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art 208

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School: University of Oregon
Department: Art
Course: History of Chinese ART
Professor: Charles lachman
Term: Winter 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Description: This study guide has the 15 questions Professor Lachman sent us to know for the test. Each question is addressed with images and text.
Uploaded: 03/17/2015
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ARH 208 FINAL STUDY GUIDE HISTORY OF CHINESE ART


Who is the first emperor to establs an academy of paiting?



If you have any concerns about the content of this study guide, feel that any  information is missing, or would like notes on any subjects, feel free to contact me.  dmontzka@uoregon.edu thank you!

1. Identify and discuss the chief characteristics of Northern Song Monumental Landscape Painting

Northern Song monumental landscape painting.  Song Dynasty: 960-1279

Northern Song (960-1127)

Southern Song (1127-1279)

Key words: 

Landscape “Shanshui”: Shan=mountain, ying yang  couple of rock and water, Shui= water/rivers,  cosmologically significant thinking of how nature has  relationships with each other

“wenren”: educated elite artists, used painting as a  means of self expression

3 parts of painting:

1. outline

2. texture stroke, “cun”

3. wash

Artists: 

-Li Cheng


What is Chan painting?



-Fan Kuan

Li Cheng (Northern Song ca. 975 ) “Buddhist Monastery” Fan Kuan (Northern Song ca. 1000 ) “Travelers Among  Mountains”  

-Large, monumental center mountain  


The "Yuan Revolution" in painting refers to?



We also discuss several other topics like ece 598

Guo Xi (Northern Song ca. 1072 ) “Early Spring”

If you want to learn more check out uiuc econ 102

-This “landscape” painting is less landscape than what we’ve  seen in previous examples as its internal structure is unique and  different than the huge monumental mountain in the middle

-Guo Xi

Key Characteristics: 

- Monochrome ink

- Symmetrical

- extreme emphasis of the texture stroke and how  different patterns of the texture stroke give a different  look and feeling

-3 stage painting process

1. outline: calligraphic line that is variable in its  form, thin, thick, dark, or light

2. texture strokes: gives definition and shading  to an object

3. wash: used to pull the painting together, can  eliminate the line and blend the texture. in some ways  creates a hazy or foggy distance

-3 part spatial production  

1. foreground

2. middle ground

3. background

-multidimensional perspectives: the different grounds  of the spatial production often have different perspec tives such as looking down on the landscape, looking up  to it, etc.  

- All examples are hanging scrolls of ink on silk -Use painting as a vehicle for self reflection

-monochrome ink  

-symmetrical

-multiple perspectives  

-3 distinct distances or “grounds”  

-employs 3 step execution

outline, texture strokes, wash

-calligraphic line

- “gewu” = “investigation of things” meditative view in how  to perceive the natural world  

-from these investigations you can understand principals  about how the natural world works: for example if you can  understand a tree, you can understand its larger part, the  forrest  

-In this picture it would be the rock and the mountain. The  rock has the same quality and principals as a mountain on  a larger scale If you want to learn more check out cedarville moodle

-picture is inhabited by figures in the foreground and at the  monastery

-the architectural monastery piece in these landscape  paintings are executed differently than the rest of the 3 step  process. The building is composed of clean, thin, sharp  lines.

 

-extremely rare painting among early landscape paintings  because Kuan’s signature was discovered hidden in this  painting and it was undiscovered for more than 1000 years  -signature is among the leaf pattern --discovered through  microscopic magnification  

-artists do not sign their work yet in this period -many commonalities and seen as a follower of the Li Cheng  painting  

-single massive peak takes up ⅔ of the canvas  

-pale wash with barley any pigment creates a misty area that  spaces out the middle ground and the background--creating  perception of distance and separation  

-follows 3 stage execution

-temple details-- architectural style of drawing --very precise  in comparison to the rest of the painting Don't forget about the age old question of ucla physics

-natural world elements (trees) are very detailed  -narrative in the painting is not obvious but there are a  number of figures coming around the rocks and along the  bottom, pack animals trudging along their way  -trying to create an experience for the viewer  

-making a claim between the natural and human world--  “nature is bigger than human”

-artists spent months just wandering nature and then  returned to produce paintings of travels and explorations  

-DOES have a specific date and signature  

-in the linage of Li Cheng and Fan Kuan but Guo Xi is an  official painter of the court, where the other two were not -less symmetry and more of a curvy “s” twist in middle line  - spine of the mountain from bottom to top acts as a middle  separator Don't forget about the age old question of unt economics

- strong contrast between dark and light washes  - the architectural temple piece in this painting has more of a  boneless structure: artist uses the wash instead of the sharp line  to create this feature

-shape of this mountain is similar to the form of the “Taihu”  rock --comes from lake Tai

-these rocks were extremely popular items in the silk period  -perfect illustration of the Daioist belief that rock is the  immortal material  

-very few figures - only some climbing on the mountain path  and in the boat  

-two trunks emerging from a single root in the center pine tree  (originally from Li Cheng)-philosophically loaded idea  -clearly a self conscious reference to Li Cheng  

-famous crab claw branches  

-artist signature creates a tension or denial between the illusion  of the painting  

-presence of the signature yells that it is two dimensional contradicts the space and causes tension  We also discuss several other topics like dstl notes

SAME SAME DIFFERENT

2. Identify and discuss works produced at the Song Court Academies

Court Academy Paintings of the Song Period

Song Dynasty: 960-1279

-Northern Song Court: Emperor Huizong (1101-1126)  

-one of the most famous rulers in history

-first emperor to establish and academy of painting

-the emperor was a famous artist and calligrapher

-used a style of calligraphy referred to as “slender gold”  

- slender gold character chunks were not square any more, but more  elongated and had more accentuated features: unique calligraphy  -invented a sort of logo signature for himself saying “the most  important person in the world” --fused four words and made them  into one Chinese character that represents this saying^^

GROUPS / TYPES OF ARTISTS

NORTHERN SONG: court artists/ academy (academy of art, not scholarly)  artists/ professionals -- being commissioned to paint for the court, not doing  what they want  

VS

SOUTHERN SONG: wenren/ literati / scholar-official / amateur-- all one  group/category of artists, freedom to express themselves through painting,  don’t paint for money but trade paintings as currency

-see next question for examples

Southern Song COURT:

different from southern song

-paintings for the court

-emperor wrote the poems on the backs of the  

fan paintings

Emperor Huizong (Northern Song: court 12th Century )  “2 Finches and Bamboo” --handscroll

-small amount of pigment, polychrome -very realistic birds having a human-like interaction -extreme detail in the rendering of the bird--feather by feather  -used a dot of black lacquer for the eye to make it shiny and in crease the realism of the images  

-small, not monumental

-these bird and flower paintings meant “something” and stood for  an auspicious event  

-reflected some deeper meaning about something that could  happen in the court or to the emperor

- verisimilitude: “the quality of being real” lifelike-ness

Ma Yuan (Southern Song court 13th c.) “Scholar by a Waterfall”  silk album leaf

-for this one we do not  

have the attached poem.  

-12x12 painting album leaf

- a little more color than  

we see in monumental  

paintings  

- theme of returning or  

going somehwere to be  

enlightened

-learning something from  

an experience  

-this figure is engaged in an  

activity, engaged in using their eyes,  

-the figure is more apparent and important to the story of the  painting

-diagonal setting rather than straight across

-axe cut in rock

Emperor Huizong (Northern Song court 12th Century )  “5 Colored Parakeet” --handscroll

-small amount of pigment  -hyper realism  

-inscriptions reveal important information about the  

circumstances in the creation and what these images really are -this 5 colored parakeet is not native to the court, the presence/ arrival of the parakeet was taken as an auspicious omen- it was a sign  -cosmic approval or disapproval  

-proof that the emperor is a good or bad ruler  

-The appearance of the bird was thought to have a political  importance or meaning  

-black lacquer for eye dot

Ma Lin (Southern Song court 13th century) “Watching Clouds”  inscribed by emperor Lizong. Silk Fan

fan -small shadow of a mountain as a background-very washed -figure is apparent as a main part of the composition

-has lots of open space

-focus is on the figure relaxing, looking, meditative engagement, look ing to the fog, the clouds, the figure directs your gaze onto the same  activity he is doing--reflection,  

-painting tries to be the painting equivalent of a poem “I walk to where the waters end, and sit and watch when the clouds rise” -small scale

- fan

- asymmetrical with the perspective grounds not very clear

3. Discuss the iconography and major themes of Chan (Zen) Painting

Chan Painting  

Chan Buddhism -better known as Zen Buddhism  

-developed in the 6th century and became dominant during the  Tang and Song dynasties  

- “Chan” was an attempt to mimic the sound of the Sanskrit term  “dhyana” meaning meditation--meditation school

- The Chan school did not depend on text or words to pass on  their teachings, but rather the individual had to be enlightened  though practice and exposure to Chan Buddhism

-founded on mind to mind transmission-teaching by doing  -contrast between the two schools is described as outer directed  (Pure Land) vs, inner directed (Chan) 

- Pure Land outer directed teachings focused on learning from  the Buddhist scriptures or sutras

- Qualities of the Chan school include: directness, immediacy,  spontaneity, intuitiveness: chang enlightenment happens  directly and suddenly, automatically  

-Shaved face, hair is neat and has  

the cranial knob

-in “paradise” cosmological  

realm

-Buddha is represented as a cos

mological figure

-bright polychrome pigment,  

very busy detailed features, even  

outline in contrast to the  

calligraphic line

-sitting

-“Iconic”  

-found in a place of worship, on  

an alter

-more Chinese figure  

-Buddha does have a hand  

mudra  

Liang Kai (Southern Song 13th century) “Leaving the Mountains”  silk hanging scroll

-painting has a traditional theme: -Buddha sits under the boat  tree, has an enlightened moment and goes to the  

mountains to weigh his options, then goes into the world and  talks about his enlightenment  

-traditional iconic Buddha painting

-depicts Chan Buddhism practices because the Buddhas hand  is covered by his robe, signifying that he doesn’t need hand  sutras to learn or be enlightened  

-beard, messier hair, cranial knob

-more natural and realistic

-mostly monochrome ink except the red rope-significant  item-- calligraphic style  

-standing  

- “narrative”

-seen in profile, presents it in a narrative  

-more Indian, foreign figure, first adaptations from India -Buddha usually has a mudra hand gesture, in this painting  however, the hand is covered → this signals that Chan  Buddhism isn’t participating in the traditional teachings of  traditional Buddhism--not dependant on text or words and  reject that language --can only become enlightened through  practice  

-significance of red robe signifies pilgrimage

“Bodhidharma on a Rush leaf”

(13th Century)

-another similar white monochrome  painting  

-hand mudra is covered

-calligraphic brushwork  

-Bodhidharma is standing on a reed to cross  the Yanza river

-NOT Shakyamuni, this is Bodhidharma (the one who brought Buddhism from India  to China)

-28th generation Patriarch after the Buddha  in India, but then became the 1st patriarch in China  

-Retreated to the Shaolin monastery for 9  years and sat in front of the wall of the  monastery  

-true teaching idea in Chan school -wants to  make the practice maybe seem more foreign  so it is more authentic

“Shakyamuni Leaving the  

Mountains” (13th Century)

-another “leaving the mountains” theme  -Shakyamuni

-hand mudra is covered

-calligraphic brushwork

-pure monochrome, very light/white -the robe is often billowing out in these images  -”winds of nature” pushing him back into the  world

-calligraphic brushwork

-anklet significance: in traditional Chinese  Buddha images the Buddha does not have any  jewelry --only Bodhisattva had these--this was  further showing the foreign aspects of these  Chan Shakyamuni and the foreign authenticity

southern song: not court

Shike (13th century) “2nd Patriarch Huike Seated in Meditation” Liang Kai (Southern Song) “6th  Patriarch Chopping Bamboo”  

-The 2nd patriarch became the 2nd patriarch by waiting to get  

Bodhidarhma’s attention while he sat in front of the  

monastery wall for 9 years. In order to get his attention, Huike  

Liang Kai (Southern Song) “6th  Patriarch Tearing Sutras”  

Yintuoluo (14th Century) “The Monk from Danxia Burning a Buddha”  

severs his arm and presents it to Bodhidharma. Bodhidharma  finally gives him attention and Huike asks to have his mind/  heart “pacified”  

-Huike then becomes the 2nd patriarch in china through the  “mind to mind transmission” that is so important to Chan  practice  

-figure is sleeping  

-meditation is not restricted to sitting cross legged reading  sutras

-meditation can happen anywhere  

-sleeping can just as well be a form of meditation or religious  practice  

-very calligraphic, spontaneous brushwork --scribbling… X’ed  out where his arm used to be  

-spontaneous and direct being illustrated and embodied  → the way which paintings are used to make other claims  

-stylistically and thematically  engages many importances of  Chan Buddhism  

-has an enlightenment experi ence

-illiterate kitchen worker, but  has someone else write his  poem for the poem contest and  the 5th patriarch knows this guy  is the one who is next  

-shows medial labor ---blurring  distinction between the every day and the spiritual--labor can  also be a form of meditation  -doesn’t matter that he is illiter ate because Chan believes you  cant capture truth from words  --showing that you don’t need  the system to arrive at enlight enment  

-spontaneous in calligraphic  style and spontaneous in how  they become enlightened  

-sutras are relics of the buddhas  -the deceased would be buried with  them, they are very sacred, so this was  a violent act, yet this is not a negative  thing for the Chan point of view, it is  positive  

-It was appropriate because the Chan  teachings were not though text or  images but again, mind to mind trans mission

-”iconoclasm”-destroying inappropriate  images  

-Metaphorically extremely eccentric  behavior --not following rules or norms  with Buddhism etc.  

