FINAL STUDY GUIDE
FINAL STUDY GUIDE ARH 208
Popular in History of Chinese Art
Popular in Art History
This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dianna Montzka on Monday March 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 208 at University of Oregon taught by Charles Lachman in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 1101 views. For similar materials see History of Chinese Art in Art History at University of Oregon.
Reviews for FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/16/15
ARH 208 FINAL STUDY GUIDE HISTORY OF CHINESE ART If you have any concerns about the content of this study guide feel that any information is missing or would like notes on any subjects feel free to contact me dmontzkauoregonedu thank you 1 Identify and discuss the chief characteristics of Northern Song Monumental Landscap Li Cheng Northern Song ca 975 Buddhist Monastery Northern Song monumental landscape painting Song Dynasty 960 1 279 Northern Song 960 1 1 27 Southern Song 1 127 1279 Key words Landscape Shanshui Shanmountain ying yang couple of rock and water m water rivers cosmologically signi cant thinking of how nature has relationships with each other wenren educated elite artists used painting as a means of self expression 3 parts of painting 1 outline 2 texture stroke cun 3 wash Artists Li Cheng Fan Kuan Guo Xi Key Characteristics Monochrome ink Symmetrical extreme emphasis of the texture stroke and how different patterns of the texture stroke give a different look and feeling 3 stage painting process 1 outline calligraphic line that is variable in its form thin thick dark or light 2 texture strokes gives de nition and shading to an object 3 wash used to pull the painting together can eliminate the line and blend the texture in some ways creates a hazy or foggy distance 3 part spatial production 1 foreground 2 middle ground 3 background multidimensional perspectives the different grounds of the spatial production often have different perspec tives such as looking down on the landscape looking up to it etc All examples are hanging scrolls of ink on silk Use painting as a vehicle for self re ection Large monumental center mountain monochrome ink symmetrical multiple perspectives 3 distinct distances or grounds employs 3 step execution outline texture strokes wash calligraphic line gewu investigation of things meditative view in how to perceive the natural world from these investigations you can understand principals about how the natural world works for example if you can understand a tree you can understand its larger part the forrest In this picture it would be the rock and the mountain The rock has the same quality and principals as a mountain on a larger scale picture is inhabited by gures in the foreground and at the monastery the architectural monastery piece in these landscape paintings are executed differently than the rest of the 3 step process The building is composed of clean thin sharp lines SAME Fan Kuan Northern Song ca 1000 Travelers Among oantains extremely rare painting among early landscape paintings because Kuan s signature was discovered hidden in this painting and it was undiscovered for more than 1000 years signature is among the leaf pattern discovered through microscopic magni cation artists do not sign their work yet in this period many commonalities and seen as a follower of the Li Cheng painting single massive peak takes up 23 of the canvas pale wash with barley any pigment creates a misty area that spaces out the middle ground and the backgroundcreating perception of distance and separation follows 3 stage execution temple details architectural style of drawing very precise in comparison to the rest of the painting natural world elements trees are very detailed narrative in the painting is not obvious but there are a number of gures coming around the rocks and along the bottom pack animals trudging along their way trying to create an experience for the viewer making a claim between the natural and human world nature is bigger than human artists spent months just wandering nature and then returned to produce paintings of travels and explorations SAME e Pa1nt1ng Guo Xi Northern Song ca 1072 Early Spring 39 The great mountain awesome and digni ed is the lord of the many moun tains Therefore lay out the parts of nature separating them according to order ridges hills forests and ravines making the great mountain the sovereign over far and near great and small its appearance is like that of a great lord gloriously facing the sun while the many ministers hurry about heeding his commands and attending court no one of them sitting idly or standing back aloof The tall pine standing lofty and straight is the paragon of the many trees Therefore lay out the various tlora separating them according to order vines creepers grasses and trees making the tall pine the commander who with the wave of his hand summons all to join his camp its appear ance is like that of a sage who loftily obtains his opportunity to serve as an of cial and the masses of people provide him