indians of North Carolina of the time Tuscarora covered him in wooden spikes set ablaze Ironic death for one of the only explorers claiming that Native Americans were not savages Acculturation Cherokee Creek Chickasaw Choctaw and Seminole quotFive Civilized Tribes Maintained culture but adopted many aspects of European culture 0 Piercing enlargement of ears alteration was an indicator of class 0 Wore European clothes Sequoyah s Cherokee Syllabary Sequoyah developed Cherokee alphabet in early 19th century 1825 books and newspapers began to be published in Cherokee language Many Cherokee people became literate in their language Later Historic Impacts By 1800 Southeastern people were living essentially as other Americans Land coveted by EuroAmericans Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 Over the next 10 years nearly all Southeastern Native Americans were removed to Oklahoma Route to Oklahoma was and is known as the Trail of Tears Some escaped to the remote mountains of North Carolina Characteristics of Southeast Culture Area Nearly all groups depended on agriculture However huntinggathering provided at least as much food to the diet Population density was very high Settlement patterns focused on sedentary villages and towns Some larger regional centers had platform mounds where elite lived andor performed rituals Many villages and towns were surrounded by palisades due to prevalent warfare
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