Midterm Study guide
Midterm Study guide POL 203
Popular in International Relations
Popular in Political Science
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Frannie Notetaker on Sunday March 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL 203 at University of Miami taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/15/15
POL 203 PREP Chapter 1 Collective good problem the problem of how to provide something that bene ts all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it Collective goods are easier to provide in small groups than in large ones Three basic principles dominance reciprocity and identity offer possible solutions to the core problems of getting individuals to cooperate for the common good without a central authority to make them do so Dominance establishing a power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below like a government but without an actual government eg UN ve superpowers hold vetoes Pros order stability predictability Cons oppression resentment Reciprocity rewarding behavior that contributes to the group and punishing behavior that pursues selfinterest at the expense of the group Pros Incentives for mutual cooperation Cons downward spirals complex accounting Identity it does not rely on selfinterest members of an identity community care about the interest of other in that community enough to sacri ce their own interests to bene t others Eg ethic group gender group or the world s scientists Pros sacri ce for group rede ne interest Cons demonizing an outgroup Levels of analysis individual domestic interstate and global FrancoPrussian War 18701871 WWI 19141918 WWII 19391945 Chapter 2 Realism explains international relations in terms of power Liberalism eg Woodrow Wilson emphasizes international law morality and international organizations rather than power alone as the key in uences on international events Sun Tzu showed rulers how to use power to advance their interests and protect their survivals Same time Thucydides wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War focusing on relative power among the Greek city states stating that quotthe strong do what they have the power to do and weak accept what they have to acceptquot Machiavellian refers to excessively manipulative power maneuvers After World War II scholar Hans Morgenthau argued that international politics is governed by objective universal laws based on national interests de ned in terms of power not psychological motives of decision makers He reasoned that no nation had quotGod on its sidequot a universal morality and that all nations had to base their actions on prudence and practicality He opposed the Vietnam War arguing in 1965 that a communist Vietnam would not harm US national interests Power is often de ned as the ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done Power In uence Relative power is the ratio of power that two states can bring to bear against each other What realists care about Realists believe that the international system exists in anarchy a term implies not complete chaos or absence of structure and rules but rather the lack of a central government that can enforce the rules Most realists think that IR cannot escape from a state of anarchy and will continue to be dangerous as a result In this anarchic world realists emphasize prudence as a great virtue in foreign policy Thus states should pay attention not to the intentions of other states but their capabilities Norms of behavior Sovereignty means that states should not intervene in the internal affairs of other states Realists acknowledge that the rules of IR often create a security dilemma a situation in which states actions taken to ensure their own security threaten the security of other states The responses of these other states in turn threaten the rst state The dilemma is a prime cause of arm races The security dilemma is a negative consequence of anarchy in international system Realists tend to see the dilemma unsolvable whereas liberals that it can be solved through development of institution Balance of power refers to the general concept of one or more states power being used to balance that of another state or group of states This makes the system stable that the states sovereignty does not collapse into a universal empire however it doesn t imply peace Bandwagoning opposed to balance weak states ally with a strong state Great powers strong military forces and economics Neorealism explains patterns of international events in terms of the system structure rather than in terms of the internal makeup of individual states Power transition theory holds that the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy when a rising power is surpassing the most powerful state According to this theory peace among great powers results when one state is rmly in the top position and the positions of the others in the hierarchy are clearly de ned and correspond with their actual underlying power Hegemony is one state s holding a preponderance of power in the international system allowing it to singlehandedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted Hegemonic stability theory holds that hegemony provides some order similar to a central government in the international system Hegemons can help resolve or at least keep in check con icts among middle powers or small states maintain free trade and global economic growth Alliance longer term Coalitionshorter term NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Article V members to come to the defense of a fellow member under attack Statecraft the art of managing state affairs and effectively maneuvering in a world of power politics among sovereign states Strategy of deterrence uses threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action Strategy of compellance used after deterrence failed refers to threat of force to make another actor take some action Prisoners