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Bio 2 Midterm 2 Study Guide

by: Bree Scalzo

Bio 2 Midterm 2 Study Guide BIOSC

Marketplace > Biology > BIOSC > Bio 2 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Bree Scalzo
Foundations of Biology 2
Dr. Swiganova

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This is the Biology 2 Study Guide for the exam on Friday March 20. Happy studying!
Foundations of Biology 2
Dr. Swiganova
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bree Scalzo on Monday March 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOSC at a university taught by Dr. Swiganova in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 380 views.


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Date Created: 03/16/15
Bio 2 Midterm 2 Study Guide Lecture 91 Evolution by Natural Selection 0 Before Darwin 0 Buffonlearth is about 75000 years old 0 Curvierljdocumented fossils that showed extinction o Lamarkljorganisms can change but methodology was wrong 0 Lyellleeological forces then and now are changing the earth 0 Darwin 0 Theory of evolution by Natural Selection Descent with modi cation 0 Species may change over time 0 Species are related by common ancestry 0 Geological timescale Earth is 46 billion years old 0 Features 0 Transitionaltransitioned from water to land missing link because middle man features are not documented 0 Vestigialljpseudogenes No function Ex ostrich wings Descent from common ancestor o Monophyletic groupljcan trace all the birds of Galapagos nches to one common ancestor Results from speciation o Synapomorphiesljnewly derived characteristics yet shared Homology o Structuralljplesiomorphyljancestral characteristics shared by descendants Arm wing ipper have same bones yet different shapes Developmentalljgill pouches in chick human and cat embryos o Functionalljamino acid sequences for eye gene are similar in human and y 0 Lecture 92 Evolution by Natural Selection 0 Analogyljtraits are analogous if they have similar function but are derived from different sources Ex Wing of bat and bird Darwin s Postulates 0 Individuals in population vary in traits o Traits are heritable 0 Differential reproduction among individuals of a population 0 Natural selectionljlsome individuals in a population are more likely to survive and reproduce thus contribute to the next generation 0 Resistance 0 Evolution of drug resistance A change mutation occurs Drug therapy kills most bacteria Mutant cells proliferate Drug therapy is ineffective against mutant cells 0 Ex Tuberculosis herbicides and insecticide Limitations of natural selection 0 Nonadaptive traits traits that are carried over generations but have no evolutionary advantage Ex Nipples in males 0 Fitness tradeoffljamount of energy to do something vs effectiveness of action 0 Historical constraints Synomophic characteristicscharacters shared by some but not all Plesiomorphiccharacteristics shared by all Lecture 101 Evolutionary Processes o HardyWeinberg Principle 0 Mathematical relationship that relates genotypes to allelic frequencies 0 Fundamental claimsif the frequencies of alleles A1 and A2 in a population are given by p and q then the frequencies of A1A1 A1A2 and A2A2 will be given by p2 2pq and q2 Allele frequencies pq1 Genotype frequencies p22pq q2 o Po2 2pq12 o Qq2122I0q o 5 assumptions 1 random mating 2 no natural selection 3 no genetic drift 4 no gene ow 5 no mutation 0 allows biologists to see if any evolutionary processes are taking place 0 Case Studies 0 NM blood type has no evolutionary advantage 0 HLA Genes heterozygous individuals have evolutionary advantage Lecture 102 Evolutionary Processes Nonrandom mating o lnbreedingincreases homozygosity and decreases heterozygosity known as inbreeding depression No evolution occurs Lower tness May not survive viral infection or quick changes in environment 0 Sexual Selectionselecting mates based off of speci c phenotypescompetition Leads to changes in allelic frequencies Female choices for parental care Types of Natural Selection 0 Directionalaverage phenotype of a population changes in one direction Reduces genetic diversity 0 Purifyingdisadvantageous alleles decline in frequency 0 Stabilizingreduced both extremes in a population No change in average value of trait over time Genetic variation reduced 0 Disruptivefavors both extreme phenotypes Only contains variation does not increase it May play part in