service without suffering humiliation or oppression The LoftyTruth of Forests and Streams iinquan gaozhi This landscape painting is less landscape than what we ve seen in previous examples as its internal structure is unique and different than the huge monumental mountain in the middle DOES have a speci c date and signature in the linage of Li Cheng and Fan Kuan but Guo Xi is an official painter of the court where the other two were not less symmetry and more of a curvy s twist in middle line spine of the mountain from bottom to top acts as a middle separator strong contrast between dark and light washes the architectural temple piece in this painting has more of a boneless structure artist uses the wash instead of the sharp line to create this feature shape of this mountain is similar to the form of the Taihu rock comes from lake Tai these rocks were extremely popular items in the silk period perfect illustration of the Daioist belief that rock is the immortal material very few gures only some climbing on the mountain path and in the boat two trunks emerging from a single root in the center pine tree originally from Li Chengphilosophically loaded idea clearly a self conscious reference to Li Cheng famous crab claw branches artist signature creates a tension or denial between the illusion of the painting presence of the signature yells that it is two dimensional contradicts the space and causes tension DIFFERENT 2 Identify and discuss works produced at the Song Court Academies Court Academy Paintings of the Song Period Emperor Huizong Northern Song court 12th Century Emperor Huizong Northern Song Court 12th Century Song Dynasty 9601279 2 Finches and Bamboo handscroll S Olred arakeet handscroll Northern Song Court Emperor Huizong 11011126 one of the most famous rulers in history rst emperor to establish and academy of painting the emperor was a famous artist and calligrapher used a style of calligraphy referred to as slender gold slender gold character chunks were not square any more but more elongated and had more accentuated features unique calligraphy invented a sort of logo signature for himself saying the most important person in the world fused four words and made them into one Chinese character that represents this sayingA Smaii amount of pigment polychrome Sma aont of pient very realistic birds having a humanlike interaction hypet 1teaiisna GROUPS TYPES OF ARTISTS extreme detail in the rendering of the birdfeather by feather insetiptions reveal important information about the quotused a dOt 0f blaCk lacquer for the eye to make it Shiny and in39 circumstances in the creation and what these images really are NORTHERN SONG court artists academy academy of art not scholarly crease the realism of the images this 5 colored parakeet is not native t0 the Court the piesenee artists professionals being commissioned to paint for the court not doing small not monumental arrival of the parakeet was taken as an auspieious omen it was a sign what they want these bird and ower paintings meant something and stood for eosmie approval or disapproval VS an auspidous eVent proof that the emperor is a good or bad ruler SOUTHERN SONG wenren literati scholarof cial amateur all one re ected some deeper meaning about something that could The appearance of the bird was thought tO have a p0iitieai group category of artists freedom to express themselves through painting happen in the court or to the emperor importance or Ineaning don t paint for money but trade paintings as currency verisimilitude the quality of being real lifelikeness hiaek lacquer for eye dot see next question for examples Ma Yuan Southern Song court 13th c Scholar by a Waterfall Ma Lin Southern Song Court 13th century Watching Clouds s silk album leaf t a a r w t 1 inscribed by emperor Lizong Silk Fan Southern Song COURT different from southern song paintings for the court emperor wrote the poems on the backs of the fan paintings for this one we do not have the attached poem I 12x12 painting album leaf is I a little more color than 39 we see in monumental paintings theme of returning or going somehwere to be enlightened learning something from an experience this gure is engaged in an H I m h l I I I 39haS IOtS 0f Open Space aetiVity engaged in using their eyes focus is on the gure relaxing looking meditative engagement look fan small shadow of a mountain as a backgroundvery washed gure is apparent as a main part of the composition the gure is more apparent and important t0 the story of the ing to the fog the clouds the gure directs your gaze onto the same painting activity he is doingre ection diagonal setting rather than straight across 39Painting tries to be the Painting equalent Of a Poem J I walk to where the waters end and sit and watch when the clouds rise small scale fan asymmetrical with the perspective grounds not very clear axe cut in rock 3 Discuss the iconography and major themes of Chan Zen Painting Chan Painting Chan Buddhism better known as Zen Buddhism developed in the 6th century and became dominant during the Tang and Song dynasties Chan