Human Biology Exam Two Study Guide
Human Biology Exam Two Study Guide 63956
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Herscher on Sunday March 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 63956 at San Francisco State University taught by Holly Harris in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see BIOL 100 in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 03/15/15
Human Biology Exam Two Study Guide Chapter 4 The Body s Systems Immune Integument Muscular Skeletal Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Excretory Nervous Endocrine and Reproductive Immune system deals with the entire body Immune System Protects our bodies from pathogens Pathogens things that cause infectious disease Example Bacteria Nonliving Viruses Our Immune Response Different Levels nonspecific and specific Highly Organized Antigens articles that our bodies recognize as nonself Particles that our bodies recognize as nonself Proteins Antibody Generator Travel on Red Blood Cells SelfAntigens Example Blood type A will have type A antigen specific proteins on blood cells so white blood cells won t destroy them If type B blood cells are transfused the white blood cells will destroy them in a type A blood body NonSelf Antigens White Blood Cells Main cells fight off invaders with nonself antigens Made in bone marrow from stem cells Transported around via the lymphatic system Kill pathogens that the antibodies attach themselves to Self Antigens blood proteinsMHC bone marrow and blood type correlated keys non self antigens are on viruses and bacteria AB universal recipient O universal donor Antibodies Found in the blood or lymph Y shaped Used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign invaders Made in the spleen humans can live without the spleen Bind to nonspecific antigens on the outside of pathogens or cells to ag them for destruction by white blood cells attach themselves to the virus Memory B Cells remember the pathogens that the antibodies attach themselves to ME Halal Ell39 39 i 39 l l Bland quotHype Type ii quotH39pr Itaimirmii Mg Alt 1E1 ml lied inland quotV i tell Sulfate j I Nikki 9 phemetme E aggllmnegetzs only 5 and E agdliinegena Plasma Antih iies iphemetmej that I1 ui39lnlll39linin i39il39IIiI I unnlll39iinin nlij Hi i mnllltinin 4 1an E mnlnl inin Fun Fact Vaccines are one of the most effective tools for disease prevention Vaccinations Are used against both viral and bacterial diseases Work by injecting a person with a mild dose or inactive or synthetic dose of a bacterium or virus Very specific pathogens Builds up specific memory against the pathogen so it can fight it off quickly if the body is infected later Immune System Two highways through the body One carrying blood oxygenated and deoxygenated blood Circulatory System The other highway carries white blood cells and proteins needed to fight infection lymph nodes and bone marrow Jugular vein 0 rd rt 3quot039 a 9W Subclavian vein Superior Subclavian artery vena cava Inferior vena cava Aorta Renal arte Renal vem w Common illac vein Femorall Tim 7 emora a 9 Common W iliac artery Great saphenous vein Fun Fact The symptoms humans experience during times of sickness are actually caused by our own bodies trying to kill the pathogen rather than the Virus itself What the Body Needs to Protect Itself Against Pathogens things that cause infectious disease Living Bacteria Staphyococci Staph Infection Streptococci MRSA and certain strains of E coli Fungi Athlete s Foot and Yeast Infections Protists Amoebas and Plasmodium cause diseases such as Malaria and Giardiasis Parasites Tape Worms and Roundworms cause Trichinosis NonLiving Viruses Cause common colds hundreds of different types and the chicken pox Structure nucleus inside containing either RNA or DNA with a surrounding protein layer How Diseases Are Spread By traveling humans Via Animals Mammals Birds Bird Flu Rats Rabies and The Black Plague Arthropods insects carry diseases Mosquitoes Malaria West Nile Virus Ticks Lyme Disease Poor sewage treatment and contaminated water Bacteria Good and Bad Most common type of pathogen 39 Good Bacteria The majority of all bacteria fewer than 05 of the bacteria on the planet is pathogenic Help us digest protect us and create vitamins different types of bacteria which are located in different regions of the body Outnumber the cells in our bodies 10 to 1 Located of the skin and in the digestive system Produce folic acid in our colons aids in the production of red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA along with assisting B12 and Vitamin C to help the body digest and utilize proteins Autotrophic self feeding Photosynthesize make