speciation o Balancingno single allele has evolutionary advantage Results from environmental changes Frequencydependent selectioncertain alleles are favored when rare but not when common Sexual Selection 0 lntersexualselection of an individual of one gender for mating by an individual of another gender Ex Females choosing their mates 0 lntrasexualcompeting with one another of the same gender to obtain mates Ex Males competing for mate The Fundamental Asymmetry of Sex 0 Sexual selection acts more strongly on males than females Why Energy cost of egg production is much higher than sperm production Sexual Dimorphism o Traits that differ between males and females 0 Females will chose males based on certain traits Brighter and more extravagant are usually seen as higher tness Genetic Drift 0 Any change in allele frequencies in a population that is due to change 0 Key points ls random in respect to tness ls most pronounced in small populations Can lead to random loss or xation of alleles over time 0 Cannot determine average tness from genetic drift Founder Affect 0 Species move to a different area from a larger population and make a new population and the new population has a different and smaller genetic variation than the old Changes allelic frequencies through genetic drift Bottleneck o A sudden reduction in the number of alleles in a population Genetic drift occurs 0 Gene Flow 0 The movement of alleles between populations Introduction of new alleles Homogenizes allele frequencies among populations Gene ow may increase or decrease tness Mutations o Is an evolutionary process that increases genetic diversity in populations 0 Extremely slow mechanism of evolution and only one to increase genetic variability Lecture 111 Speciation How to Classify Species 0 Biological Speciesmain criterion for identifying species is reproductive Prezygotic isolationprevents individuals of different species from mating Can be temporal habitat behavioral genetic mechanical Prezygotic offspring of mating between members of different species do not survive or reproduce Ex Mules and igers Disadvantagesljcannot see from fossil records or asexual species 0 Morphological Species Conceptspecies are determined from differences in size shape or other morphological features Share characteristics due to evolutionary history Polymorphic speciesonly one specie but have different phenotypes Cryptic species cannot be identi ed with this concept because they differ in traits other than morphology o Phylogenetic Species Conceptidentify species based on evolutionary history of populations Monophyletic groupclade or lineage Consists of ancestral population all of its descendants Not every monophyletic group is a species though Synapomorphicytrait that is found in certain groups of organisms and their common ancestors but missing in more distant ancestors Disadvantagesljlateral gene transfer makes the tree wrong slitiriiam WM rquot 5 Spieljigs irritants 7 if quot 7quotWiiigii4aligimilimgi F m ht nsn imm W m 39 39 l El E15 Inigglm lQE FHELfllr Lfm 1quot r l2 ii39l39t i39 t39ll Fltwantquot u Eadie i Barri EN rah SHE amuse IT mail wart M2 J uhi mimic l rml f g lj 39l i i39t E FIE GM ll1quot ff fiilli39 ii39i tl C quotTHE quotill JEWEL9 ll l g li 39 uii39 39EnJii ill 39Cl39I39L39iiEj awquot ii IEMr as 1an tram t EHHEEUIL IE 39n m u Ill lrl39 hIJ l l Miniml i tigers mm in matr 3 lap Emit n 39 39ugl39ZuLiua Equot mamair rard n Edgiiaij39 ifsfhl a l rm Tannin mil nT39HIf39ili lawn Misfit cl quot nialca ruger flu ZINE cm Wquot 5 2392 will 333quot ii I BE 139quot H Um i ll 3 DE II 3 Phylgtnnlril Email an rsznmg oarrd at Fm Tiesquotri39lcwr1rlll mil1mm ihn figumcr rm LM39g U39Hr aimildl Eanm c r than h fSFiW gm 3 at statueguru quotmi 2514 gl hi i 5 5le I but I39 I Speciation is a process of formation of two or more different species 0 Allopatric speciation is speciation via geographically separated populations Vicarianceinterruption of gene ow Physical separation of populations via land mass mountain formation river formation Etc Dispersal one part of the population moves away from the other and colonizes a new area 0 Sympatric speciation is speciation within the same geographic area External Disruptiveselect for extreme phenotypes based on ecological niches Internal 0 Chromosomal mutations such as polyploidy o Autoploidyljdoubling chromosome number 0 Allopolyploidyljparents of different species mate and produce