Dilemma The collective goods problem is A quotquotU 00 the problem of how to provide something that bene ts all members of a group regardless of what each member attributes that states are taking unilateral security actions that the majority of world s resources are consumed by a small percentage of the world population that communes are no longer promoting economic growth that the global nancial system that is increasingly interconnected How do dominance and reciprocity compare as solutions to collective goods problems Dominance A B C D E relies on a power as a central authority whereas reciprocity operates without any central authority has advantages and disadvantages whereas reciprocity only has advantages forms the basis of most institutions in the international system whereas reciprocity has limited application is the basis of cooperation in the International Relations whereas reciprocity typically leads to con ict works best in small groups whereas reciprocity works better in large groups In 2010 Russia promised to give Iran nuclear fuel in return for its enriched uranium This type of nuclear deal can be considered as an example of which principal W009 Dominance Reciprocity Identity Collective Interest Collective Good Chapter 3 Liberal Theorists generally see the rules of International Relations as slowly incrementally evolving through time and becoming more and more peaceful This evolution results primarily from the gradual build of international organizations and mutual cooperation reciprocity and secondarily from changes in norms and public opinion identity Kent gave three answers based on reciprocity principle states could develop the organizations and rules to facilitate cooperation speci cally by forming a world federation UN at a lower level of analysis peace depends on the internal character of governments trade promotes peace economic interdependence An international regime is a set of rules norms and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain issue area Collective security refers to the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose forjointly opposing aggression by any actor Democratic peace refers to that although the democratic state ght war against authoritarian states democracies almost never ght each other Constructivism asks how states construct their interest through their interactions with one another Most con ict resolution uses a third party whose role is mediation between two con icting countries If both sides agree in advance to abide by a solution devised by a mediator the process is called arbitration Militarism is the glori cation of war military force and violence through TV lms books and other such avenues Realism recognizes only a negative kind of peace the temporary absence of war Positive peace refers to a peace that resolves the underlying reason of a war peace that is not just a cease re but a transformation of relationships Constructivist argue that state identities are constructed through socialization Based on the de nition of the term all but which of the following are likely agents of socialization the media elements of power educa on public discourse government institutions W009 When US PresidentJimmy Carter invited Palestinian and Israeli leaders to camp David in 1978 to discuss a possible peace treaty this illustrate the concept of mediation citizen diplomacy arbitration anage shuttle diplomacy mane The glori cation of war and military force and the structuring of society around war is known as the militaryindustrial complex national security militarism warrior cult structural violence W009 Negative Peace A focuses on the underlying reasons for war positive peace B is initiated by the aggressive party to the war C refers to proxy wars D refers to the temporary absence of war Chapter 4 Decision making is a steering process in which adjustments are made as a result of feedback from the outside world Models of Decision Making The sequence of steps in the rational model of decisionmaking is clarify goals order goals by importance list alternatives to achieve goals investigate consequences of alternatives and choose the course ofacUons Decision makers are accepting of risk or averse to risk Organizational process model foreign policy decision makers generally skip the laborintensive process of identifying goals and alternative actions relying instead for more decisions on standardized responses or standard operating procedures Government bargaining model foreign policy decisions result from the bargaining process among various government agencies with somewhat divergent interests in the outcome Individual Decision Makers They not only have differing values and beliefs but also have unique personalities Individual decision making diverges from rational model in at least three systematic ways i ii iii Decision makers suffer from misperceptions and selective perceptions when they compile information on the likely consequences of their choices Information screens are subconscious lters through which people put the information coming in about the world around them Often they simply ignore any information that does not t their expectations The rationality of individual costbene t calculations is undermined by emotions that decision makers feel while thinking about the consequences of their actions an affect referred to as affective bias Cognitive bias are systematic distortions of rational calculations based not on emotional feelings but simply on the limitations of the human brain in making choices The attempt to produce cognitive balance and reduce cognitive dissonance and achieve through wishful thinking an overestimate of the probability of a desired outcome Two speci c modi cations to the rational model of decisionmaking have been proposed to accommodate psychological realities a Bounded rationality takes into account the cost of seeking and processing information