oxygen Example Cyanobacteria Heterotrophic different feeders Examples decomposers nitrogen fixers and pathogens Gram staining coloring bacteria to differentiate between positive and negative Gram negative is generally more harmful Purple Pink Antibiotics anti life Miracle drugs that target and kill bacterial infections 39 Bacteria species change or evolve and are sometimes resistant to antibiotics 39 Tips to Fight Bad Bacteria Avoid using antibacterial soap Don t put antibiotics down the drain it could get into the ocean which would allow bad bacterias to build up an immunity to the drugs Always take the full course of your antibiotics Viruses Not cells Not alive 39 So antibiotics don39t work on them 39 And they cannot be killed Structure nucleus inside containing either RNA or DNA with a surrounding protein layer called a capsid Intracellular Parasites 0 They use the host cell s biosynthetic processes to make copies of themselves In other words they will enter the nucleus of one of our cells in order to infect us take over the cell and duplicate themselves the copies with then burst out of the cell killing it as they do so Prions similar to virus 0 Cause neurodegenerative diseases in mammals 39 Example Mad Cow Disease Some viruses are beneficial 39 Example Bacteriophages in the gut NonSelf Antigens White Blood Cells Main cells fight off invaders with nonself antigens Made in bone marrow from stem cells Transported around via the lymphatic system Kill pathogens that the antibodies attach themselves to SelfAntigens Immune System Proteins Blood Type Antigens 39 A person with blood type A will have type A antigen specific proteins on blood cells so white blood cells won t destroy them 39 So if type B blood is transfused into a person with type A blood the white blood cells Antibodies Made of proteins Human body produces them if we took antibodies in pill form they would just digested by our stomach so instead they d need to by injected directly into our blood stream in order to do any real good Antigens trigger antibody production Can be made from fungus penicillin Immune System Tissues Organs and Functions Tissues Organs and Functions 39 Lymphatic System Three Main Functions Drainage Drains water and uids often between cells back to the circulatory system Delivery Delivers white blood cells to where they39re needed Delivers fats absorbed from intestines to the circulatory system Disposal Transports cellular debris and foreign material from body tissues to lymph nodes for disposal How Does the Lymph Deliver Lymph Vessels have Smooth Muscles and Valves One way valves vein like structures which keep the lymph moving in the right direction Lymphatic Vessels transport uid bacteria and viruses Fun Fact The lymphatic system begins to function less efficiently as people age because their lymph valves ware out over time Functions of Immune System Organs Red Bone Marrow site of blood cell production including white blood cells such as lymphocytes phagocytes T and B cells and macrophages big eaters Lymph nodes 0 Disposal sites white blood cells accumulate 39 Enlarge during infections while lymphocytes and macrophages destroy pathogens there Macrophages cleanse lymph Lymphocytes activate defense mechanisms Spleen 39 Responsible for the disposal of old red blood cells and foreign debris 39 Removes damaged blood cells and microorganisms from blood 39 Pulp in the Spleen White pulp holds T and B cells Red pulp holds antibodies Fun Fact Humans can live without their spleens they are often removed after car accident related injuries In the event that the spleen is removed the liver red blood cells and lymph nodes antibodies will take over the spleen s responsibilities And some people even have a tiny spleen attached to their main spleen that could potentially help out in the event of removal MucusAssociated Lymphatic Tissue MALT 39 Located in the small intestines and the appendix 0 Half of the body s lymphocytes and macrophages are there to fight off pathogens in the digestive tract this could be why some people have iron stomaches 39 Gets rid of potentially harmful substances in our food 39 Surrounds intestines with immune cells Thymus Gland 39 Where Tcells multiply mature and are stored 39 Lymphocytes mature in the thymus as well 39 Lies on top of the human heart 39 Humans can live without the thymus gland but its a severe risk to ones health 39 Shrinks as we age Tonsils 39 Immune tissue at the back of the oral cavity 39 Helps fight off microbes from inhaled or ingested particles traps potentially harmful particles Leukocytes White Blood Cells 39 Constantly being produced 39 Comprise 1 of the blood in our circulatory system 39 