-spontaneous sharp lines of the paint brush elicit the actions in the figure  

-monochrome

-2 monks

-story: monk from Danxia is visiting and staying in a monastery, builds a  fire from the relics and tries to extract the sacred relics from the images -monk from monastery says you cant get the relics out of the images -monks from Danxia says, well if you cant get the relics out of here, than  what is the difference of these than just another piece of wood? where does  it sacredness come from?

→ Chan argue is that there is no difference! --ultimately the same thing-- the only thing that is different is the individual’s perception of those things  -actual practice is not that much different that traditional Buddhism, the  Chan are just trying to make claims to stand out from other schools of  Buddhism. They are trying to cater to the elite, scholarly, educated class.  -don’t take this stuff literally, but more as a paradigm to aspire to.  

4. Explain the “Yuan Revolution” in painting (and identify relevant works)

The Yuan Revolution refers to the period of time in the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368),  where China was under foreign control by Mongols.  

-The Yuan Dynasty originated from a central area and fanned out east and west and  established an empire that stretched from the Mediterranean to the entire Korean  peninsula, all across china

-largest continues land mass that has been under one control

-vast and powerful empire

-there was a sort of rebellion against this dynasty because the chinese were unhappy that  someone foreign had taken over

-through the use of paintings, artists used imagery and metaphors to secretly reveal how  they were feeling

-these depictions told stories about the artists being isolated from the court and not  wanting to serve the new emperor

Gong Kai (Yuan Dynasty) “Emaciated Horse” or “Bones of a Noble Horse” Qian Xuan (Yuan Dynasty) “Pear Blossoms” silk handscroll

-straight forward and benign painting

-taking court period paintings and giving it a new meaning with the  

impact of the new dynasty  

- highly realistic rendering

-there was another type of revolution within the painting in that the inscriptions on the  paintings were now being done by the artists themselves

-because the inscriptions were done by the artist, this gave the viewer more information  about what the artists was actually trying to relay in their paintings.  -the action of painting in some sense becomes an action of writing “i wrote this picture”- -telling a story though the picture and the inscription  

-in the new dynasty, the painting is about the execution of the painting as writing, and  the inscription by the artist: PERSONAL expression --painting, calligraphy, and poetry  all combines into a single work

Paintings by Ni Zan- most famous painter in the Yuan dynasty

-not part of the Yuan Revlolution, but more addressed in relation to the Ming Dynasty  where people start painting “in the style” of Ni Zan

-painted the same basic picture over and over, but because he was the one writing the  inscriptions and titling the painting, it was his power to make the image be anything he  wanted it to be.  

-artist is saying: “the subject of this painting is what I say it is”

-once he names it something, the painting turns into what he wants it to be

 -many scholars were in an odd and uncomfortable situation and chose  to leave social life and refused to serve the new emperor and do  paintings for the court

-in turn they made paintings that depicted their feelings towards their  home being overtaken by foreigners (Mongols)

-presence of an inscription written by the artists-one of the first times  the artists is actually writing on the painting  

-starts to become more common and quite regular for the artists to  inscribe poems or writing on their painting: provides insight from the  artist that gives us a better understanding of what the painting  represents  

-this painting’s inscription: “ever since the clouds and mist fell upon the  heavenly pass, the 12 imperial stables of the former dynasty have been  empty. who today laments over the bones of this noble steed?” -basically saying that since china has been taken over, the people  (scholars) have suffered, but who even cares that they are suffering?  -the fate of scholars is affected, they have been suffering and emaciated,  have been cut off from their environment and are in a bad situation -through the inscription, the artist is identifying himself as a loyalist  to the previous emperor, the former dynasty that has now been over thrown.  

loyalist: “leftover subject: “yimin”- use poetry and art to show their  dis-satisfaction, have to do it in a roundabout, subtle way so you  wouldn’t get in trouble with the new emperor  

- inscription is by the artist himself, in contrast to one we’ve seen  before the yuan dynasty, where the inscription was from someone  other than the artist

-inscription reads:

“the lonely tear-stained face, teardrops washing the branches through now without makeup, her old charms remain behind the closed gate, on a rainy night, how she is filled with sadness how differently she looked bathes in golden waves of moonlight before  darkness fell.”

-describing a woman who is fading, getting older, fallen out of favor  and she is filled with sadness.  

-common theme in chinese poetry: describing the plight of women  of the court

-metaphorically describing the nature of beauty  

- image of the women represents china and how is has fallen and  withered  

-many layers of meaning  

-without the inscription in the painting, its meaning may not be  seen as a political one

-pear blossoms have a symbolic meaning of loyalty  

5. Discuss some of the ways that artworks were used by the Ming court

At the 3rd quarter of the 14th century, the Ming drove out the Mongols and  restored Imperial rule

-with this was the reintroduction of court painting  

-images created early on had to do once again with establishing and  underscoring legitimacy of the new leaders  

-artists created portraits of the emperors to make political statements -in these Ming paintings we see traditions from earlier periods of the  northern and southern song periods being repeated  

-past traditions are being given a politically relevant twist in the current  images

- large scrolls of fighting ferocious birds: hawks, eagles, --subjects associ ated with power and domination  

- In the Ming dynasty there is also growing market of professional artist,  different from court artists  

-in previous dynasties, we don’t know what happened commercially for  artists outside of the court  

Anonymous (Ming Dynasty) “Portrait of the Hongzhi Emperor”

-Symbolic portrait of the Emperor with a lot of dragon imagery -seated on the dragon throne

-dragon motifs on his robe  

-3 fold screen in the background with dragon imagery -all these identify him as a powerful authoritative figure  -symmetrical

-frontal

-not much attention payed to his body--flattened -not trying to capture actual physicality, but more his symbolic  presence and importance  

-court artists were creating an icon of the emperor --political  

6. Discuss the characteristic features of paintings by Dai Jin and the Zhe (“Juh”) school

Zhe School--founded by Dai Jin-- “professional” -Scholars who were commissioned by the Emperor to do  work

-Dai Jin is first famous artist in that tradition, becomes his  school, but not REALLY founded by him, just the leader  type of person

-got a bunch of professional together

-tradition begins where paintings are given to signify an  event in life  

--for example: when a friend leaves, you present them  with a painting as a record/memorial for the event. The  actual happenings are represented in the scene in the  painting

Tang Yin (Ming Dynasty 1470-1524) “Dreaming of Immortality” (Meng Xian: name printing) Dai Jin (Ming Dynasty 1368-1462) “Parting”

-tradition or artists in making a painting that somehow in its components makes  a clever play on a person’s name  

-this artist, Tang Yin was very highly educated and a very brilliant scholar who  was unfairly implicated in a cheating scandal on the civil service exam, --never  able to hold a position in the court--but just became a professional painter on his  own

-of the higher social class

-dotting technique on the rocks--axe cut brush strokes

-moving to the left there is a little hut with a figure who has fallen asleep, this is  the scholar who’s dream is being depicted in the painting

-solidity of this cliff outcropping---then the scene shifts and there is openness,  fogginess, clouds

-high up, floating in the clouds is a little figure of a scholar , looking at the hut  below

- the scholars name actually means: “dreaming of immortality”  

-monochrome tradition  

-wash is used to make it misty and hazy

-group of figures--scholars -identified by robes and hats -scene represented is that of parting, a scholar who has now been  assigned to a different area for his civil service position, etc.  -example of social relations in the aspect of painting  -when a friend leaves, you present them with a painting as a record/ memorial for the event. --the actual happenings are represented in  the scene in the painting  

Dai Jin (Ming Dynasty 1368-1462) “Returning Late from a Spring Outing”  Large hanging scroll

one scroll, but  

imagine it as two  

small album leaves in  

its composition

Dai Jin (Ming Dynasty 1368-1462) “Life on the River” Du Qiong (Ming Dynasty) “Befriending the Pines”

-Ming dynasty reviving earlier imperial traditions

-revival of Southern Song court painting

-Monochrome

-stylistic and subject approaches similar to Southern Song painting -imagine this as 2 compositions, top and bottom--you have two  southern song album leaf compositions put together  -diagonal ground plane  

-things clustered in one corner, lots of other open space, haziness,  poetic quality  

-figures are prominent  

-setting a particular season and time of day

-figure of scholar returning  

-combining detail and use of color on the landscape features

-river was a place of commerce and activity

-loose brushwork style in the figures

-Monochrome

-full of little narrative vignettes

-family having a picnic

-one thing to consider is ‘what is the market for this kind of painting?’ -sort of a documentary type of painting: the activities of the river - the consumers of the painting are not the people who are depicted in  the painting  

-idealized portrait of everyday life activities  

-the wealthy merchants and officials who would have owned this paint ing would depict “the happy life of the peasants” -ironically  

-depicting a scholars retreat in a garden setting  

-participating in garden related activities of educating the elite,  etc

-scholars would commission or be presented by friends with a  portrait of that site.  

-see the doorway to the utopian life--grotto  

-scholars at a table doing garden activities

traditional plants, etc

-in main setting, scholar talking with a friend  

-collectables in the window

-Polychrome

-dense linework  

7. Discuss the characteristic features of paintings by Shen Zhou and the Wu school

Wu School--associated with Shen Zhou-- “amateur” “literati”

-ming version of the literati  

-not really professional, painting is seen more as a hobby than a career  -Shen Zhuo--educated confucian scholar

-came from a wealthy family and was interested in poetry and painting -although it was his confucius to serve the government, he made an argument that  his mother was too ill for him to leave, so he was able to stay and do the work he  wanted  

- lived on his family estate and devoted himself to painting and poetry -Again, we see paintings that “are in the style of ” another artist.  

Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty) “Walking with a Staff” Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty 1427-1509) “Lofty Mt. Lu”

-painting reminds us of Ni Zan in the dry sketchiness and brushwork -similar, but we have a figure, which Ni Zan did not have -the figure is that of the artist, Shen Zhou

-self portrait in a landscape  

-spindle trees

-evoking aspects of Ni Zan’s painting with texture strokes, creation of  elements, types of trees

-in many ways, it’s typical of the literati amateur in that the painting is  about the painting of Ni Zan.  

-conscious engagement of style of the previous artist Ni Zan -uses dry monochrome ink.

-lots of empty space  

-dense brushwork, more in certain areas over others

-colorful ink

-intricate brushwork and color

-no empty space

-very different from his other painting

-completely different style compared to “walking with a staff ” -this painting is rare because it is a specific location and he shows us  specific elements associated with this geographical site: the waterfall, the  rickety bridge--unlike any other landscape painting we’ve seen in this sense -shift in using an actual site as the subject of the painting rather than an  ambiguous place

-reflective of growth of leisure and travel in the ming period  -idea of traveling to famous sites and locations grew in the ming dynasty as  there was growth in the wealthy middle class who had disposable income  

Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty) “Poet on a Mountaintop” Album Leaf Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty) “Saying Farewell” Handscroll

-image that reveals the paradox between professional and amateur painting.  