was an attempt to mimic the sound of the Sanskrit term dhyana meaning meditationmeditation school The Chan school did not depend on text or words to pass on their teachings but rather the individual had to be enlightened though practice and exposure to Chan Buddhism founded on mind to mind transmissionteaching by doing contrast between the two schools is described as outer directed Pure Land vs inner directed Chan Pure Land outer directed teachings focused on learning from the Buddhist scriptures or sutras Qualities of the Chan school include directness immediacy spontaneity intuitiveness chang enlightenment happens directly and suddenly automatically the cranial knob I C D 39 1n paradlse cosmologlcal realm mological gure bright polychrome pigment outline in contrast to the 7 calligraphic line F sitting Iconic I I jlt found in a place of worship on u an alter 39 more Chinese gure Buddha does have a hand mudra Shaved face hair is neat and has Buddha is represented as a cos very busy detailed features even Liang Kai Southern Song 13th century Leaving the Mountains silk hanging scroll r a 1 l397 painting has a traditional theme Buddha sits under the boat tree has an enlightened moment and goes to the mountains to weigh his options then goes into the world and talks about his enlightenment traditional iconic Buddha painting depicts Chan Buddhism practices because the Buddhas hand is covered by his robe signifying that he doesn t need hand sutras to learn or be enlightened beard messier hair cranial knob more natural and realistic mostly monochrome ink except the red rope signi cant item calligraphic style standing narrative seen in pro le presents it in a narrative more Indian foreign gure rst adaptations from India Buddha usually has a mudra hand gesture in this painting however the hand is covered 9 this signals that Chan Buddhism isn t participating in the traditional teachings of traditional Buddhismnot dependant on text or words and reject that language can only become enlightened through practice signi cance of red robe signi es pilgrimage Bodhidharma on a Rush leaf 13th C I INFq E w tw quot a u it Pi v u L l PEEP h F n Y r xi l f LEV m A gt ifquot another similar white monochrome painting hand mudra is covered calligraphic brushwork Bodhidharma is standing on a reed to cross the Yanza river NOT Shakyamuni this is Bodhidharma the one who brought Buddhism from India to China 28th generation Patriarch after the Buddha in India but then became the lst patriarch in China Retreated to the Shaolin monastery for 9 years and sat in front of the wall of the monastery true teaching idea in Chan school wants to make the practice maybe seem more foreign so it is more authentic Shakyamuni Leaving the Mountains 13th Century j l 1a another leaving the mountains theme Shakyamuni hand mudra is covered calligraphic brushwork pure monochrome very lightwhite the robe is often billowing out in these images winds of nature pushing him back into the world calligraphic brushwork anklet signi cance in traditional Chinese Buddha images the Buddha does not have any jewelry only Bodhisattva had thesethis was further showing the foreign aspects of these Chan Shakyamuni and the foreign authenticity Shike 13th century 2nd Patriarch Huike Seated in Meditation The 2nd patriarch became the 2nd patriarch by waiting to get Bodhidarhma s attention while he sat in front of the monastery wall for 9 years In order to get his attention Huike severs his arm and presents it to Bodhidharma Bodhidharma nally gives him attention and Huike asks to have his mind heart paci ed Huike then becomes the 2nd patriarch in china through the mind to mind transmission that is so important to Chan practice gure is sleeping meditation is not restricted to sitting cross legged reading sutras meditation can happen anywhere sleeping can just as well be a form of meditation or religious practice very calligraphic spontaneous brushwork scribbling X ed out where his arm used to be spontaneous and direct being illustrated and embodied 9 the way which paintings are used to make other claims southern song not court Liang Kai Southern Song 6th Patriarch Chopping Bamboo i hz H stylistically and thematically engages many importances of Chan Buddhism has an enlightenment experi ence illiterate kitchen worker but has someone else write his poem for the poem contest and the 5th patriarch knows this guy is the one who is next shows medial labor blurring distinction between the every day and the spirituallabor can also be a form of meditation doesn t matter that he is illiter ate because Chan believes you cant capture truth from words showing that you don t need the system to arrive at enlight enment spontaneous in calligraphic style and spontaneous in how they become enlightened Liang Kai Southern Song 6th Patriarch Tearing Satras u aquot 39 n 39 39 a 39 I sutras are relics of the buddhas the deceased would be buried with them they are very sacred so this was a violent act yet this is not a negative thing for the Chan point of view it is positive It was appropriate because