NUTR Quick Notes study guide- EXAM 4
NUTR Quick Notes study guide- EXAM 4 Nutr 2360
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aisha Dewees on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutr 2360 at Texas State University taught by Hannah Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Basic Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
NURT Exam 4 Study Guide Energy Balance Weight Maintenance o Calories in = Calories out o Includes some physical activity Wait Gain o Calories in are greater than calories out o Includes minimal to no activity Weight Loss o Calories in are less than calories out o Greater physical activity Energy Intake: Kcal Eating Behavior Regulation o Hunger Desire to consume Trigged by internal signal Physiological o Appetite Desire to consume specific foods Eternal cues Independent psychological o Satisfiability Felling full/ Satisfied Filling hunger and appetite No desire to eat o Receiving sensory cues from vagus nerve Stretching stomach, sensors in glucose and cck, and signals to stop Set Point Theory o Your body over time maintaining a stable weight, a comfortable weight Energy Expenditure o Basal Metabolic Rate All essential functions: minimum energy required to keeps basic bodily functions, and keep warmth 60-70% of energy output RMR o BMR Calculations (lbs/2.2) x kcal x 24 hrs Male: 1 kcal/kg/hr Female 0.9 kcal/kg/hr Factors: Increased: increased body mass, male, exercise, fever, hyperthyroidism, and pregnancy Decreased: aging, female, fasting, hypothyroidism o Physical Activity Planned: walking, yard work, cooking, work-related activities Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): body heat, fidgeting, posture o Thermic Effect 5-10% of all energy consumed 20-30% from protein 5-10% from carbs 0-3% from fat Measuring Energy Output o Directly vis body heat o Indirect via expired air o Short Cut estimator: weight kg x cal/kg (ROT) o EER: Men: 662-(9.53 x AGE) + physical activity x (15.91 x weight kg + height Meters) Women: 354 – (6.91 x age) + physical activity x (9.36 x kg + 726 x meters) Activity level Measuring Composition o Is: lean mass + bone mass + fat mass o Underwater weighing o Bodpod o Skinfold thickness o Bioelectrical impedance o DEXA Percent body fat o Female 21-32% o Male 8-19% o As age increases, lean mass decreases and fat increases Fat Location o Subcutaneous Adipose in skin Gynecoid in hips and legs o Visceral Surrounding organs Android (abdomen) BMI 2 o Weigh in kg / height in meters o problematic due to various levels of lean muscle o Under: <18kg/m o Over: 25-30 kg/m o Obese: over 30 kg/m Factors in Body Composition o Genes : 20-30 declared obese genes o Obesogenic environment o Family and education Benefits of Modest Weight loss o 5-10% loss can significantly improve health o Decrease risk of heart disease, diabetes, BP, LDL, and sleep apnea, reduced joint disease o Increase HDL, and improves PCOS Weight Loss o Goal no higher than, 10% o Loose 1lb a week; 3500 kcal decrease o Physical activity and behavior modification Maintain Weight o Eat breakfast o Self-monitoring o Planned activity o Social support Weight Cycling/ Fad Diets o Encourage rapid loss, but not change in behavior o Result in loss of water weight o Body Ideals: very large change and influence Fat Prejudice o Obesity- Lazy, lack of will power, and personal fault o Socially accepted, and rarely changed o Believed to be helpful o Media Portals Cause: 65% of obese adults 77% obese youth o Doctors: Provide less attention and time to patients Believe weight is the source of issues Patients receive less health care o Children: Victims of bullying Increased concern for weight and shape = depression Develops eating disorders Eating Disorders (Psychological) o Anorexia Fear of weight gain, resulting in starvation and denial o Bulimia Nervosa Fear of weight gain, resulting in binge eating and purging. Causes tooth erosion, ulcers, and self-shame o Binge- Eating Most common disorder, resulting in recurrent binges, no purging, and commonly associated with depression Food Insecurity Geographic & Economic vs Nutritionally & Culturally Food security is dependent on availability and adequacy Global Undernourishment o Not enough food to meet dietary requirements over 1 year o Effects 795 million people o Chronic o Overall decrease since 1990 Reducing Undernourishment o Strong safety net o Freedom from disaster o Avoid war USDA o Hunger Discomfort, illness, weak, pain; prolonged lack of food o Security In home with economic and social limitations/uncertain access to food o Food Security High Security ( no limited access) Marginal Security (little indication of limited access) anxiety o Food Insecurity Low Security ( reduced quality or verity; no reduce in intake) Very Low Security (many barriers in access, disrupted eating patterns; reduced intake) o USA 2014 …..32.8 million adults and 15.3 million children are food insecure 17.4 million insecure households Texas : 27% of children o Children 44% of SNAP participants >21.5 million in free lunch 15 million in poverty Cycle of Insecurity: Poor eating/ Nutrition = Inadequate Growth = Disease/Health Issues = Death Hunger-Obesity Paradox: o Coexistent; you can be hungry and obese at the same time o Linked in weight