-wetter, looser style of painting

Shen Zhou- uses the three perfections:  

1.painting

2.poetry

3.calligraphy

-all combined in a single art work it creates a synergy that is greater than the  sum of its parts --we also see this in Southern Song album leaves -as we move later in time, the literati/ amateur painters are responsible for all  three of the elements --in contrast to southern song album leaves where it  was kind of a group project: someone wrote the poem(tang dynasty poem),  the emperor did the calligraphy, and the painting was done by the court artist  -poem by the artist gives insight into what the painting is supposed to mean.  -the figure in the image is kind of looking up to the sky/ in a sense reading  the poem that is inscribed where the figure in the painting is looking  -the poem itself describes the scene we see in the painting

-inscription turns inwards to say “and I feel like answering the murmuring  brook with my flute”  

-the sound of the waterfall is brought in and the idea of the music by the  water will then be crated by the flute

-two forms of poem and painting, and one enhances the other

-uses elements of his signature style

-square rocks

-light colors

-includes long inscription that gives us information about the scene  -several things that echo things in paintings we’ve seen before -empty pavilion of rocks to the left

-two scholars leaning forward to say farewell--theme of saying goodbye -similar to painting by Dai Jin of the Zhe school: group of scholars seeing off  their friend

-thematically and stylistically these two paintings are very similar: loose brush work, light colors,  

-however, these two paintings are seen as representing two traditions that  contradict each other

-difference between professional and amateur --the paintings look pretty much  the same so what is the big fuss in distinction between these two? -primary difference between these: in the case of Shen Zhou, its the artist  himself who is in the picture and the artist himself who is creating this image to  give to his friend: there is a much more personal dimension that we understand  from the inscription--in the case of Dai Jin, we don’t know who all the friends  are who are saying farewell and the artist himself is only the vehicle for creating  the image but he isn’t personally involved

-SO the primary distinction between these two schools of painting has to do  with social class as much as anything else

-amateurs were part of the educated elite literati tradition whereas those who  were associated with the Ju school were professional artisans for the court:  brushes for hire.

8. Discuss some “new” types/uses of painting that developed in the Ming  

-In the Ming Dynasty there was a reintroduction of court painting now that China was under imperial rule again -In the paintings there are political innuendos about the legitimacy of the new rulership and depictions of subjects  associated with power and domination  

-artists created portraits of the emperors  

-social occasions increasingly involve a painting--present paintings as a good luck to someone, to congratulate  someone, to give as a birthday gift,  

-scholars commission portraits of their studios as marketing them and preserving them

-growing market of professional artists--different from court artists  

-in previous dynasty, we don’t know what happened commercially for artists outside of the court  

-theme began to occur where one artist would do a painting “in the style of ” another artist  

>>>this is where NI ZAN comes in form the Yuan Dynasty

-important to know who fit into each category because that reflects who they allowed to follow as precedents in  their own work “painting in the style of so and so”

-creative imitation and creative transformation: not advocating for one to copy a former artists, but rather to  

transform and embody the former style “like, but not alike”

Artist Dong Qichang had opinions on the two schools theory

- “two schools theory”- extremely influential theory that is important even today

-developed in the late Ming period

- if you look at all of Chinese painting, there are two kinds of modes of painting, these two modes correspond in a  metaphorical way to the two schools of chang zen Buddhism: the school of gradual enlightenment and the school  of sudden enlightenment  

-referred to the northern school(gradual process) and southern school(sudden enlightenment) in Buddhist history  -so: in painting there is a similar phenomenon: the kinds of painters who are very careful and cautious in the  

Paintings by Ni Zan- most famous painter in the Yuan dynasty -not part of the Yuan Revlolution, but more addressed in relation to the  Ming Dynasty where people start painting “in the style” of Ni Zan -painted the same basic picture over and over, but because he was the one  writing the inscriptions and titling the painting, it was his power to make the  image be anything he wanted it to be.  

-artist is saying: “the subject of this painting is what I say it is” -once he names it something, the painting turns into what he wants it to be

northern traditions, where in the southern tradition the painters are much more intuitive, rapid, abbreviated, spon taneous

quick, rapid, brush stokes slow, careful painters, focused on  realism

→ all the various court artists from the tang dynasty and the northern song painting academy, southern song court,  artists of the Zhe school, professionals, can all be put into the category of NORTHERN, SLOW, CAREFUL,  CAUTIOUS painters

→ all of the literati painters, the scholar artists, early northern song of Wu school painters, can be put into the  SOUTHERN tradition, RAPID, SPONTANEOUS painting

so.. in the end, Dong Qichang is saying that although some may think the difference between the amateur and the  professional painters is a matter of social class, he is saying because of the distinction of these Buddhist schools of  north and south and how the painting is done and how they were trained, similar to how the people are enlight ened, there IS meaning about the difference in these two categories of painters that is not connected to the social  class

--created two tracks of artists

South 

Southern Song (not court) Literati/ amateur

Southern Song (not court) Wu School

North 

Tang

Northern Song

Academy/ Professional

Southern Song Court (Huizong,  realism, etc)

Zhe School

9. Discuss the symbolism and meanings of garden imagery  

Tao Qian (Ming Dynasty) “Peach Blossom Spring”  

The Scholars Garden

Moon Gate

 5 basic elements to the scholars gardens

1. Water- small ponds and lakes, also metaphorically through rocks and gravel to  suggest water  

2. Rock- used in various ways  

3. Plants - secondary material, used more for emphasis and accent  

4. Architecture- small buildings and pavilions, bridges, pathways  

5. Writing- incorporate inscriptions in a number of ways  

-concept of Shanshui---mountain and wasters/rivers  

-Taihu Rock -special kind of boulder found from Lake Tai --massive pockets carved out  from harder rocks  

-sculptural rock form --found at different scales: in the garden, in paintings, as small trinkets  for a desk  

-these were urban gardens and walled off  

-separated from the outside world

-often walls were within other walls, courtyard spaces with various window decorations and  openings  

- gateways and entries to the garden --passageways-- important focal point that is often cir cular-- “moon gates”  

-these openings were treated pictorially--they framed a picturesque view and created a  composition  

-views framed though windows and structures

-pathways are leading you to the picturesque views

-pavilions also act as viewing points

-who had these gardens? -- they are for the scholars, you had to be of a certain social class to  afford these gardens--these are like mini landscape painting views

how were gardens used?

-scene that is depicted over and over again is a group of scholars  in the garden, engaged in various cultural pursuits: playing  instruments, writing poetry, collecting objects, antiques on the  tables to enjoy

-This theme brings to mind the famous gathering we see in Wang  Xizhi’s Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion.  

-specific participation activity

-gardens are understood for places where scholars come and  engage in various cultural pursuits  

-2 dominant strains of Chinese philosophy: places of Daioist ref uge (nature, natural world, etc) and a social place where social  interactions are happening --very confucius roles

-depicts a fable

-story of a fisherman drifting in his boat, as he’s moving down the  river, he gets lost in thought and loses track of where he is, becomes  aware of a powerful scent of the peach blossoms. sees a cave like  opening and wants to explore, comes out on the other side of the  cave and finds himself in a utopian land, leaves to go and get his  family to bring them back to the utopia, but is unable to ever find  the entrance again. it was a new realm that was separate from the ev eryday world: depicts the meaning/purpose of the Chinese garden.  -it’s walled in, separated form the everyday world

-within the gardens there may be small caves or rocks around the  edge of the water

-little bridges where you could see yourself going into utopia (the  garden)  

-evokes the idea of finding these openings to find the garden.  -the story of “peach blossom spring” is reflected in the Chinese  garden.  

-gardens were in the urban area, so this little utopia was further  proved as a refuge from the hectic, busy everyday life

10. Discuss the symbolism of Ming imperial tombs -only one of the 13 tombs has been excavated  

Image 1: Spirit Way- Valley of the Ming Imperial Tombs

Architectural project of the Ming Dynasty: creation of The 13 Imperial Tombs -site outside of Beijing

-first couple of Ming emperors and the rest of the emperors were buried at this  site

-concept of the site reveals a great deal about beliefs and practices of the Ming  emperors

-massive marble gateway as a gateway to the valley

-This gateway was made to look like wood, but its actual material was stone: ele ments of  

immortality and strength  

-positioning of this gate is similar to the stone doors in some of the early tombs of  the Han dynasty--diving the everyday and the sacred afterlife  

-Image 1: Long roadway leading in to the site lined with massive stone sculptures  of real and fake animals and military figures --represent the 2 major branches of  the civil service--the civil (court) and military  

-functionally and metaphorically draw on the tradition of mingqi and provide  figures for the realm of the dead, performing specific functions, etc.  -The animals or figures were in sets of two, one pair standing and the second pair  sitting

-figures as sculpture has been criticized as not particularly exciting because they  are very stiff and formal --different from other sculpture that emphasizes move ment and liveliness -

-this stiffness was a reflection of the function of their duties on the site: they are  supposed to be solum figures acting as guardians, protecting the site.. so really  they are not a reflection of lack of sculptural ability  

-traditions of using gateways to mark off burial sites

-reviving traditional burial practices  

-new rulers are still connected and have a continuation of traditional values and  ancient  

practices

 

Tombs from the 13 imperial tombs: Image 2

-connect to earlier tradition

-tombs vary in size, some have 2 courtyards, some have three

-general structure and principles of the tomb are the same: each has various  gateways to pass through, there is a walled complex for each tomb with various  courtyards, large stone  

structure--soul tower, identifies the name of the person buried (separation of  tomb world(world of the dead) and world outside of it). --then the mound behind  this is where the body is.  

-mountains in the background are borrowed for the landscape and in a way they  are there to protect and look over the tomb

-great reluctance over time to go into these tombs archaeologically for various  reasons:  

-it’s taboo,  

-what’s the line between research and tomb robbery?  

-the entrances to these tombs are also very obscure and hidden(with one excep tion) --this  

prevents people from going in as well  

-the tomb that was excavated, was happened upon accidently  

-in the process of rebuilding a part of a tomb, they found a tablet with part of a  pirates map which described the entrance  

-discovered the diamond wall entrance of the tomb--entire underground com plex, all made of stone -- material of immortality, permanence, strength  -today is a museum

-China was not prepared archaeologically to deal with what they found--as a  result there is a great reluctance to open other tombs

-all architecture in the tomb is mimicking other types of material, but its all in  stone  

-In the tombs there were still oil lamps that were full, as the room was airtight and  once the tomb was locked the lamps burned out very quickly.  

-The symbolism for these lamps has to do with making the deceased comfortable  and providing them with things from the everyday world so they are happy and  do not wish bad things upon the real world from the after world  -once the figured out how to open the tombs, everything was quickly damaged  with exposure to the humidity, just like we saw with the terra cotta army.  -Figure 3 we see pottery with the massive blue and white ceramics, dragon figures -a distinguishing feature of the dragon motifs were the number of claws that the  Dragon had

--5 claws is for imperial use --dragons and cloud motifs--related to immortality -symbolic throne for the emperor and his two wives --dragon throne with dragon  motifs  

-among the goods in the tomb also included a strange gold mesh cap, worn by the  emperor--has a dragon motif  

-king fisher feather head dress worn by the empress --birds became extinct be cause of the popularity and demand for this headdress  

Image 2: Valley of the Ming Imperial Tombs Image 3: Central Chamber: Tomb of the Wanli Emperor

11. Identify and discuss characteristic work of the Qing “individuals” painters

“individual artists of the qing”

-idea of figures who thought themselves loyal to the  fallen dynasty  

-to avoid serving the new court under Qing rule, one  could go to the monastery and be a monk  -qing rulers use art similar to how they have used it in  earlier periods

-art as a tool to make political claims, to advertise for  the emperor, etc.  

Hong Ren (Qing Dynasty) “The Coming of Autumn”  

Gong Xian (Qing Dynasty) “Landscape” Zhu Da (Ba Da Shan Ren) (Qing Dynasty)  “Bird, Fish, and Rock”

-stylistically creates images with dramatic contrasts of dark  and light

-sense of foreboding dramatic scenery  

-dark clouds suggesting impending dramatic events that are  

Zhu Da (Ba Da Shan Ren) (Qing Dynasty)  “Bird on a Rock”

-artist who joined the monastery to not have to deal with  conflict of the new rulers of the Qing  

-Monochrome

-empty dead spaces--similar to Ni Zan.  