the Chan teachings were not though text or images but again mind to mind trans mission iconoclasm destroying inappropriate images Metaphorically extremely eccentric behavior not following rules or norms with Buddhism etc spontaneous sharp lines of the paint brush elicit the actions in the gure Yintuoluo 14th Century The Monk from Danxia Burning a Buddha monochrome 2 monks story monk from Danxia is visiting and staying in a monastery builds a re from the relics and tries to extract the sacred relics from the images monk from monastery says you cant get the relics out of the images monks from Danxia says well if you cant get the relics out of here than what is the difference of these than just another piece of wood where does it sacredness come from 9 Chan argue is that there is no difference ultimately the same thing the only thing that is different is the individual s perception of those things actual practice is not that much different that traditional Buddhism the Chan are just trying to make claims to stand out from other schools of Buddhism They are trying to cater to the elite scholarly educated class don t take this stuff literally but more as a paradigm to aspire to 4 Explain the Yuan Revolution in painting and identify relevant works The Yuan Revolution refers to the period of time in the Yuan Dynasty 12791368 where China was under foreign control by Mongols The Yuan Dynasty originated from a central area and fanned out east and west and established an empire that stretched from the Mediterranean to the entire Korean peninsula all across china largest continues land mass that has been under one control vast and powerful empire there was a sort of rebellion against this dynasty because the chinese were unhappy that someone foreign had taken over through the use of paintings artists used imagery and metaphors to secretly reveal how they were feeling these depictions told stories about the artists being isolated from the court and not wanting to serve the new emperor there was another type of revolution within the painting in that the inscriptions on the paintings were now being done by the artists themselves because the inscriptions were done by the artist this gave the viewer more information about what the artists was actually trying to relay in their paintings the action of painting in some sense becomes an action of writing i wrote this picture telling a story though the picture and the inscription in the new dynasty the painting is about the execution of the painting as writing and the inscription by the artist PERSONAL expression painting calligraphy and poetry all combines into a single work Paintings by Ni Zan most famous painter in the Yuan dynasty not part of the Yuan Revlolution but more addressed in relation to the Ming Dynasty where people start painting in the style of Ni Zan painted the same basic picture over and over but because he was the one writing the inscriptions and titling the painting it was his power to make the image be anything he wanted it to be artist is saying the subject of this painting is what I say it is once he names it something the painting turns into what he wants it to be f 7 5 r f 39 YTYTYVE39 39 39 e eege eegg 71 ee e the 5 N133 g 39 quot 1 be 3 35 3 we quot quotIquot ain leaning on my sta by the silent gate 1 think of her the joyful feelings of day W l linger long after we have parted le Jr Silo3 Jig imii e wiw erg e Gong Kai Yuan Dynasty Emaciated Horse 0r Bones of a Noble Horse many scholars were in an odd and uncomfortable situation and chose to leave social life and refused to serve the new emperor and do paintings for the court in turn they made paintings that depicted their feelings towards their home being overtaken by foreigners Mongols presence of an inscription written by the artistsone of the rst times the artists is actually writing on the painting starts to become more common and quite regular for the artists to inscribe poems or writing on their painting provides insight from the artist that gives us a better understanding of what the painting represents this painting s inscription ever since the clouds and mist fell upon the heavenly pass the 12 imperial stables 0f the former dynasty have been empty who today laments over the bones of this noble steed basically saying that since china has been taken over the people scholars have suffered but who even cares that they are suffering the fate of scholars is affected they have been suffering and emaciated have been cut off from their environment and are in a bad situation through the inscription the artist is identifying himself as a loyalist to the previous emperor the former dynasty that has now been over thrown loyalist leftover subject yimin use poetry and art to show their dissatisfaction have to do it in a roundabout subtle way so you wouldn t get in trouble with the new emperor J Qian Xuan Yuan Dynasty Pear Blossoms silk handscroll straight forward and benign painting taking court period paintings and giving it a new meaning with the impact of the new dynasty highly realistic rendering