Can be seen when blood is centrifuged 39 White Blood Cell count rises when the body is attacked by infections 39 Types Macrophages Engulf eat Pathogens Lymphocytes Cells that Target and Destroy Antigens Monocytes Activate Immune Response in Infected Areas Dendritic Present Antigen on Cell Surface Mast Cells Release Histamines which cause Allergies Fun Fact If you get part of your liver removed it will eventually grow back 39 Three Basic Defense Systems Barrier Systems NonSpecific doesn t specify what it protects you from 39 Innate your body does it automatically without being taught 39 Simple first line of defense against disease causing invaders Skin tightly packed epidermal cells which are constantly shedding top layer is entirely dead skin Mucus Membranes and Secretions neutralize microbes hairs nose and cilia nose and throat catch and remove microbes Examples tears mucus saliva and urine Processes eXpel microbes Examples sneezing coughing diarrhea and vomiting Drinking water helps Chemical Factors Lysozyme sebum highacidity gastric juice vaginal secretions act as microbial barriers B acteria help by killing other microbes Fun Fact Smoking kills cilia so smokers get sick more often 39 NonSpecific Immune System Innate Second Line of Defense 0 Phagocytes eating cell engulf pathogens Example Macrophages circulate within tissue uid engulf dead or dying cells bacteria debris and foreign material 39 Complement Proteins Flag pathogens to be ingested by phagocytes Some kill microbes directly surround invader causing osmotic pressure change blows up the bacteria by fill in it with too much water 39 Interferons stimulate the production of proteins that interfere with viral reproduction and protect the host cell from viral infection antimicrobial protein could possibly treat cancer 39 Natural Killer Cells Release chemicals that disintegrate the cell membranes of tumor cells and virusinfected cells touch kill celltocell combat NonSpecific don t target specific antigens Don t respond to immunization and don t produce memory cells 39 Mast Cells Secrete Histamines Cause In ammation trigger arterioles to dilate Local Response causes swelling heat and pain Make capillaries leaky so that phagocytes can escape and eat bacteria Platelets seal up the wound Localized Fever Pathogens can t survive higher temperatures Speeds up defense cells and reactions that help and repair infected areas 39 Reactions In ammation attracts phagocytes and promotes tissue healing four components redness warmth swelling and pain Fever makes the internal environment less hospitable to pathogens and fosters the ability to fight infections Fun Fact Vaccinations produce the same response in our bodies as the actual pathogen but far less severely and only in one small area of the body For example the shot for tetanus causes stiffness and soreness around the injection site usually the upper arm because tetanus causes lockj aw hence the stiffness 39 Specific Immune System Highly Specialized targets specific pathogens so the body builds up an immunity to them Third Line of Defense Not Innate we re not born with it our bodies must learn and adapt 39 Adaptive Immunity developed over time the body Will remember an antigen 01 particular pathogen after coming into contact with it Vaccinations eXpedite this process T and B Cell Lymphocytes 39 Components of the adaptive immunity response system 39 When detecting a pathogen they communicate with other immune system components 39 Have receptors for specific antigens 39 T Cells Mature and are stored in the thymus Killer T Cells Cytotoxic Used for cellmediated immunity responses Get to pathogens that invade inside cells by killing the entire infected cell touch kill with the help of complement proteins Activated by the presence of Antigen Presenting Cells Helper T Cells Stimulate other immune cells help bind self MHC markers with the foreign antigens on Antigen Presenting Cells Activates T and B cell responses Produce proteins called cytokines cell movement signal to other immune cells Help launch both antibody mediated immunity and cell mediated immunity 39 B Cells Spend time in the lymph nodes and intestinal uid Produce Antibodies plasma cells Antibodies ag antigens for destruction by phagocytes lymphocytes or complement proteins Facilitate antibody mediated immunity Can be antigen presenting cells When divided can become effecter cells plasma cells that act to destroy others become memory B cells or Natural Killer cells Memory B Cells Remember antigens of previously encountered pathogens builds immunity Vaccinations work because of memory B cells Vaccines or booster shots have the look an feel of the pathogen so