-few signs of habitation

-creates unappealing and uninviting environment -invoking spindly trees

-has a deeper meaning/representation about how the artist  feels about new leadership

or will take place  

-includes a small pavilion with no one there

-empty, uninhabited, uninviting world--doomsday aspect  -parallel to Hong Ren in that through completely  different stylistic means, they arrive at the same conclusion  and stance of revolting the new ruler  

-both are alien and alienating  

-monochrome

-heavy wash and brushwork

-related to the Ming imperial line- Zhu Da was a  Ming prince

-having those connections, he would have most  likely been viewed more suspiciously than the  average scholar  

-took refuge in a monastery for a large part of his  life  

- he behaved in a very bizzare became or pre tended to be a deaf mute

-may have suffered from a mental illness -putting on an act to avoid being looked at  suspiciously by the Qing  

-created unique and personalized idiom -theme of fish and rock

-underwater views of the fish.

-fish is looking at the rock suspiciously because  rock is unstable: metaphorically representing the  contemporary situation where people may be  suspicious of their environment under new rule  -not used to seeing underwater views: a point of  view we don’t usually see

-again rock is a very unstable feature in the  painting

-nothing around them

-balanced and could just tip over  

-the birds are also perched strangely, they may  fall right over as well

-again, metaphorically representing the current  political situation and the uncertainty around it -birds are looking up at an overhanging rock,  something that could possible fall without  notice  

-ambiguity of the world and these object’s place

11. CONTINUED: Identify and discuss characteristic work of the Qing  “individuals” painters

Dao Ji (Shitao)(Qing Dynasty) “1000 Ugly Ink Blots” Dao Ji (Shitao)(Qing Dynasty) “Wilderness Colors”  

-most well known artist in the Qing

-distantly related to Zhu Da

-took refuge at the monastery, similar to other artists

-left behind much artwork when he became a monk and wrote a  

lot about painting  

-wrote about theory of art and creativity  

-his writings helped interpret what his paintings meant

---10,000 ugly ink blots:

-arguing about creativity  

-as we move across we see a little drawing of a hut with a figure  

12. Discuss some of the functions  of painting at the Qing court

Qing rulers use art similar to how they have used it in earlier  periods

-art as a tool to make political claims, to advertise for the emperor,  etc.  

-western techniques were introduced to make more realistic  portraits of the emperor

-Multiple portraits of the emperor were made to reflect his  different sides and make him more familiar and accepted by the  people

- Emperor is either being adrressed as a scholar or a military  person = duality of rolesh

-- wen: “literary”

--wu: “military”

sorry this answer is short... a lot of these  

questions are repetitive and he really did  

inside--we can then read it as a sort of landscape painting -the dots are coalescent to make tree forms  

-dots are rhythmic  

-the different brush stroke gives  

representation of different plants  

-what Dao Ji is addressing is the whole theory of creative  imitation- “the idea that earlier painters should be the basis of  your style” --who did the first artists look to for their inspira tion??- answer: nature

painting collection: “wilderness colors”  

-collection of album leaves

-poems basically describes what the painting is

- “The luster of bamboo  

encircles the wilderness

colors;

the reflection of a house  

ripples in the flowing  

water.”

-showing a figure that is surrounded by a natural world of the colors and  sounds and is inspired by that  

-goal is not only to engage style but the experience of being immersed in nature  -themes go back to the rejection of Dong Qichang in that paintings are not just  about  

following someone else’s style of painting but that they are about nature and the  actual  

natural world around us

-Idea of animate and inanimate-viewed as animated by chi energy that course  through them  

-brush is the vehicle to get energy out of the painter and onto the paper  -painting is embedded with the chi energy of the painter

not discuss this very much as we rushed  through the end of class  

material. If I get any more information I  will update the file!

13. Discuss the image of the emperor as represented in the Qing  

Castiglione (Qing Dynasty) “Emperor Qianlong on  Horseback”

Anonymous (Qing Dynasty) “The Emperor as a Scholar” “Qinlong Emperor as the Bodhisattva Manjusri” Castiglione (Qing Dynasty) “Qianlong Emperor Watching  Children at Play”

Emperor represented in a western style

-Castiglione: artist that introduces western techniques -instrumental in teaching western techniques for  painting

-responsible for doing the portraits of the emperors -Chinese landscape style, but the realism of the horse is  much more european  

-Qianlong Emperor wearing armor and emblems of the  military

-portrayed as a military commander/leader -Reflects how the Qing respected the existing Chinese  culture and traditions (in their dressing attire) but also  shows how they are adapting these traditions to fit their  uses (hunting on horseback)

Emperor represented as a scholar

-image shows how the emperor is respecting traditional  Chinese culture and practices of calligraphy and  painting

-seated in a library room with the tools of the trade -dragon motifs on robe  

-robe is altered to open to the side, not down the front,  adapting to fit his needs

Emperor as the Bodhisattva

-showed that the emperor was very committed to Buddhism and  traditional practices

-had a Buddhist teacher and practiced Buddhism  -image showing Qianlong as the center of a Buddhist universe  -taking the roles of the boshisattva of wisdom  

-he is making the mudras with his hands

-presenting himself as the Bodhisattva, a higher power to help  others become enlightened  

Emperor as a family/father figure  

-This is a unique and rare image, as we never see any  emperors in this type of setting

- in the image the emperor is holding a baby on his lap -quintessential confucius father figure  

-showing him in a domestic fatherly role

-wants to represent that he is an upholder of confucius  tradition and respects traditional Chinese culture and  confucianism  

14. Explain the symbolic and stylistic  features of Qing garments

15. Discuss ways in which some modern and contemporary Chinese  artists engage “tradition”

(Qing Dynasty) Embroidered silk Dragon Robe Xu Bing (1955) A Book From the Sky

book from the sky:  

-creating volumes using the  

traditional Chinese methods  

for creating book: hand carved  

printing blocks

-Qing rulers favored a style of garment that was more suitable for horseback riding  that was related to their semi-nomadic marshals sorts of traditions, so they altered the  traditional Chinese garment to fit their needs

-asymmetrical closure rather than a frontal opening

-tight sleeves rather than loose sleeves

-the robe had 9 “5 clawed” dragons: 3 on the front, 3 on the back, 2 on the shoulders,  and the 9th dragon was the emperor himself wearing the garment. -The emperor transforms the robe and is also transformed by it

-concept of the placement of the dragons = 9 fold square or a circular cosmological  circle/square pattern

-9 is a cosmologically special number  

-in the forbidden city all the doors have 9 rows of 9 knobs  

-all combinations that add up to 9 are a multiple of 9  

-Emperors robe also has motifs of long life, well being, wisdom, etc.  

officials at the court had very strict regulations and very strict rank badges  -different ranks had different garments  

-status garments: the features of the garment represents the status of the  individual wearing it

Qiu Zhijie (1969) Writing the Orchid Pavilion Preface 1,000 times

-after is has been written 1000 times, the scroll is  physically rich with the meaning of this practice,  yet it is somewhat un-retreivable because you are  left with a black block of ink

-what is the meaning of this tradition/ what have  we gotten from it?

-the fact that it was the Orchid Pavilion preface  also nods to the traditions of scholars in the gar dens and the activities they were engaged in as  Chinese tradition

Xu Bing (1955) New English Calligraphy

Qian Songyan (20th C.) “ ‘Guohua’ Style Landscape” Shi Lu (20th C.) “ ‘Fighting in Shaanxi”

Chairman Mao:

“make the past serve the  

present, make the foreign thing  serve China”

-Showing how calligraphy and  the Chinese written language has  changed over time

-this iteration of calligraphy is  reflecting Chinese writing, but in  fact anyone can read the english  letters it is hiding

- Quohua: “National painting”  

---term also means traditional Chinese painting -these paintings continued earlier Chinese traditions -after the establishment of the people’s republic, we see  painting and other art forms are highly politicized  -painting could be seen as a very powerful type of tool to  project a certain view or issue with the ruler  -background has a contrast to a modernized scene: -there  is an emblem of the past-->Buddhist architecture-pagoda  form-bathed in a red color of the sun rising  --understood as particular commentary  

-under new leadership china is modernizing and  industrializing  

-emblem of the past and is illuminated by the red sun  -emblem of communism  

--> shifting interpretations  

-Chairman Mao reflecting on the war going on in the mountain landscape  -was first viewed as a positive image of Chairman Mao, but later criticized and  reinterpreted as a subtle critique of Mao because he was standing alone,  suggesting he was cut off from the people, the people coming up the mountain  are struggling and Mao is not helping them

- potent and malleable images-meanings can change depending on how they are  interpreted

lots of posters and images of Mao in the 19th century  

-used to portray a certain image to appeal to the people  

-the images were not made without Mao’s approval

-image of his with his arm up: associated with the start of the cultural revolution

-images showing him out and about with normal people--showing connection  with the people

-visiting agricultural areas, etc

-illustrate and underscore that he is an everyday person who will engage with the  activities of the people

--multi ethnic relationships

--humble surroundings  

-this connects to the images we see of Emperor Qianlong, trying to appeal to the  people and create multiple ways for people to connect with him

Study images not addressed in a particular questions  

Comparison we did in class 

Ma Lin (Southern Song 13th century) “Watching Clouds” inscribed by emperor Lizong. Silk Fan

fan 

1. small shadow of a mountain

2. figure is much more apparent

3. has lots of open space

Northern Song

Monumental Mountain 

1. mountain is very prominent and takes up a lot of  room,

4. focus is on the figure relaxing,  looking, meditative engagement, looking  to the fog, the clouds, the figure directs  your gaze onto the same activity he is  doing--reflection,  

5. painting tries to be the painting  equivalent of a poem

“I walk to where the waters end, and sit  and watch when the clouds rise” 6. small scale

7. fan

8. asymmetrical with the perspective  grounds not very clear

SIMILARITIES

-they are both monochrome -use ink and wash

-stresses texture strokes in both

2. figures are lost in the landscape and small, not a  prominent aspect of the painting

3. has barely any open space, the mountain taking up  2/3 of the painting,

4. people bustling around, working, moving 5. not attached to a poem or inscription

6. large scale

7. large hanging scroll

8. clear foreground, mid ground and background and  is very symmetrical  

Wang Xizhi (353 CE) “Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion” Wang Xizhi (353 ce) “Orchid Pavilion Preface” Calligraphy by Wang Xizhi

- only when we get to the 4th century do we see writing behaving as an art form  

- this artist, Wang Xizhi, was the first person who fit this category of calligraphy  

as writing  

- the artist himself had an elaborate estate and garden with a stream running  through and on the day of the spring festival, he invited poets, painters and  intellectuals to his estate, spending the day engaged in drinking, writing poetry,  and doing calligraphy  

- servants floated wine glasses on lotus pads down the stream to be picked up  when it passed you on the bank  

-figures are represented very casually in contrast to the formal conservative  figures we have seen before  

-now there is a background as well in the painting  

- in the context of formal portraiture, these casual figures and their casual  clothing were somewhat “out of place” or shocking to the setting - at the end of the day, Wang Xizhi takes all the poems and writes a preface to  them- this preface became the most prized and wanted piece of calligraphy in  china

-before writing it he would watch the geese swimming in the water and this  gracefulness would inspire his calligraphy  

-effortless flowing --alcohol lessens your inhibitions and makes you more free:  also represented in the calligraphy

please feel free to email me!  

dmontzka@uoregon.edu  

hope this study guide helped you!

-preface written at the end of the spring festival  gathering

- places where he has crossed out certain things,  gone back to edit, yet all of these elements are  preserved even in the copies, because these are  preserved as revealing the whole process of the art  form  

-calligraphy is the only form or writing or art that  the viewer is able to re-create because the stroke by  stroke structure of calligraphy teachings and the  elements and orders of basic calligraphy - the mistakes show the process or the pathway of  how it was written  

-ultimately calligraphy is viewed at the premiere  form of self expression through line

-Wang Xizhi, although most famous, his own calligraphy  barely exists besides the late copies

-his writing is found in some places among other very elite  emperors or people on scrolls, these scrolls were owned and  inscribed by these elite

-his artwork was just two lines of calligraphy yet this small  artwork was highly valued by many famous people and  emperors  

-his calligraphy is the main piece of artwork  

-what is valued in calligraphy is not the content of the  writing, but who actually wrote it, the note could say, “im  out of oranges, ill get some more next week” but it would be  highly valued just because of the person who wrote it  → same sort of impulse americans have with autographs,  something is worth a lot more if it is signed, or a handwritten  note is with it  

-something profound is revealed through the writing  

ARH 208 FINAL STUDY GUIDE HISTORY OF CHINESE ART

If you have any concerns about the content of this study guide, feel that any  information is missing, or would like notes on any subjects, feel free to contact me.  dmontzka@uoregon.edu thank you!