inscription is by the artist himself in contrast to one we ve seen before the yuan dynasty where the inscription was from someone other than the artist inscription reads the lonely tearstained face teardrops washing the branches through now without makeup her old charms remain behind the closed gate on a rainy night how she is lled with sadness how di erently she looked bathes in golden waves of moonlight before darkness fell describing a woman who is fading getting older fallen out of favor and she is lled with sadness common theme in chinese poetry describing the plight of women of the court metaphorically describing the nature of beauty image of the women represents china and how is has fallen and withered many layers of meaning without the inscription in the painting its meaning may not be seen as a political one pear blossoms have a symbolic meaning of loyalty 5 Discuss some of the ways that artworks were used by the Ming court At the 3rd quarter of the 14th century the Ming drove out the Mongols and restored Imperial rule with this was the reintroduction of court painting images created early on had to do once again with establishing and underscoring legitimacy of the new leaders artists created portraits of the emperors to make political statements in these Ming paintings we see traditions from earlier periods of the northern and southern song periods being repeated past traditions are being given a politically relevant twist in the current images large scrolls of ghting ferocious birds hawks eagles subjects associ ated with power and domination In the Ming dynasty there is also growing market of professional artist different from court artists in previous dynasties we don t know what happened commercially for artists outside of the court Anonymous Ming Dynasty Portrait of the Hongzhi Emperor Symbolic portrait of the Emperor with a lot of dragon imagery seated on the dragon throne dragon motifs on his robe 3 fold screen in the background with dragon imagery all these identify him as a powerful authoritative gure symmetrical frontal not much attention payed to his body attened not trying to capture actual physicality but more his symbolic presence and importance court artists were creating an icon of the emperor political 6 Discuss the characteristic features of paintings by Dai Iin and the Zhe Iuh school Zhe Schoolfounded by Dai Iin professional Scholars who were commissioned by the Emperor to do work Dai Iin is rst famous artist in that tradition becomes his school but not REALLY founded by him just the leader type of person got a bunch of professional together tradition begins where paintings are given to signify an event in life for example when a friend leaves you present them with a painting as a record memorial for the event The actual happenings are represented in the scene in the painting Tang Yin Ming Dynasty 14701524 Dreaming of Immortality Meng Xian name printing tradition or artists in making a painting that somehow in its components makes a clever play on a person s name this artist Tang Yin was very highly educated and a very brilliant scholar who was unfairly implicated in a cheating scandal on the civil service exam never able to hold a position in the courtbut just became a professional painter on his own of the higher social class dotting technique on the rocksaxe cut brush strokes moving to the left there is a little hut with a gure who has fallen asleep this is the scholar who s dream is being depicted in the painting solidity of this cliff outcroppingthen the scene shifts and there is openness fogginess clouds high up oating in the clouds is a little gure of a scholar looking at the hut below the scholars name actually means dreaming of immortality Dai Iin Ming Dynasty 13681462 Parting monochrome tradition wash is used to make it misty and hazy group of guresscholars identi ed by robes and hats scene represented is that of parting a scholar who has now been assigned to a different area for his civil service position etc example of social relations in the aspect of painting when a friend leaves you present them with a painting as a record memorial for the event the actual happenings are represented in the scene in the painting Dai Iin Ming Dynasty 13681462 Returning Late from a Spring Outing Large hanging scroll one scroll but imagine it as two small album leaves in its composition Ming dynasty reviving earlier imperial traditions revival of Southern Song court painting Monochrome stylistic and subject approaches similar to Southern Song painting imagine this as 2 compositions top and bottomyou have two southern song album leaf compositions put together diagonal ground plane things clustered in one corner lots of other open space haziness poetic quality gures are prominent setting a particular season and time of day gure of scholar returning combining detail and use of color on the landscape features Dai Iin Ming Dynasty 13681462 Life on the River Du Qiong Ming Dynasty Befriending the Pines river was a place of commerce and activity loose brushwork style in the gures