the body produces B and T cells to keep for future infections shots rarely get you sick 39 Cell Responses Cell Mediated Immune Response Lymphocytes attack infected cells directly macrophages engulf microbes bacteria or virus and present their antigens to helper T cells helper T cells activate killer T cells which target infected cells possessing specific antigens and destroy them directly memory T cells are created in case of further infections Antibody Mediated Immune Response Humoral Immunity Antibodies from Blymphocytes help ag antigens for lymphocytes to recognize macrophages engulf microbes bacteria or Virus and present their antigens to B cells B cells signal plasma cells another form of B cell to produce antibodies Which Will neutralize infected cells or ag them for destruction by phagocytes memory B cells are created in case of further infections Antigen Presenting Cells 39 Macrophages Dendritic and B Cells 39 Engulf pathogens 39 Break down antigens on the outsides of pathogens with the help of lysosomes 39 Bind antigens and MHC markers together Dendritic Cells 39 Alert the adaptive immune system when an antigen is present in tissue uid skin or body lining 39 Can become Antigen Presenting Cells Monocytes 39 Help replenish macrophages and dendritic cells to keep in reserve 39 Help fight infections by moving quickly to the site of in ammation to divide and differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells Immunity Active Immunity acquired immunity through contact with pathogen or immunization 39 Examples Naturally Acquired contact with pathogen reaction of ones own system Artificially Acquired vaccines intentional eXposure to inactive pathogen Passive Immunity antibodies passed from mother to child or through gamma globulin shots 39 Examples Naturally Acquired immunity transferred through breast milk inoculated borrowed immunity Artificially Acquired gamma globulin shots generally boosts immune system Defense Proteins Cytokines 39 Used for cell to cell or cell to tissue communication 0 Cause in ammation fever T and B cells to divide and specialize stimulate bone marrow stem cells attract phagocytes to pathogens and activate Natural Killer lymphocytes to kill cancer cells and cells infected by viruses 39 Can kill tumor cells by themselves and cause T C6118 t0 accumulate in lymph nOdBS during an infection stimulate the cellmediated immune response 39 Examples Interleukins Interferons and Tumor Necrosis Factor Fun Fact Cytokine Storms can kill you MHC Markers 39 Found on the outside of all cells to help with self or foreign recognition No two people have the exact same MHC proteins 39 MHC I on all cells except red blood cells and activate cytotoxic Tcells MHC II are found only on Antigen Presenting Cells such as macrophages and dendritic and Bcells Activated by helper T cells Antigens Each cell has its own antigens Foreign antigens are agged for antibody destruction Antibodies 39 Attach to antigens to signal for white blood cells to kill pathogens Activate complement proteins Neutralize toxins Five Antibody Classes of Immunoglobins 1 IgM first antibody released in any immune response 2 IgG 80 of antibodies in blood 3 IgA found in saliva and other exocrine gland secretions 4 IgE help with allergic response 5 IgD found on B cells Innate vs ablative immunity innate ablative di i r mina n present FEaEtIFI I5 against totem present mien IE j i TIEIQEI39I lag resume is immediate present response taleere at ieaet a few days Eimi ted the resume is Em iU tEd hih the resume i3 irezutx nlly tu the i m m lw in a wide H l m1 agents that in ated i39iL naive and ranttin in a wild TEka 39f EIWEI39EW slimll j hEI39EE Ilml t d EDECIECIW anmgan FEEEEWWE EUDEEQUEW rhesus II g t FEEEHE ub uem E ur FE THE meme a W generate the same respense agenilnuueeamfln drepensee Immune System Disorders Allergies 39 Reaction to harmless substance allergen as if it were an antigen Production of antibodies stimulates mast cells to release histamine or prostaglandins Extreme reaction can prevent breathing Anaphylactic Shock Treated with epinephrine powerful histamine 39 Sometimes inherited Autoimmune Disease 39 Immune system targets the proteins cells tissues and organs of a person S 0WD body Examples Rheumatoid Arthritis Macrophages and lymphocytes are unnecessarily activated by self antigens on joint cells causes joint in ammation Lupus Affects skin lungs kidneys and joints Can t recognize itself attacks own antigens Type 1 Diabetes Immune system attacks and destroys insulin secretory cells in the pancreas Body doesn t secrete enough insulin Glucose is lost in urine and needs to be constantly replenished Insulin administered with