1. Identify and discuss the chief characteristics of Northern Song Monumental Landscape Painting

Northern Song monumental landscape painting.  Song Dynasty: 960-1279

Northern Song (960-1127)

Southern Song (1127-1279)

Key words: 

Landscape “Shanshui”: Shan=mountain, ying yang  couple of rock and water, Shui= water/rivers,  cosmologically significant thinking of how nature has  relationships with each other

“wenren”: educated elite artists, used painting as a  means of self expression

3 parts of painting:

1. outline

2. texture stroke, “cun”

3. wash

Artists: 

-Li Cheng

-Fan Kuan

Li Cheng (Northern Song ca. 975 ) “Buddhist Monastery” Fan Kuan (Northern Song ca. 1000 ) “Travelers Among  Mountains”  

-Large, monumental center mountain  

Guo Xi (Northern Song ca. 1072 ) “Early Spring”

-This “landscape” painting is less landscape than what we’ve  seen in previous examples as its internal structure is unique and  different than the huge monumental mountain in the middle

-Guo Xi

Key Characteristics: 

- Monochrome ink

- Symmetrical

- extreme emphasis of the texture stroke and how  different patterns of the texture stroke give a different  look and feeling

-3 stage painting process

1. outline: calligraphic line that is variable in its  form, thin, thick, dark, or light

2. texture strokes: gives definition and shading  to an object

3. wash: used to pull the painting together, can  eliminate the line and blend the texture. in some ways  creates a hazy or foggy distance

-3 part spatial production  

1. foreground

2. middle ground

3. background

-multidimensional perspectives: the different grounds  of the spatial production often have different perspec tives such as looking down on the landscape, looking up  to it, etc.  

- All examples are hanging scrolls of ink on silk -Use painting as a vehicle for self reflection

-monochrome ink  

-symmetrical

-multiple perspectives  

-3 distinct distances or “grounds”  

-employs 3 step execution

outline, texture strokes, wash

-calligraphic line

- “gewu” = “investigation of things” meditative view in how  to perceive the natural world  

-from these investigations you can understand principals  about how the natural world works: for example if you can  understand a tree, you can understand its larger part, the  forrest  

-In this picture it would be the rock and the mountain. The  rock has the same quality and principals as a mountain on  a larger scale

-picture is inhabited by figures in the foreground and at the  monastery

-the architectural monastery piece in these landscape  paintings are executed differently than the rest of the 3 step  process. The building is composed of clean, thin, sharp  lines.

 

-extremely rare painting among early landscape paintings  because Kuan’s signature was discovered hidden in this  painting and it was undiscovered for more than 1000 years  -signature is among the leaf pattern --discovered through  microscopic magnification  

-artists do not sign their work yet in this period -many commonalities and seen as a follower of the Li Cheng  painting  

-single massive peak takes up ⅔ of the canvas  

-pale wash with barley any pigment creates a misty area that  spaces out the middle ground and the background--creating  perception of distance and separation  

-follows 3 stage execution

-temple details-- architectural style of drawing --very precise  in comparison to the rest of the painting

-natural world elements (trees) are very detailed  -narrative in the painting is not obvious but there are a  number of figures coming around the rocks and along the  bottom, pack animals trudging along their way  -trying to create an experience for the viewer  

-making a claim between the natural and human world--  “nature is bigger than human”

-artists spent months just wandering nature and then  returned to produce paintings of travels and explorations  

-DOES have a specific date and signature  

-in the linage of Li Cheng and Fan Kuan but Guo Xi is an  official painter of the court, where the other two were not -less symmetry and more of a curvy “s” twist in middle line  - spine of the mountain from bottom to top acts as a middle  separator

- strong contrast between dark and light washes  - the architectural temple piece in this painting has more of a  boneless structure: artist uses the wash instead of the sharp line  to create this feature

-shape of this mountain is similar to the form of the “Taihu”  rock --comes from lake Tai

-these rocks were extremely popular items in the silk period  -perfect illustration of the Daioist belief that rock is the  immortal material  

-very few figures - only some climbing on the mountain path  and in the boat  

-two trunks emerging from a single root in the center pine tree  (originally from Li Cheng)-philosophically loaded idea  -clearly a self conscious reference to Li Cheng  

-famous crab claw branches  

-artist signature creates a tension or denial between the illusion  of the painting  

-presence of the signature yells that it is two dimensional contradicts the space and causes tension  

SAME SAME DIFFERENT

2. Identify and discuss works produced at the Song Court Academies

Court Academy Paintings of the Song Period

Song Dynasty: 960-1279

-Northern Song Court: Emperor Huizong (1101-1126)  

-one of the most famous rulers in history

-first emperor to establish and academy of painting

-the emperor was a famous artist and calligrapher

-used a style of calligraphy referred to as “slender gold”  

- slender gold character chunks were not square any more, but more  elongated and had more accentuated features: unique calligraphy  -invented a sort of logo signature for himself saying “the most  important person in the world” --fused four words and made them  into one Chinese character that represents this saying^^

GROUPS / TYPES OF ARTISTS

NORTHERN SONG: court artists/ academy (academy of art, not scholarly)  artists/ professionals -- being commissioned to paint for the court, not doing  what they want  

VS

SOUTHERN SONG: wenren/ literati / scholar-official / amateur-- all one  group/category of artists, freedom to express themselves through painting,  don’t paint for money but trade paintings as currency

-see next question for examples

Southern Song COURT:

different from southern song

-paintings for the court

-emperor wrote the poems on the backs of the  

fan paintings

Emperor Huizong (Northern Song: court 12th Century )  “2 Finches and Bamboo” --handscroll

-small amount of pigment, polychrome -very realistic birds having a human-like interaction -extreme detail in the rendering of the bird--feather by feather  -used a dot of black lacquer for the eye to make it shiny and in crease the realism of the images  

-small, not monumental

-these bird and flower paintings meant “something” and stood for  an auspicious event  

-reflected some deeper meaning about something that could  happen in the court or to the emperor

- verisimilitude: “the quality of being real” lifelike-ness

Ma Yuan (Southern Song court 13th c.) “Scholar by a Waterfall”  silk album leaf

-for this one we do not  

have the attached poem.  

-12x12 painting album leaf

- a little more color than  

we see in monumental  

paintings  

- theme of returning or  

going somehwere to be  

enlightened

-learning something from  

an experience  

-this figure is engaged in an  

activity, engaged in using their eyes,  

-the figure is more apparent and important to the story of the  painting

-diagonal setting rather than straight across

-axe cut in rock

Emperor Huizong (Northern Song court 12th Century )  “5 Colored Parakeet” --handscroll

-small amount of pigment  -hyper realism  

-inscriptions reveal important information about the  

circumstances in the creation and what these images really are -this 5 colored parakeet is not native to the court, the presence/ arrival of the parakeet was taken as an auspicious omen- it was a sign  -cosmic approval or disapproval  

-proof that the emperor is a good or bad ruler  

-The appearance of the bird was thought to have a political  importance or meaning  

-black lacquer for eye dot

Ma Lin (Southern Song court 13th century) “Watching Clouds”  inscribed by emperor Lizong. Silk Fan

fan -small shadow of a mountain as a background-very washed -figure is apparent as a main part of the composition

-has lots of open space

-focus is on the figure relaxing, looking, meditative engagement, look ing to the fog, the clouds, the figure directs your gaze onto the same  activity he is doing--reflection,  

-painting tries to be the painting equivalent of a poem “I walk to where the waters end, and sit and watch when the clouds rise” -small scale

- fan

- asymmetrical with the perspective grounds not very clear

3. Discuss the iconography and major themes of Chan (Zen) Painting

Chan Painting  

Chan Buddhism -better known as Zen Buddhism  

-developed in the 6th century and became dominant during the  Tang and Song dynasties  

- “Chan” was an attempt to mimic the sound of the Sanskrit term  “dhyana” meaning meditation--meditation school

- The Chan school did not depend on text or words to pass on  their teachings, but rather the individual had to be enlightened  though practice and exposure to Chan Buddhism

-founded on mind to mind transmission-teaching by doing  -contrast between the two schools is described as outer directed  (Pure Land) vs, inner directed (Chan) 

- Pure Land outer directed teachings focused on learning from  the Buddhist scriptures or sutras

- Qualities of the Chan school include: directness, immediacy,  spontaneity, intuitiveness: chang enlightenment happens  directly and suddenly, automatically  

-Shaved face, hair is neat and has  

the cranial knob

-in “paradise” cosmological  

realm

-Buddha is represented as a cos

mological figure

-bright polychrome pigment,  

very busy detailed features, even  

outline in contrast to the  

calligraphic line

-sitting

-“Iconic”  

-found in a place of worship, on  

an alter

-more Chinese figure  

-Buddha does have a hand  

mudra  

Liang Kai (Southern Song 13th century) “Leaving the Mountains”  silk hanging scroll

-painting has a traditional theme: -Buddha sits under the boat  tree, has an enlightened moment and goes to the  

mountains to weigh his options, then goes into the world and  talks about his enlightenment  

-traditional iconic Buddha painting

-depicts Chan Buddhism practices because the Buddhas hand  is covered by his robe, signifying that he doesn’t need hand  sutras to learn or be enlightened  

-beard, messier hair, cranial knob

-more natural and realistic

-mostly monochrome ink except the red rope-significant  item-- calligraphic style  

-standing  

- “narrative”

-seen in profile, presents it in a narrative  

-more Indian, foreign figure, first adaptations from India -Buddha usually has a mudra hand gesture, in this painting  however, the hand is covered → this signals that Chan  Buddhism isn’t participating in the traditional teachings of  traditional Buddhism--not dependant on text or words and  reject that language --can only become enlightened through  practice  

-significance of red robe signifies pilgrimage

“Bodhidharma on a Rush leaf”

(13th Century)

-another similar white monochrome  painting  

-hand mudra is covered

-calligraphic brushwork  

-Bodhidharma is standing on a reed to cross  the Yanza river

-NOT Shakyamuni, this is Bodhidharma (the one who brought Buddhism from India  to China)

-28th generation Patriarch after the Buddha  in India, but then became the 1st patriarch in China  

-Retreated to the Shaolin monastery for 9  years and sat in front of the wall of the  monastery  

-true teaching idea in Chan school -wants to  make the practice maybe seem more foreign  so it is more authentic

“Shakyamuni Leaving the  

Mountains” (13th Century)

-another “leaving the mountains” theme  -Shakyamuni

-hand mudra is covered

-calligraphic brushwork

-pure monochrome, very light/white -the robe is often billowing out in these images  -”winds of nature” pushing him back into the  world

-calligraphic brushwork

-anklet significance: in traditional Chinese  Buddha images the Buddha does not have any  jewelry --only Bodhisattva had these--this was  further showing the foreign aspects of these  Chan Shakyamuni and the foreign authenticity

southern song: not court

Shike (13th century) “2nd Patriarch Huike Seated in Meditation” Liang Kai (Southern Song) “6th  Patriarch Chopping Bamboo”  

-The 2nd patriarch became the 2nd patriarch by waiting to get  

Bodhidarhma’s attention while he sat in front of the  

monastery wall for 9 years. In order to get his attention, Huike  

Liang Kai (Southern Song) “6th  Patriarch Tearing Sutras”  

Yintuoluo (14th Century) “The Monk from Danxia Burning a Buddha”  

severs his arm and presents it to Bodhidharma. Bodhidharma  finally gives him attention and Huike asks to have his mind/  heart “pacified”  

-Huike then becomes the 2nd patriarch in china through the  “mind to mind transmission” that is so important to Chan  practice  

-figure is sleeping  

-meditation is not restricted to sitting cross legged reading  sutras

-meditation can happen anywhere  

-sleeping can just as well be a form of meditation or religious  practice  

-very calligraphic, spontaneous brushwork --scribbling… X’ed  out where his arm used to be  

-spontaneous and direct being illustrated and embodied  → the way which paintings are used to make other claims  

-stylistically and thematically  engages many importances of  Chan Buddhism  

-has an enlightenment experi ence

-illiterate kitchen worker, but  has someone else write his  poem for the poem contest and  the 5th patriarch knows this guy  is the one who is next  

-shows medial labor ---blurring  distinction between the every day and the spiritual--labor can  also be a form of meditation  -doesn’t matter that he is illiter ate because Chan believes you  cant capture truth from words  --showing that you don’t need  the system to arrive at enlight enment  

-spontaneous in calligraphic  style and spontaneous in how  they become enlightened  

-sutras are relics of the buddhas  -the deceased would be buried with  them, they are very sacred, so this was  a violent act, yet this is not a negative  thing for the Chan point of view, it is  positive  

-It was appropriate because the Chan  teachings were not though text or  images but again, mind to mind trans mission

-”iconoclasm”-destroying inappropriate  images  

-Metaphorically extremely eccentric  behavior --not following rules or norms  with Buddhism etc.  