Good enough to meet some minimal criteria Prospect theory provides an alternative explanation of decisions made under risk or uncertainty In the editing phase they frame the options available and the probabilities of various outcomes associated with each option Then in the evaluation phrase they assess the options and choose one Prospect theory holds that evaluations take place by comparison with a reference point which is often the status quo but might be some past or expected situation Groupthink refers to the tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences because individual members tend to go along with ideas they think the others support Militaryindustrial complex refers to a huge interlocking network of governmental agencies industrial corporations and research institutes working together to supply a nation s military forces It was a response to the growing importance of technology and of logistics in Cold War military planning The model of decisionmaking relies on standard operating procedures A rational organizationprocess risk aversion individual government bargaining F1009 is the tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences since individual members tend to go along with ideas they think the others support Reserve psychology Satisfying Groupthink Internal dissonance Pessimistic bias W009 Some scholars believe that former secretary of state John Foster Dulles had such personal prejudice against communism that he always assumed the worst of Soviet decision makers This is an example of A misperception B wishiful thinking C coginitive bias D jusiti cation of effort E Affective bias What did Harry Truman s sign quotThe buck stops herequot illustrate about his role in foreign policy decisionmaking A He was not willing to waste money B He was the sole decisionmaker C Foreign policy decisions were ultimately his responsibility D His opinion was more important that anyone else s E He was not interested in foreign policy According to the concept of bounded rationality decision makers A will choose the best response to a situation B will choose a response that is good enough to meet some minimal criteria C Use historical analogies in responding to a situation D Make choices within the boundaries established by groups within the government E Edit options and possible outcome and then assess the opinions and choose one When students exhibit a tendency to not want to challenge a professor s arguments because they assume he or she is an expert and knows better this could be an example of A affective bias B selective perception C cogninitive bias D groupthink E satisfying Chapter 5 Types of War Hegemonic War a war over control of the entire world order the rules of the international system as a whole including the role of world hegemony Eg WWII Total war warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another Limited War includes military actions carried out to gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy Civil War war between fractions within a state trying to create or prevent a new government fro the entire state or some territorial part of it Guerrilla War includes certain kinds of civil wars is warfare without front lines Con ict in IR refers to armed con ict the condition against which bargaining takes place The individual level of analysis on this level theories about war center on rationality The domestic level of analysis this level draws attention to the characteristic of states or societies that may make them more or prone to use violence in resolving con icts The interstate level Theories at this level explain wars in terms of power relations among major actors in the international system The Global Level At the global level of analysis a number of theories of war have been proposed Economy 100year cycle These cycle theories at best can explain only general tendencies toward war in the international system over time Con ict of idea Nationalism devotion to the interests of one s own nation over the interest of other state may be the most important force in world politics in the past two centuries Ethnic con ict is quite possibly the most important source of con ict in the numerous wars now occurring throughout the world Ethnic groups are large groups of people who share ancestral language culture or religious ties and a common identity Ethnocentrism or ingroup bias is the tendency to see one s own group in favorable terms and an out group in unfavorable terms Genocide systematic extermination of ethnic or religious groups in whole or in part to try to destroy scapegoated groups or political rivals Eg Nazi Germany Religious Con ict Ideological Con ict ideology is like religion it symbolizes and intensi es con icts between groups and state more than it causes them Con icts on Interest Territorial disputes con icts over control of territory Secession Efforts by a province or region to secede from an existing state are a special type of con ict over borders Interstate borders Border disputes between existing states are taken more seriously by the international community but are less common than secessionist con icts Territorial Waters States treat territorial waters near their shores as part of their national territory De nitions of such waters are not universally agreed upon but norms have developed in recent years Control of governments Economic Con ict Drug Traf cking this is smuggling while deprives states of revenue and violates states ega control of their borders The idea of wars occurring according to predictable cycles refers to the level of analysis a domestic a rational an individual an interstate a global W009 quotDemocratic states are unlikely to go to war with each otherquot This statement constitutes an example of level of analysis of war a domestic a rational an individual an interstate a global W009 Military action carried out to gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy