Anthro of Sport Exam 2 Study Guide
Anthro of Sport Exam 2 Study Guide anth 0710
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bree Scalzo on Monday March 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to anth 0710 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Yearwood in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 219 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Sports in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/16/15
Anthropology of Sport Exam 2 Study Guide Main Themes 0 Indigeneity in sport 0 Masculinity 0 Gender and sex in sports 0 Eugenics Who is indigenous 0 Cultural contact 0 What happens when different cultures meet 0 Who or what are the indigenous in our imagination 0 Who gets to playact Who or what gets shared Polynesian warriorwhat does it mean Native American Mascots o Dehumanization or honor Dan Snyder s letter Role of Indians Are all the symbols the same Do they send the same messages Positive or negative The Promise of Sports 0 How does sport determine masculinity o If boys don t play sports who are they o Is sports the natural thing for boys to do FathersBrothersUncles o Normalization of male only activities 0 Sports as a homosocial sphere 0 Men create other men Exclusion of women and what does it mean to become male The Body 0 Body as an object of attention 0 Body as a symbol 0 Do others shapedetermine our bodies 0 The body as perfect Different sports create different types of bodies and they send different kinds of messages Culture of two genders o Whowhat are sources of authority 0 Phallocentric We assume the world is separated and only exists in two genders Male and female Actual evidence of people born as both o Are altered immediately to t the gender sanctions we create Difference between sex and gender Genderwhat you are socially or culturally What the world expects from you Sex quotbiology or anatomyquot ldeal male and ideal female are on the ends of a spectrum with a lot in between What you are physically 0 Sex and gender may not be connected although we assume that the sex determines gender Based on expectation o Readings show gender is not absolute Renee Richards exampewas man became women Shows that people are born different than who they really want to become 0 0 Gender veri cation Testing 0 Based on fearmasqueradingunfair Wouldn t be fear if we recognized there weren t just two genders o Assumed physical difference between sexes o Conform to cultural stereotype of femininity o Masculine women Challenged what we know when women become fast muscular and better 0 History of Sex Testing 0 Competition between countries Dora Ratjen was a man who participated as a woman in the 1936 Olympic games because Hitler thought a man could be better than the women participants Just wanted to win gold for Germany 0 Need to improve athlete 0 Types of gender testing Physical examination Genetic testing with barr body test 0 Abandon all testing Production of better bodies lead to complications about what maleness and femaleness are Not everyone is being tested Why Lebron and Husain bolt are not being testing while Caster is Not acceptable for a woman to be so good at a sport Caster Semenya 0 Failure to conform to femininity Had short hair Dressed differently Posed like a man at the end Was very muscular First decide to test someone based on social presentation 0 No women could run that fast She demonstrated that she was too good and people thought you had to be male to be that good 0 How does one measure maleness and femaleness o Is sport success only attributable to masculinity Eugenics in Sports 0 Improving the human race Hitler s regimen about sterilization spread to US Although he took it too far and wanted to wipe out everyone he didn t think was perfect Jews physically and mentally retarded etc 0 Physical mental moral traits are inherited o Dependent on selection and transmission of right traits 0 Science used as a tool for racism 0 The Sports Gene 0 Comparison is typically quotBlackquot vs White Why Why not Asian vs indigenous o Phenotype decides genotype 0 What in uences sport success Michael Johnson was better because he trained on a bigger eld but he then attributed his history as a slave to his winnings Olympic training in Colorado to better the athlete s performance READINGS Title Author Summary Anthology and the Are we exploitive What constitutes Race Politics of Alberto Differs everywhere We need to stand lndigeneity Gomes with indigenous people Although the Samoan culture recognizes Tackling Paci c the third gender it is not acceptable in Hegemonic sports They are best known for football Formation Vincente Diaz and take pride in their masculinity Vote on whether or not the Washington Redskins should change their mascot Letter for Redskins was the name the British gave Washington to the scalped Indians Many more than Redskins Dan Snyder not wish for the name to be changed Looking Back to a Indian mascots can be seen as racist or a sign of culture and history Can be enriching or degrading Hope that one day there will be an end to the racist Future End Richard King mascots and symbols in schools Kids were expected to do well by coaches parents and siblings Seen as disappointment if couldn t live up to Boyhood expectation Sports were an outlet or a Organized Sports way to not get mixed up with the wrong and the crowd sense of community Sports were construction of Michael there to masculinize them must be Masculinities Messner winners no other option The body is an object of attention Can we The Perfectible be perfect No just an imaged history of Body Dutton popculture Babies are born all of the time as neither male nor female Quickly reassigned to a gender because we can only accept male The Medical and female genders nothing else We Construction of Suzanne chose who these babies become they Gender Kessler have no say in who they want to be Testing females if they were actually males Many genetic disorders show up as failed tests so many were wrongly Gender accused Just because someone has an Veri cation advantage doesn t make it unfair for Testing in Sport Ferris others Heinrich Ratjein was the only male to compete as a female in the Olympics Now if a female looks and performs Testing Sex and Vanessa masculine enough is tested to see if Gender in Sports Heggie really female Caster Semenya and the Myth of the Level Playing Field Erin Buzuvis People can have many different genetic makeups There are not strict gender lines Stop gender testing Semenya was bombarded with complaints that she was a man is actually a hermaphrodite The XY Games Jennifer Boylan Helen Stephans was accused of being a man because she broke the world record for 100 dash Turned out the previous record holder was a man who lived as a woman We should celebrate people for who they are and who they want to be Not test and pry them for answers to a perpetually nagging question of gender Eugenics Past Present and the Future Kenneth and Bettylee Ga rver Always wanting to improve the human race Racial hygienegt get rid of those who were unwanted for society Endorsed by Nazi s and supported by many Eventually turned to mercy killings and killing those deemed un t Sterilization laws were misused by those who had racist beliefs Eite Athletes are Is there a gene linked to elite athletes Evidence of predisposition to sprinting Born to Run Andy Coghlan and long distance running Study to see if there was a phenotypic Xhosa and Tertis difference between black and white Caucasian Gustavsson endurance athletes Yes difference but Runners Myburgh does it really explain why
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