-spontaneous sharp lines of the paint brush elicit the actions in the figure  

-monochrome

-2 monks

-story: monk from Danxia is visiting and staying in a monastery, builds a  fire from the relics and tries to extract the sacred relics from the images -monk from monastery says you cant get the relics out of the images -monks from Danxia says, well if you cant get the relics out of here, than  what is the difference of these than just another piece of wood? where does  it sacredness come from?

→ Chan argue is that there is no difference! --ultimately the same thing-- the only thing that is different is the individual’s perception of those things  -actual practice is not that much different that traditional Buddhism, the  Chan are just trying to make claims to stand out from other schools of  Buddhism. They are trying to cater to the elite, scholarly, educated class.  -don’t take this stuff literally, but more as a paradigm to aspire to.  

4. Explain the “Yuan Revolution” in painting (and identify relevant works)

The Yuan Revolution refers to the period of time in the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368),  where China was under foreign control by Mongols.  

-The Yuan Dynasty originated from a central area and fanned out east and west and  established an empire that stretched from the Mediterranean to the entire Korean  peninsula, all across china

-largest continues land mass that has been under one control

-vast and powerful empire

-there was a sort of rebellion against this dynasty because the chinese were unhappy that  someone foreign had taken over

-through the use of paintings, artists used imagery and metaphors to secretly reveal how  they were feeling

-these depictions told stories about the artists being isolated from the court and not  wanting to serve the new emperor

Gong Kai (Yuan Dynasty) “Emaciated Horse” or “Bones of a Noble Horse” Qian Xuan (Yuan Dynasty) “Pear Blossoms” silk handscroll

-straight forward and benign painting

-taking court period paintings and giving it a new meaning with the  

impact of the new dynasty  

- highly realistic rendering

-there was another type of revolution within the painting in that the inscriptions on the  paintings were now being done by the artists themselves

-because the inscriptions were done by the artist, this gave the viewer more information  about what the artists was actually trying to relay in their paintings.  -the action of painting in some sense becomes an action of writing “i wrote this picture”- -telling a story though the picture and the inscription  

-in the new dynasty, the painting is about the execution of the painting as writing, and  the inscription by the artist: PERSONAL expression --painting, calligraphy, and poetry  all combines into a single work

Paintings by Ni Zan- most famous painter in the Yuan dynasty

-not part of the Yuan Revlolution, but more addressed in relation to the Ming Dynasty  where people start painting “in the style” of Ni Zan

-painted the same basic picture over and over, but because he was the one writing the  inscriptions and titling the painting, it was his power to make the image be anything he  wanted it to be.  

-artist is saying: “the subject of this painting is what I say it is”

-once he names it something, the painting turns into what he wants it to be

 -many scholars were in an odd and uncomfortable situation and chose  to leave social life and refused to serve the new emperor and do  paintings for the court

-in turn they made paintings that depicted their feelings towards their  home being overtaken by foreigners (Mongols)

-presence of an inscription written by the artists-one of the first times  the artists is actually writing on the painting  

-starts to become more common and quite regular for the artists to  inscribe poems or writing on their painting: provides insight from the  artist that gives us a better understanding of what the painting  represents  

-this painting’s inscription: “ever since the clouds and mist fell upon the  heavenly pass, the 12 imperial stables of the former dynasty have been  empty. who today laments over the bones of this noble steed?” -basically saying that since china has been taken over, the people  (scholars) have suffered, but who even cares that they are suffering?  -the fate of scholars is affected, they have been suffering and emaciated,  have been cut off from their environment and are in a bad situation -through the inscription, the artist is identifying himself as a loyalist  to the previous emperor, the former dynasty that has now been over thrown.  

loyalist: “leftover subject: “yimin”- use poetry and art to show their  dis-satisfaction, have to do it in a roundabout, subtle way so you  wouldn’t get in trouble with the new emperor  

- inscription is by the artist himself, in contrast to one we’ve seen  before the yuan dynasty, where the inscription was from someone  other than the artist

-inscription reads:

“the lonely tear-stained face, teardrops washing the branches through now without makeup, her old charms remain behind the closed gate, on a rainy night, how she is filled with sadness how differently she looked bathes in golden waves of moonlight before  darkness fell.”

-describing a woman who is fading, getting older, fallen out of favor  and she is filled with sadness.  

-common theme in chinese poetry: describing the plight of women  of the court

-metaphorically describing the nature of beauty  

- image of the women represents china and how is has fallen and  withered  

-many layers of meaning  

-without the inscription in the painting, its meaning may not be  seen as a political one

-pear blossoms have a symbolic meaning of loyalty  

5. Discuss some of the ways that artworks were used by the Ming court

At the 3rd quarter of the 14th century, the Ming drove out the Mongols and  restored Imperial rule

-with this was the reintroduction of court painting  

-images created early on had to do once again with establishing and  underscoring legitimacy of the new leaders  

-artists created portraits of the emperors to make political statements -in these Ming paintings we see traditions from earlier periods of the  northern and southern song periods being repeated  

-past traditions are being given a politically relevant twist in the current  images

- large scrolls of fighting ferocious birds: hawks, eagles, --subjects associ ated with power and domination  

- In the Ming dynasty there is also growing market of professional artist,  different from court artists  

-in previous dynasties, we don’t know what happened commercially for  artists outside of the court  

Anonymous (Ming Dynasty) “Portrait of the Hongzhi Emperor”

-Symbolic portrait of the Emperor with a lot of dragon imagery -seated on the dragon throne

-dragon motifs on his robe  

-3 fold screen in the background with dragon imagery -all these identify him as a powerful authoritative figure  -symmetrical

-frontal

-not much attention payed to his body--flattened -not trying to capture actual physicality, but more his symbolic  presence and importance  

-court artists were creating an icon of the emperor --political  

6. Discuss the characteristic features of paintings by Dai Jin and the Zhe (“Juh”) school

Zhe School--founded by Dai Jin-- “professional” -Scholars who were commissioned by the Emperor to do  work

-Dai Jin is first famous artist in that tradition, becomes his  school, but not REALLY founded by him, just the leader  type of person

-got a bunch of professional together

-tradition begins where paintings are given to signify an  event in life  

--for example: when a friend leaves, you present them  with a painting as a record/memorial for the event. The  actual happenings are represented in the scene in the  painting

Tang Yin (Ming Dynasty 1470-1524) “Dreaming of Immortality” (Meng Xian: name printing) Dai Jin (Ming Dynasty 1368-1462) “Parting”

-tradition or artists in making a painting that somehow in its components makes  a clever play on a person’s name  

-this artist, Tang Yin was very highly educated and a very brilliant scholar who  was unfairly implicated in a cheating scandal on the civil service exam, --never  able to hold a position in the court--but just became a professional painter on his  own

-of the higher social class

-dotting technique on the rocks--axe cut brush strokes

-moving to the left there is a little hut with a figure who has fallen asleep, this is  the scholar who’s dream is being depicted in the painting

-solidity of this cliff outcropping---then the scene shifts and there is openness,  fogginess, clouds

-high up, floating in the clouds is a little figure of a scholar , looking at the hut  below

- the scholars name actually means: “dreaming of immortality”  

-monochrome tradition  

-wash is used to make it misty and hazy

-group of figures--scholars -identified by robes and hats -scene represented is that of parting, a scholar who has now been  assigned to a different area for his civil service position, etc.  -example of social relations in the aspect of painting  -when a friend leaves, you present them with a painting as a record/ memorial for the event. --the actual happenings are represented in  the scene in the painting  

Dai Jin (Ming Dynasty 1368-1462) “Returning Late from a Spring Outing”  Large hanging scroll

one scroll, but  

imagine it as two  

small album leaves in  

its composition

Dai Jin (Ming Dynasty 1368-1462) “Life on the River” Du Qiong (Ming Dynasty) “Befriending the Pines”

-Ming dynasty reviving earlier imperial traditions

-revival of Southern Song court painting

-Monochrome

-stylistic and subject approaches similar to Southern Song painting -imagine this as 2 compositions, top and bottom--you have two  southern song album leaf compositions put together  -diagonal ground plane  

-things clustered in one corner, lots of other open space, haziness,  poetic quality  

-figures are prominent  

-setting a particular season and time of day

-figure of scholar returning  

-combining detail and use of color on the landscape features

-river was a place of commerce and activity

-loose brushwork style in the figures

-Monochrome

-full of little narrative vignettes

-family having a picnic

-one thing to consider is ‘what is the market for this kind of painting?’ -sort of a documentary type of painting: the activities of the river - the consumers of the painting are not the people who are depicted in  the painting  

-idealized portrait of everyday life activities  

-the wealthy merchants and officials who would have owned this paint ing would depict “the happy life of the peasants” -ironically  

-depicting a scholars retreat in a garden setting  

-participating in garden related activities of educating the elite,  etc

-scholars would commission or be presented by friends with a  portrait of that site.  

-see the doorway to the utopian life--grotto  

-scholars at a table doing garden activities

traditional plants, etc

-in main setting, scholar talking with a friend  

-collectables in the window

-Polychrome

-dense linework  

7. Discuss the characteristic features of paintings by Shen Zhou and the Wu school

Wu School--associated with Shen Zhou-- “amateur” “literati”

-ming version of the literati  

-not really professional, painting is seen more as a hobby than a career  -Shen Zhuo--educated confucian scholar

-came from a wealthy family and was interested in poetry and painting -although it was his confucius to serve the government, he made an argument that  his mother was too ill for him to leave, so he was able to stay and do the work he  wanted  

- lived on his family estate and devoted himself to painting and poetry -Again, we see paintings that “are in the style of ” another artist.  

Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty) “Walking with a Staff” Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty 1427-1509) “Lofty Mt. Lu”

-painting reminds us of Ni Zan in the dry sketchiness and brushwork -similar, but we have a figure, which Ni Zan did not have -the figure is that of the artist, Shen Zhou

-self portrait in a landscape  

-spindle trees

-evoking aspects of Ni Zan’s painting with texture strokes, creation of  elements, types of trees

-in many ways, it’s typical of the literati amateur in that the painting is  about the painting of Ni Zan.  

-conscious engagement of style of the previous artist Ni Zan -uses dry monochrome ink.

-lots of empty space  

-dense brushwork, more in certain areas over others

-colorful ink

-intricate brushwork and color

-no empty space

-very different from his other painting

-completely different style compared to “walking with a staff ” -this painting is rare because it is a specific location and he shows us  specific elements associated with this geographical site: the waterfall, the  rickety bridge--unlike any other landscape painting we’ve seen in this sense -shift in using an actual site as the subject of the painting rather than an  ambiguous place

-reflective of growth of leisure and travel in the ming period  -idea of traveling to famous sites and locations grew in the ming dynasty as  there was growth in the wealthy middle class who had disposable income  

Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty) “Poet on a Mountaintop” Album Leaf Shen Zhou (Ming Dynasty) “Saying Farewell” Handscroll

-image that reveals the paradox between professional and amateur painting.  