offspring with two different sets of chromosomes Offspring are functioning and may even outperform their parents 2 un tsaw Naif frl I Mechanisms of Egrmpaitrit LEpH atEnn Frames Emmy5i lEtflilii ili l39t 39ilk39j iattl39 m if trimLIL L39Egi 39ult39ul martian l1 llilliil39fl39llrquot il HIM lawmu39lair39w 1Ha1 isI rl aquot a lquot a J39uquot dualt4 lowgiggly aquall 39539 ix I7J i Jarunmi Iquotl IN Erwini 39a awldianli an Il39l ralsa Ill quotlului1 MaulJ Inlli llh 39 f I an 1 quotMir mam M E l f inf um err ii39i Iiquot39 1Ii 1 Iquotquot39J M quotii Ful llil39idiifi39li i I 11quotE 39ai h 39 39 ifr I JlliE li i I 3 IEEE E I Z he II Gertlit pig a n 39l39sil tl Judaic13 n cl Hermon glut35 55 iquot l i ll g h39 luil Fig395 E Jr Ira4 5345 this f niCl i h rni39TJ 5 I flilfxa iLE E39Il r ir 1 32quotquot ii J Mien lagz iz iii Erwin Eli rillrc39J ranc m i me Hiil tram i39F Heiizai39sgse mcgJ lotiruli39casetitl LEEJM Paganinig 539 again llllln Initial ll fi39lfhEIIUIFI 55m Ii lj la I quotI 39 llziaiir aquotua39ila i mi i39ill3quotFTPBaIZC39IMIi39Eahij in a srmllclMquot Eif39 WWW quotElitart El l LHlE39llMihl l i qu Risa Firing ui 39iw thiii39ifuair in p rill leiEMILE Haggai MEL uiTli39ali 93973 man 5 DGEquotELquot EM 39139 a l quotMilli HELENE EUtI i F39lCllnquotlh39 Hf Til E2 quotTEETHnah Hi WE39lfllquotcn39iHF hirm ailalnia ti i tl fg ll39 itquot mi rli lo quot two N 39Illiriiriirh r39ilijujlijliu39 39l winI LilTe lquot nu I39fE m Manila Azmil In mutant E39FI39u1T IE3TFI1lIZIIhD39Ir z ifsa rainrtl39rmnplcnn til 1 E Lr39mui m1 state we E r 5le I l39 1 Lecture 112 Speciation o What Happens when Isolated Populations come into Contact 0 Reinforcementleatural selection for traits that isolate populations Prevent interbreeding between recently diverged species The hybrids have lower divergence Allopatric over sympatric species are more willing to mate 0 Hybrid Zones a geographic area where interbreeding occurs and hybrid offspring are common Offspring are viable and result in fusion of populations Hybrids have lower tness with skeletal and developmental abnormalities 0 New Speciation Through Hybridization HybridizationThe hybrid offspring create a third new species that has unique combination of alleles from each parental species and therefore different characteristics Hybrids may outperform their parents or utilize novel ecological niches or have lower tness Lecture 12 Phylogenies and the History of Life Phylogenetic Tree 0 Graphical summary of history showing ancestordescendant relationships estimate of evolution Parsimony Criterion o The tree that requires the least amount of change to explain the data in hand is the most likely explanation of evolutionary history 0 Homologysimilarity in organisms due to common ancestry Cladistics Approach 0 By Willi Hennig Relationships among species can be reconstruction by identifying shared derived characteristics Looking for synaptomorphic characters Synomorphies trait found in two or more taxa that is present in their more recent common ancestor but missing in more distant one Allow biologists to recognize monophyletic groups Lecture 12 Phylogeny and the History of Life 0 Phylogenetic Tregraphical summary of history showing ancestor descendant relationships is an estimate of evolution Cladistics 0 Relationship among species can be reconstructed by identifying shared derived characters Looking for synapomorphic characters Parsimony Criterion o The tree that required the least amount of change to explain the data at hand is the most likely explanation of evolutionary history Based on homologysmiilarity in organisms due to common ancestors Not to be confused with homoplasytraits that are similar for reasons other than ancestry Homoplasy may result from convergent evolution 0 When natural selection favors similar solutions to the problems posed by a similar way of making a living in different species ls rare 0 Tree Topology and Associated Vocabulary o Monophyletic groupljincludes all descendant of a common ancestor o Synapomorphyljshared derived characteristics 0 Polyphyletic groupan unnatural group that includes some distantly related taxa based on homoplasy Whale and Hippo Evolution Case Study 0 O O Showed similar SlNEs in whales and hippos This is a synaptomorphic character Used phylogenetic and morphological species concept Conclusion Whales are closely related to hippos


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