cycling and food stamp participants Food Deserts o Living at least one mile from a grocery store; limited quantity, quality and freshness Nutrition Assistance o SNAP: state varied, allowance determined by income, serving 46 million o WIC: federal help to women and children, serving 9million o National School Lunch Program: income based, for free or reduced school meals, serving 31 million o National Government Assistance: charitable programs- soup kitchens, food bank…, serving 37 million Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Fetal Development o Fertilization: Sperm and egg (energy) o Implantation: ~1 week Uterus is source of nutrition o Gestation: Cell division 2-8 weeks = embryo; 8+ weeks = Fetus Making of placenta Fetal Nourishment o Placenta New organ made to sustain blood, DNA, fetus, and hormones, and excrete fetal waste in pregnancy Ideally developing at the top of the uterus o Birth Weight Normal: 6-9lbs SGA ( Small Gestational): <10% under weight LGA (Large Gestational): > than normal weight o Premature Birth Preterm: <37 weeks (early) Low Birth Weight: <2.5kg (5lbs) under Very Low Birth Weight: <3 lbs under (fragile state) Weight Gain o Due to: Increased blood volume by 50% Increased body fat Development of placenta and uterine growth o Recommended gain of 3-5 lbs in 1 trimester Adding calories as you enter 2 ndand 3 trimesters o Risk of weight: Under: MOM: can impact uterine growth and cause premature birth BABY: SGA, LBW, and risk for diabetes and heart disease Over: MOM: preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and possible caesarian BABY: trauma and LGA Growth o WHO: weight chart for birth to 24 mo. o CDC: weight chart for ages 2-20 (US based) Nutritional Issues o Morning Sickness Can happen anytime of day Severe: Hyperemesis Gravidarum (extreme nausea and vomiting) o Hypertension Gestational is normal Preeclampsia: warning! Increases protein in urine and effects blood flow ECLAMPSIA: resulting in seizures and can lead to death (cause of death during pregnancy) o Gestational Diabetes Common; genetic and obesity based Increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes in mother; in ~5- 10 yrs Risk of T1 diabetes and LGA in baby Macronutrients o Most important need is in Iron: for brain development o Zinc to form DNA and decrease chance of malformation and still birth o Folate & B12 for Neural Tube Development o Calcium & Vitamin D for skeletal growth Food Safety o Liseriosis Can cause infection or abortion from consuming raw meats or milk o Toxoplasmosis Parasitic infection causing mental issues and miscarriage Avoid unwashed and raw foods; Avoid kitty litter Breast Feeding Best source of nutrients in infancy; however formula is equally beneficial o Barriers include: Biological (physical and genetic) Social (stigma and lack of support) Demographic (level of education) Psychological (confidence and community influence) Lactation o Making milk using Prolactin o Assisting in ovulation “Let Down” o Secretion of milk using Oxytocin Stimulated by suckling or baby cry o Assisting in uterine resizing o Mastitis: infection of mammary gland from milk build up Breast Milk o Colostrum: High protein, yellowish milk; very beneficial for developing GI tract o Transitional Milk: Mixture of colostrum and mature milk o Mature Milk: More closely resembles cow milk Foremilk: First part of feeding (low in fat and high in carbs to fulfill need) Hind milk: Second part of feeding (high in fat; determining satisfiability/Full) Weaning milk: high in protein and iron Milk Composition o Mostly water (isotonic; babies don’t need regular water) o Calories: 20kcal/oz Young infants consume 2-4 oz, 8/day Older Infants consume 6-8 oz, 5/day o Carbs: 40% o Proteins: 10% (lower than cow milk) Contains Lactoferrin with high iron Avoid cow milk in infancy to prevent gut damage o Fats: 50% Dependent of moms diet Good source of DHA and cholesterol Immune Capacity o Breast milk is sterile, has HMO, has Secretory IGA (protecting GI development), and promotes bacterial development Benefits o Baby: Decreased risk of infection, mortality, diabetes, cancer Increases brain development and teeth o Mom: Aids in weight loss and recovery Decreases change of disease, diabetes, or Post-Pardon depression o Community: Decreases cost in government and family homes by 3.6 billion Decreased cost in baby supplies due to less use of formula o Recommendations: Give breastmilk only, up to 6 months Combine solids and breastmilk until 1-2 years of age This is culturally dependent and will vary Effects o Can be culturally influenced; marital status, geography, age, education o Lack of support from employer, hospital and/ or lack of knowledge o Ability of produce or let down milk o Health can heavily influence lactation: smoking, obesity, diet o Intention can we swayed by depression or stress In the US o 81% have breastfed, and 60% roughly for 6 mo. o 38% of employers support o 14% of newborns receive formula within 2 days NutritiostDuring Lactation o 1 6months: Consume ~ 500kcal/day for milk production Remaining energy comes from weight loss o 2 nd6 months: Consume 400 kcal/day for milk Weight loss is not recommended o Do not exceed the Protein RDA of 25g/day
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