glucose monitoring Multiple Sclerosis Immune system attacks the myelin sheath around the axon of neurons Causes nerve tissue damage no insulation around the nerve Symptoms problems with motor coordination speech vision and swallowing Cause is undetermined possibly genetic or due to infection There is treatment for it but no cure Crohn s Disease Immune system attacks part of the digestive tract Anywhere from mouth to anus but usually its the small intestine Symptoms improper absorption of nutrients weight loss vomiting in ammation pain diarrhea and other symptoms can cause gluten intolerance Often genetic but can be environmentally induced as well Fun Fact Smokers are three times more likely than nonsmokers to contract Crohn s disease Immunodeficiency Can be acquired or inherited Results in weakened or nonfunctioning immune system Examples AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Acquired through HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus Inserts its RNA into lymphocytes helper T cells called CD4 T cells CD4 T cell count drops below 200 cellspl of blood Helper T cells are unable to function when they are viral factories and immune system breaks down Leads to chronic infection fatigue nausea weight loss and enlarged lymph nodes Death is usually from tuberculosis or cancer since body is unable to fight off disease Opportunistic Disease thrives off of other pathogens HIV Goes through reverse transcription to make DNA This DNA gets inserted into the host s chromosomes converting the cell into a viral factory There is no cure for HIV or AIDS Treatment can only slow down the replication process and suppress the virus Stop DNA from coding the HIV proteins Patterns of Infectious Disease How Pathogens are Spread Direct Contact through the exchanging of bodily uids Indirect Contact coming into contact with an infected object Inhalation breathing in a virus Contact with a Vector living things that carry pathogens Chapter 16 Cell Division Process of replicating our DNA and creating new cells Two types 39 Mitosis produces cells identical to the parent cell for replacement of skin cells lining stomach and blood cells 39 Meiosis produces gametes in gonads with half the number of chromosome 39l lhla m Hai a n in rates 15117 cell IlIFiIEl by humn nails ILEEll muse EmmaE HEE HMV 1 A was ig J f m Wu n will a will ran JU EHML L uL 7 7 7 c HUME in Metam ltmlial cells Spemamgnnia i ilmil m 217me spam rate may EllE ll39lE same In nl i age r J him a a 1 W Hi 4771777 W an H 1 g Unla wg J N If 4 ran 271 NH mr ar Wuquot a m Marin 1 HM M H2 lie mm H H Elllj l mm Hindi Eml 39lg llia l cells Euhrnwnr in the i quotwiwiliw EH mm W 7 mm matrix of henna wlm rm in grewH1 r mug Emmi 3515 armada Fun Fact Stem Cells divide the most often Body Cells 39 Somatic cells undergo mitosis 39 Have a diploid number of chromosomes 46 All chromosomes are in pairs 23 39 Paired chromosomes are homologous Share the same genes but may have different alleles 39 Parent cell replicates DNA before mitosis Mitosis Interphase happens before mitosis and is divided into 3 phases G1 phase cell grows S phase chromosomes duplicate G2 phase cell grows more and prepares for cell division 0 Prophase chromosomes present 2 sister chromatids attached by a centromere centrosomes form to make spindle fibers 0 Metaphase chromosomes line up in the middle at metaphase plate Anaphase chromosomes come apart spindle fibers pull on them Telophase cytokinesis follows two cells nuclear membranes reform Gametes Haploid cells chromosomes not in pairs 39 23 chromosomes in eggs and sperm Fertilization diploid zygote Half the chromosomes form each parent Zygote has homologous chromosomes Mixture of chromosomes from the parents Fun Fact Mitosis is responsible for replacing our skin cells after we get a sunburn MlT ll femmrlnlee JulEmil 39 pin lE Hill spindle amputated 71 ehmm min m f 39 Meiosis 39 Produces daughter cells having half the number of chromosomes found in parent cells 39 Parent cells are diploid Spermatogonium produce 4 sperm cells Oogonium produce one egg and 3 polar bodies Large egg is due to uneven cytokinesis 39 Meiosis 1 Create the Sperm and Egg Stages Prophase I Synapsis homologous chromosomes pair up as tetrads Crossing over can occur Metaphase I and Anaphase 1 Independent assortment Random line up of homologous chromosomes Telophase I 0 Meiosis II Stages Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase just like mitosis However unlike mitosis cytokinesis yields 4 genetically different cells IE is ii39lquot liedid hiii HE E n 1 a 39 i I Fun Fact The word chromosome actually means colored body
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