-wetter, looser style of painting

Shen Zhou- uses the three perfections:  

1.painting

2.poetry

3.calligraphy

-all combined in a single art work it creates a synergy that is greater than the  sum of its parts --we also see this in Southern Song album leaves -as we move later in time, the literati/ amateur painters are responsible for all  three of the elements --in contrast to southern song album leaves where it  was kind of a group project: someone wrote the poem(tang dynasty poem),  the emperor did the calligraphy, and the painting was done by the court artist  -poem by the artist gives insight into what the painting is supposed to mean.  -the figure in the image is kind of looking up to the sky/ in a sense reading  the poem that is inscribed where the figure in the painting is looking  -the poem itself describes the scene we see in the painting

-inscription turns inwards to say “and I feel like answering the murmuring  brook with my flute”  

-the sound of the waterfall is brought in and the idea of the music by the  water will then be crated by the flute

-two forms of poem and painting, and one enhances the other

-uses elements of his signature style

-square rocks

-light colors

-includes long inscription that gives us information about the scene  -several things that echo things in paintings we’ve seen before -empty pavilion of rocks to the left

-two scholars leaning forward to say farewell--theme of saying goodbye -similar to painting by Dai Jin of the Zhe school: group of scholars seeing off  their friend

-thematically and stylistically these two paintings are very similar: loose brush work, light colors,  

-however, these two paintings are seen as representing two traditions that  contradict each other

-difference between professional and amateur --the paintings look pretty much  the same so what is the big fuss in distinction between these two? -primary difference between these: in the case of Shen Zhou, its the artist  himself who is in the picture and the artist himself who is creating this image to  give to his friend: there is a much more personal dimension that we understand  from the inscription--in the case of Dai Jin, we don’t know who all the friends  are who are saying farewell and the artist himself is only the vehicle for creating  the image but he isn’t personally involved

-SO the primary distinction between these two schools of painting has to do  with social class as much as anything else

-amateurs were part of the educated elite literati tradition whereas those who  were associated with the Ju school were professional artisans for the court:  brushes for hire.

8. Discuss some “new” types/uses of painting that developed in the Ming  

-In the Ming Dynasty there was a reintroduction of court painting now that China was under imperial rule again -In the paintings there are political innuendos about the legitimacy of the new rulership and depictions of subjects  associated with power and domination  

-artists created portraits of the emperors  

-social occasions increasingly involve a painting--present paintings as a good luck to someone, to congratulate  someone, to give as a birthday gift,  

-scholars commission portraits of their studios as marketing them and preserving them

-growing market of professional artists--different from court artists  

-in previous dynasty, we don’t know what happened commercially for artists outside of the court  

-theme began to occur where one artist would do a painting “in the style of ” another artist  

>>>this is where NI ZAN comes in form the Yuan Dynasty

-important to know who fit into each category because that reflects who they allowed to follow as precedents in  their own work “painting in the style of so and so”

-creative imitation and creative transformation: not advocating for one to copy a former artists, but rather to  

transform and embody the former style “like, but not alike”

Artist Dong Qichang had opinions on the two schools theory

- “two schools theory”- extremely influential theory that is important even today

-developed in the late Ming period

- if you look at all of Chinese painting, there are two kinds of modes of painting, these two modes correspond in a  metaphorical way to the two schools of chang zen Buddhism: the school of gradual enlightenment and the school  of sudden enlightenment  

-referred to the northern school(gradual process) and southern school(sudden enlightenment) in Buddhist history  -so: in painting there is a similar phenomenon: the kinds of painters who are very careful and cautious in the  

Paintings by Ni Zan- most famous painter in the Yuan dynasty -not part of the Yuan Revlolution, but more addressed in relation to the  Ming Dynasty where people start painting “in the style” of Ni Zan -painted the same basic picture over and over, but because he was the one  writing the inscriptions and titling the painting, it was his power to make the  image be anything he wanted it to be.  

-artist is saying: “the subject of this painting is what I say it is” -once he names it something, the painting turns into what he wants it to be

northern traditions, where in the southern tradition the painters are much more intuitive, rapid, abbreviated, spon taneous

quick, rapid, brush stokes slow, careful painters, focused on  realism

→ all the various court artists from the tang dynasty and the northern song painting academy, southern song court,  artists of the Zhe school, professionals, can all be put into the category of NORTHERN, SLOW, CAREFUL,  CAUTIOUS painters

→ all of the literati painters, the scholar artists, early northern song of Wu school painters, can be put into the  SOUTHERN tradition, RAPID, SPONTANEOUS painting

so.. in the end, Dong Qichang is saying that although some may think the difference between the amateur and the  professional painters is a matter of social class, he is saying because of the distinction of these Buddhist schools of  north and south and how the painting is done and how they were trained, similar to how the people are enlight ened, there IS meaning about the difference in these two categories of painters that is not connected to the social  class

--created two tracks of artists

South 

Southern Song (not court) Literati/ amateur

Southern Song (not court) Wu School

North 

Tang

Northern Song

Academy/ Professional

Southern Song Court (Huizong,  realism, etc)

Zhe School

9. Discuss the symbolism and meanings of garden imagery  

Tao Qian (Ming Dynasty) “Peach Blossom Spring”  

The Scholars Garden

Moon Gate

 5 basic elements to the scholars gardens

1. Water- small ponds and lakes, also metaphorically through rocks and gravel to  suggest water  

2. Rock- used in various ways  

3. Plants - secondary material, used more for emphasis and accent  

4. Architecture- small buildings and pavilions, bridges, pathways  

5. Writing- incorporate inscriptions in a number of ways  

-concept of Shanshui---mountain and wasters/rivers  

-Taihu Rock -special kind of boulder found from Lake Tai --massive pockets carved out  from harder rocks  

-sculptural rock form --found at different scales: in the garden, in paintings, as small trinkets  for a desk  

-these were urban gardens and walled off  

-separated from the outside world

-often walls were within other walls, courtyard spaces with various window decorations and  openings  

- gateways and entries to the garden --passageways-- important focal point that is often cir cular-- “moon gates”  

-these openings were treated pictorially--they framed a picturesque view and created a  composition  

-views framed though windows and structures

-pathways are leading you to the picturesque views

-pavilions also act as viewing points

-who had these gardens? -- they are for the scholars, you had to be of a certain social class to  afford these gardens--these are like mini landscape painting views

how were gardens used?

-scene that is depicted over and over again is a group of scholars  in the garden, engaged in various cultural pursuits: playing  instruments, writing poetry, collecting objects, antiques on the  tables to enjoy

-This theme brings to mind the famous gathering we see in Wang  Xizhi’s Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion.  

-specific participation activity

-gardens are understood for places where scholars come and  engage in various cultural pursuits  

-2 dominant strains of Chinese philosophy: places of Daioist ref uge (nature, natural world, etc) and a social place where social  interactions are happening --very confucius roles

-depicts a fable

-story of a fisherman drifting in his boat, as he’s moving down the  river, he gets lost in thought and loses track of where he is, becomes  aware of a powerful scent of the peach blossoms. sees a cave like  opening and wants to explore, comes out on the other side of the  cave and finds himself in a utopian land, leaves to go and get his  family to bring them back to the utopia, but is unable to ever find  the entrance again. it was a new realm that was separate from the ev eryday world: depicts the meaning/purpose of the Chinese garden.  -it’s walled in, separated form the everyday world

-within the gardens there may be small caves or rocks around the  edge of the water

-little bridges where you could see yourself going into utopia (the  garden)  

-evokes the idea of finding these openings to find the garden.  -the story of “peach blossom spring” is reflected in the Chinese  garden.  

-gardens were in the urban area, so this little utopia was further  proved as a refuge from the hectic, busy everyday life

10. Discuss the symbolism of Ming imperial tombs -only one of the 13 tombs has been excavated  

Image 1: Spirit Way- Valley of the Ming Imperial Tombs

Architectural project of the Ming Dynasty: creation of The 13 Imperial Tombs -site outside of Beijing

-first couple of Ming emperors and the rest of the emperors were buried at this  site

-concept of the site reveals a great deal about beliefs and practices of the Ming  emperors

-massive marble gateway as a gateway to the valley

-This gateway was made to look like wood, but its actual material was stone: ele ments of  

immortality and strength  

-positioning of this gate is similar to the stone doors in some of the early tombs of  the Han dynasty--diving the everyday and the sacred afterlife  

-Image 1: Long roadway leading in to the site lined with massive stone sculptures  of real and fake animals and military figures --represent the 2 major branches of  the civil service--the civil (court) and military  

-functionally and metaphorically draw on the tradition of mingqi and provide  figures for the realm of the dead, performing specific functions, etc.  -The animals or figures were in sets of two, one pair standing and the second pair  sitting

-figures as sculpture has been criticized as not particularly exciting because they  are very stiff and formal --different from other sculpture that emphasizes move ment and liveliness -

-this stiffness was a reflection of the function of their duties on the site: they are  supposed to be solum figures acting as guardians, protecting the site.. so really  they are not a reflection of lack of sculptural ability  

-traditions of using gateways to mark off burial sites

-reviving traditional burial practices  

-new rulers are still connected and have a continuation of traditional values and  ancient  

practices

 

Tombs from the 13 imperial tombs: Image 2

-connect to earlier tradition

-tombs vary in size, some have 2 courtyards, some have three

-general structure and principles of the tomb are the same: each has various  gateways to pass through, there is a walled complex for each tomb with various  courtyards, large stone  

structure--soul tower, identifies the name of the person buried (separation of  tomb world(world of the dead) and world outside of it). --then the mound behind  this is where the body is.  

-mountains in the background are borrowed for the landscape and in a way they  are there to protect and look over the tomb

-great reluctance over time to go into these tombs archaeologically for various  reasons:  

-it’s taboo,  

-what’s the line between research and tomb robbery?  

-the entrances to these tombs are also very obscure and hidden(with one excep tion) --this  

prevents people from going in as well  

-the tomb that was excavated, was happened upon accidently  

-in the process of rebuilding a part of a tomb, they found a tablet with part of a  pirates map which described the entrance  

-discovered the diamond wall entrance of the tomb--entire underground com plex, all made of stone -- material of immortality, permanence, strength  -today is a museum

-China was not prepared archaeologically to deal with what they found--as a  result there is a great reluctance to open other tombs

-all architecture in the tomb is mimicking other types of material, but its all in  stone  

-In the tombs there were still oil lamps that were full, as the room was airtight and  once the tomb was locked the lamps burned out very quickly.  

-The symbolism for these lamps has to do with making the deceased comfortable  and providing them with things from the everyday world so they are happy and  do not wish bad things upon the real world from the after world  -once the figured out how to open the tombs, everything was quickly damaged  with exposure to the humidity, just like we saw with the terra cotta army.  -Figure 3 we see pottery with the massive blue and white ceramics, dragon figures -a distinguishing feature of the dragon motifs were the number of claws that the  Dragon had

--5 claws is for imperial use --dragons and cloud motifs--related to immortality -symbolic throne for the emperor and his two wives --dragon throne with dragon  motifs  

-among the goods in the tomb also included a strange gold mesh cap, worn by the  emperor--has a dragon motif  

-king fisher feather head dress worn by the empress --birds became extinct be cause of the popularity and demand for this headdress  

Image 2: Valley of the Ming Imperial Tombs Image 3: Central Chamber: Tomb of the Wanli Emperor

11. Identify and discuss characteristic work of the Qing “individuals” painters

“individual artists of the qing”

-idea of figures who thought themselves loyal to the  fallen dynasty  

-to avoid serving the new court under Qing rule, one  could go to the monastery and be a monk  -qing rulers use art similar to how they have used it in  earlier periods

-art as a tool to make political claims, to advertise for  the emperor, etc.  

Hong Ren (Qing Dynasty) “The Coming of Autumn”  

Gong Xian (Qing Dynasty) “Landscape” Zhu Da (Ba Da Shan Ren) (Qing Dynasty)  “Bird, Fish, and Rock”

-stylistically creates images with dramatic contrasts of dark  and light

-sense of foreboding dramatic scenery  

-dark clouds suggesting impending dramatic events that are  

Zhu Da (Ba Da Shan Ren) (Qing Dynasty)  “Bird on a Rock”

-artist who joined the monastery to not have to deal with  conflict of the new rulers of the Qing  

-Monochrome

-empty dead spaces--similar to Ni Zan.  