is war between factions within a state trying to create or prevent a new government for the entire state or some part of it is war total limited limited civil civil hegemonic hegemonic total guerilla limited W009 which of the following is characteristic of guerrilla war WU The US invasion of Iraq in 2003 is an example of Civilians often expose he guerrillas to opposing forces Civilians are often punished along with guerrilla forces because the two cannot be distinguished Guerrilla ghters directly confront the enemy army Guerilla ghters do not control any speci c territory Skirmishes often take place along the xed front line of battle war Limited According to quotclash of civilizationsquot thesis proposed by Samuel Huntington A B C D E liberal democracies will prevail over other types of governance in the postCold War world International con icts in the coming years will take place between the world s major cultural groupings There is nothing inherent in cultural differences that would cause con ict Global nancial crises will be the most important source of international con ict in the postCold War world There will be a signi cant decrease in the number of con icts in the postCold War world Secession movements A E are rarely successful B sometimes want to merge their territory a neighboring state C D Are treated as domestic problems that are of little concern to other states Attempt to draw international borders around a province or region to create a new state All of the above Chapter 6 Conventional Forces Land forces Controlling territory Foot soldiers are called infantry Counterinsurgency warfare has become central to the missions of uniformed military forces worldwide Naval Forces Controlling the seas Aircraft carriers are instruments of power projection that can attack virtually any state in the world Air Forces Controlling the skies serve several purposes strategic bombing of land or sea targets quotclose air supportquot interception of other aircraft reconnaissance and airlift of supplies weapons and troops Coordinating Forces Logistics and Intelligence Evolving Technologies Terrorism political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately Statesponsored terrorism refers to the use of terrorist groups by state to achieve political aims Counterterrorism Weapons of Mass Destruction Nuclear Weapons the world s most destructive weapons Ballistic Missiles of Other Delivery Systems delivery systems for getting nuclear weapons to their targets are basis of states nuclear arsenals and strategies The main vehicles are ballistic missiles Chemical and Biological Weapons releases chemicals that disable and kill people Proliferation the spread of weapons of mass destruction into the hands of more actors Nuclear Strategy and Arms Control States and Militaries Military Economies Choices about military forces depend on the connection between a state s military spending and its economic heath Control of Military forces States control military forces through a chain of command running from the highest authority through a hierarchy spreading out to the lowest level soldiers CivilMilitary Relations Many states especially democratic states adhere to a principal of civilian supremacy the idea that civilian leaders are at the top of the chain of command civilians decide when and where the military ghts and the officers are suppose to control how the military ghts The interaction of civilian with military leaders are civilmilitary relations is an important factor in how states use forces Chapter 7 Roles of international organizations International norms are the expectations actors hold about normal international relations International organizations include intergovernmental organizations such as UN and nongovernmental organizations such as Red Cross The United Nations The UN system closest thing to a world government The UN charter is based on the principles that states are equal under international law that states have full sovereignty over their own affairs The Security Council responsible for maintain international peace and security and for restoring peace when it breaks down Five permanent members China US Britain France and Russia Peacekeeping forces The Secretariat is the closest thing to a quotpresident of the worldquot that exists The General Assembly made up of all 193 member states of the UN each with one vote International law is much more difficult to enforce the enforcement depends on the power of states themselves individually or collectively to punish transgressors States can pursue grievances against each other in World Court Most legal cases concerning international maters remain entirely within the legal systems of one or more states National courts hear cases brought under national laws and can enforce judgments by collecting damages or imposing punishments Which of the following is FALSE with respect to international norms A B E They can be effective because they become habitual over time and gain legitimacy They are ineffective when different states or regions hold different expectations of what is normal C They are frequently ineffective D They are sometime institutionalized through organizations in which states participate to manage speci c issues They are effective when states refrain from behaviors for reasons having little to do with material calculations All of the following are regional IGOs EXCEPT the W909 European Union Association of South East Asian Nations Southern Cone Common Market African Union United Nations NGOs include organizations such as P 0 Greenpeace and International Olympic Committee Amnesty international and the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries The International Red Cross and European Union The international political Science association and UN E The World Trade Organization and the African Union
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