-few signs of habitation

-creates unappealing and uninviting environment -invoking spindly trees

-has a deeper meaning/representation about how the artist  feels about new leadership

or will take place  

-includes a small pavilion with no one there

-empty, uninhabited, uninviting world--doomsday aspect  -parallel to Hong Ren in that through completely  different stylistic means, they arrive at the same conclusion  and stance of revolting the new ruler  

-both are alien and alienating  

-monochrome

-heavy wash and brushwork

-related to the Ming imperial line- Zhu Da was a  Ming prince

-having those connections, he would have most  likely been viewed more suspiciously than the  average scholar  

-took refuge in a monastery for a large part of his  life  

- he behaved in a very bizzare became or pre tended to be a deaf mute

-may have suffered from a mental illness -putting on an act to avoid being looked at  suspiciously by the Qing  

-created unique and personalized idiom -theme of fish and rock

-underwater views of the fish.

-fish is looking at the rock suspiciously because  rock is unstable: metaphorically representing the  contemporary situation where people may be  suspicious of their environment under new rule  -not used to seeing underwater views: a point of  view we don’t usually see

-again rock is a very unstable feature in the  painting

-nothing around them

-balanced and could just tip over  

-the birds are also perched strangely, they may  fall right over as well

-again, metaphorically representing the current  political situation and the uncertainty around it -birds are looking up at an overhanging rock,  something that could possible fall without  notice  

-ambiguity of the world and these object’s place

11. CONTINUED: Identify and discuss characteristic work of the Qing  “individuals” painters

Dao Ji (Shitao)(Qing Dynasty) “1000 Ugly Ink Blots” Dao Ji (Shitao)(Qing Dynasty) “Wilderness Colors”  

-most well known artist in the Qing

-distantly related to Zhu Da

-took refuge at the monastery, similar to other artists

-left behind much artwork when he became a monk and wrote a  

lot about painting  

-wrote about theory of art and creativity  

-his writings helped interpret what his paintings meant

---10,000 ugly ink blots:

-arguing about creativity  

-as we move across we see a little drawing of a hut with a figure  

12. Discuss some of the functions  of painting at the Qing court

Qing rulers use art similar to how they have used it in earlier  periods

-art as a tool to make political claims, to advertise for the emperor,  etc.  

-western techniques were introduced to make more realistic  portraits of the emperor

-Multiple portraits of the emperor were made to reflect his  different sides and make him more familiar and accepted by the  people

- Emperor is either being adrressed as a scholar or a military  person = duality of rolesh

-- wen: “literary”

--wu: “military”

sorry this answer is short... a lot of these  

questions are repetitive and he really did  

inside--we can then read it as a sort of landscape painting -the dots are coalescent to make tree forms  

-dots are rhythmic  

-the different brush stroke gives  

representation of different plants  

-what Dao Ji is addressing is the whole theory of creative  imitation- “the idea that earlier painters should be the basis of  your style” --who did the first artists look to for their inspira tion??- answer: nature

painting collection: “wilderness colors”  

-collection of album leaves

-poems basically describes what the painting is

- “The luster of bamboo  

encircles the wilderness

colors;

the reflection of a house  

ripples in the flowing  

water.”

-showing a figure that is surrounded by a natural world of the colors and  sounds and is inspired by that  

-goal is not only to engage style but the experience of being immersed in nature  -themes go back to the rejection of Dong Qichang in that paintings are not just  about  

following someone else’s style of painting but that they are about nature and the  actual  

natural world around us

-Idea of animate and inanimate-viewed as animated by chi energy that course  through them  

-brush is the vehicle to get energy out of the painter and onto the paper  -painting is embedded with the chi energy of the painter

not discuss this very much as we rushed  through the end of class  

material. If I get any more information I  will update the file!

13. Discuss the image of the emperor as represented in the Qing  

Castiglione (Qing Dynasty) “Emperor Qianlong on  Horseback”

Anonymous (Qing Dynasty) “The Emperor as a Scholar” “Qinlong Emperor as the Bodhisattva Manjusri” Castiglione (Qing Dynasty) “Qianlong Emperor Watching  Children at Play”

Emperor represented in a western style

-Castiglione: artist that introduces western techniques -instrumental in teaching western techniques for  painting

-responsible for doing the portraits of the emperors -Chinese landscape style, but the realism of the horse is  much more european  

-Qianlong Emperor wearing armor and emblems of the  military

-portrayed as a military commander/leader -Reflects how the Qing respected the existing Chinese  culture and traditions (in their dressing attire) but also  shows how they are adapting these traditions to fit their  uses (hunting on horseback)

Emperor represented as a scholar

-image shows how the emperor is respecting traditional  Chinese culture and practices of calligraphy and  painting

-seated in a library room with the tools of the trade -dragon motifs on robe  

-robe is altered to open to the side, not down the front,  adapting to fit his needs

Emperor as the Bodhisattva

-showed that the emperor was very committed to Buddhism and  traditional practices

-had a Buddhist teacher and practiced Buddhism  -image showing Qianlong as the center of a Buddhist universe  -taking the roles of the boshisattva of wisdom  

-he is making the mudras with his hands

-presenting himself as the Bodhisattva, a higher power to help  others become enlightened  

Emperor as a family/father figure  

-This is a unique and rare image, as we never see any  emperors in this type of setting

- in the image the emperor is holding a baby on his lap -quintessential confucius father figure  

-showing him in a domestic fatherly role

-wants to represent that he is an upholder of confucius  tradition and respects traditional Chinese culture and  confucianism  

14. Explain the symbolic and stylistic  features of Qing garments

15. Discuss ways in which some modern and contemporary Chinese  artists engage “tradition”

(Qing Dynasty) Embroidered silk Dragon Robe Xu Bing (1955) A Book From the Sky

book from the sky:  

-creating volumes using the  

traditional Chinese methods  

for creating book: hand carved  

printing blocks

-Qing rulers favored a style of garment that was more suitable for horseback riding  that was related to their semi-nomadic marshals sorts of traditions, so they altered the  traditional Chinese garment to fit their needs

-asymmetrical closure rather than a frontal opening

-tight sleeves rather than loose sleeves

-the robe had 9 “5 clawed” dragons: 3 on the front, 3 on the back, 2 on the shoulders,  and the 9th dragon was the emperor himself wearing the garment. -The emperor transforms the robe and is also transformed by it

-concept of the placement of the dragons = 9 fold square or a circular cosmological  circle/square pattern

-9 is a cosmologically special number  

-in the forbidden city all the doors have 9 rows of 9 knobs  

-all combinations that add up to 9 are a multiple of 9  

-Emperors robe also has motifs of long life, well being, wisdom, etc.  

officials at the court had very strict regulations and very strict rank badges  -different ranks had different garments  

-status garments: the features of the garment represents the status of the  individual wearing it

Qiu Zhijie (1969) Writing the Orchid Pavilion Preface 1,000 times

-after is has been written 1000 times, the scroll is  physically rich with the meaning of this practice,  yet it is somewhat un-retreivable because you are  left with a black block of ink

-what is the meaning of this tradition/ what have  we gotten from it?

-the fact that it was the Orchid Pavilion preface  also nods to the traditions of scholars in the gar dens and the activities they were engaged in as  Chinese tradition

Xu Bing (1955) New English Calligraphy

Qian Songyan (20th C.) “ ‘Guohua’ Style Landscape” Shi Lu (20th C.) “ ‘Fighting in Shaanxi”

Chairman Mao:

“make the past serve the  

present, make the foreign thing  serve China”

-Showing how calligraphy and  the Chinese written language has  changed over time

-this iteration of calligraphy is  reflecting Chinese writing, but in  fact anyone can read the english  letters it is hiding

- Quohua: “National painting”  

---term also means traditional Chinese painting -these paintings continued earlier Chinese traditions -after the establishment of the people’s republic, we see  painting and other art forms are highly politicized  -painting could be seen as a very powerful type of tool to  project a certain view or issue with the ruler  -background has a contrast to a modernized scene: -there  is an emblem of the past-->Buddhist architecture-pagoda  form-bathed in a red color of the sun rising  --understood as particular commentary  

-under new leadership china is modernizing and  industrializing  

-emblem of the past and is illuminated by the red sun  -emblem of communism  

--> shifting interpretations  

-Chairman Mao reflecting on the war going on in the mountain landscape  -was first viewed as a positive image of Chairman Mao, but later criticized and  reinterpreted as a subtle critique of Mao because he was standing alone,  suggesting he was cut off from the people, the people coming up the mountain  are struggling and Mao is not helping them

- potent and malleable images-meanings can change depending on how they are  interpreted

lots of posters and images of Mao in the 19th century  

-used to portray a certain image to appeal to the people  

-the images were not made without Mao’s approval

-image of his with his arm up: associated with the start of the cultural revolution

-images showing him out and about with normal people--showing connection  with the people

-visiting agricultural areas, etc

-illustrate and underscore that he is an everyday person who will engage with the  activities of the people

--multi ethnic relationships

--humble surroundings  

-this connects to the images we see of Emperor Qianlong, trying to appeal to the  people and create multiple ways for people to connect with him

Study images not addressed in a particular questions  

Comparison we did in class 

Ma Lin (Southern Song 13th century) “Watching Clouds” inscribed by emperor Lizong. Silk Fan

fan 

1. small shadow of a mountain

2. figure is much more apparent

3. has lots of open space

Northern Song

Monumental Mountain 

1. mountain is very prominent and takes up a lot of  room,

4. focus is on the figure relaxing,  looking, meditative engagement, looking  to the fog, the clouds, the figure directs  your gaze onto the same activity he is  doing--reflection,  

5. painting tries to be the painting  equivalent of a poem

“I walk to where the waters end, and sit  and watch when the clouds rise” 6. small scale

7. fan

8. asymmetrical with the perspective  grounds not very clear

SIMILARITIES

-they are both monochrome -use ink and wash

-stresses texture strokes in both

2. figures are lost in the landscape and small, not a  prominent aspect of the painting

3. has barely any open space, the mountain taking up  2/3 of the painting,

4. people bustling around, working, moving 5. not attached to a poem or inscription

6. large scale

7. large hanging scroll

8. clear foreground, mid ground and background and  is very symmetrical  

Wang Xizhi (353 CE) “Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion” Wang Xizhi (353 ce) “Orchid Pavilion Preface” Calligraphy by Wang Xizhi

- only when we get to the 4th century do we see writing behaving as an art form  

- this artist, Wang Xizhi, was the first person who fit this category of calligraphy  

as writing  

- the artist himself had an elaborate estate and garden with a stream running  through and on the day of the spring festival, he invited poets, painters and  intellectuals to his estate, spending the day engaged in drinking, writing poetry,  and doing calligraphy  

- servants floated wine glasses on lotus pads down the stream to be picked up  when it passed you on the bank  

-figures are represented very casually in contrast to the formal conservative  figures we have seen before  

-now there is a background as well in the painting  

- in the context of formal portraiture, these casual figures and their casual  clothing were somewhat “out of place” or shocking to the setting - at the end of the day, Wang Xizhi takes all the poems and writes a preface to  them- this preface became the most prized and wanted piece of calligraphy in  china

-before writing it he would watch the geese swimming in the water and this  gracefulness would inspire his calligraphy  

-effortless flowing --alcohol lessens your inhibitions and makes you more free:  also represented in the calligraphy

please feel free to email me!  

dmontzka@uoregon.edu  

hope this study guide helped you!

-preface written at the end of the spring festival  gathering

- places where he has crossed out certain things,  gone back to edit, yet all of these elements are  preserved even in the copies, because these are  preserved as revealing the whole process of the art  form  

-calligraphy is the only form or writing or art that  the viewer is able to re-create because the stroke by  stroke structure of calligraphy teachings and the  elements and orders of basic calligraphy - the mistakes show the process or the pathway of  how it was written  

-ultimately calligraphy is viewed at the premiere  form of self expression through line

-Wang Xizhi, although most famous, his own calligraphy  barely exists besides the late copies

-his writing is found in some places among other very elite  emperors or people on scrolls, these scrolls were owned and  inscribed by these elite

-his artwork was just two lines of calligraphy yet this small  artwork was highly valued by many famous people and  emperors  

-his calligraphy is the main piece of artwork  

-what is valued in calligraphy is not the content of the  writing, but who actually wrote it, the note could say, “im  out of oranges, ill get some more next week” but it would be  highly valued just because of the person who wrote it  → same sort of impulse americans have with autographs,  something is worth a lot more if it is signed, or a handwritten  note is with it  

-something profound is revealed through the writing  

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