Monochrome full of little narrative vignettes family having a picnic one thing to consider is what is the market for this kind of painting sort of a documentary type of painting the activities of the river the consumers of the painting are not the people who are depicted in the painting idealized portrait of everyday life activities the wealthy merchants and o icials who would have owned this paint ing would depict the happy life of the peasants ironically depicting a scholars retreat in a garden setting participating in garden related activities of educating the elite etc scholars would commission or be presented by friends with a portrait of that site see the doorway to the utopian lifegrotto scholars at a table doing garden activities traditional plants etc in main setting scholar talking with a friend collectables in the window Polychrome dense linework 7 Discuss the characteristic features of paintings by Shen Zhou and the Wu school Wu Schoolassociated with Shen Zhou amateur literati ming version of the literati not really professional painting is seen more as a hobby than a career Shen Zhuoeducated confucian scholar came from a wealthy family and was interested in poetry and painting although it was his confucius to serve the government he made an argument that his mother was too ill for him to leave so he was able to stay and do the work he wanted lived on his family estate and devoted himself to painting and poetry Again we see paintings that are in the style of another artist S n 1 5 Zhou M a 39 E 5 quotn l painting reminds us of Ni Zan in the dry sketchiness and brushwork similar but we have a gure which Ni Zan did not have the gure is that of the artist Shen Zhou self portrait in a landscape spindle trees evoking aspects of Ni Zan s painting with texture strokes creation of elements types of trees in many ways it s typical of the literati amateur in that the painting is about the painting of Ni Zan conscious engagement of style of the previous artist Ni Zan uses dry monochrome ink lots of empty space Shen Zhou Ming Dynasty 14271509 Lofty Mt Lu quot3 7 if v 39f 39 i39vjgm39 quot 1 ml dense brushwork more in certain areas over others colorful ink intricate brushwork and color no empty space very different from his other painting completely different style compared to walking with a staff this painting is rare because it is a speci c location and he shows us speci c elements associated with this geographical site the waterfall the rickety bridgeunlike any other landscape painting we ve seen in this sense shift in using an actual site as the subject of the painting rather than an ambiguous place re ective of growth of leisure and travel in the ming period idea of traveling to famous sites and locations grew in the ming dynasty as there was growth in the wealthy middle class who had disposable income Shen Zhou Ming Dynasty Poet on a Mountaintop Album Leaf V gale wetter looser style of painting Shen Zhou uses the three perfections 1painting 2poetry 3calligraphy all combined in a single art work it creates a synergy that is greater than the sum of its parts we also see this in Southern Song album leaves as we move later in time the literati amateur painters are responsible for all three of the elements in contrast to southern song album leaves where it was kind of a group project someone wrote the poemtang dynasty poem the emperor did the calligraphy and the painting was done by the court artist poem by the artist gives insight into what the painting is supposed to mean the gure in the image is kind of looking up to the sky in a sense reading the poem that is inscribed where the gure in the painting is looking the poem itself describes the scene we see in the painting inscription turns inwards to say and I feel like answering the murmuring brook with my ute the sound of the waterfall is brought in and the idea of the music by the water will then be crated by the ute two forms of poem and painting and one enhances the other nasty Sayi rig Farewell Handscroll quot Shen Zhou Ming Dy l 4 L image that reveals the paradox between professional and amateur painting uses elements of his signature style square rocks light colors includes long inscription that gives us information about the scene several things that echo things in paintings we ve seen before empty pavilion of rocks to the left two scholars leaning forward to say farewelltheme of saying goodbye similar to painting by Dai Iin of the Zhe school group of scholars seeing off their friend thematically and stylistically these two paintings are very similar loose brush work light colors however these two paintings are seen as representing two traditions that contradict each other difference between professional and amateur the paintings look pretty much the same so what is the big fuss in distinction between these two primary difference between these in the case of Shen Zhou its the artist himself who is in the picture and the artist himself who is creating this image to give to his friend there is a much more personal dimension that we understand from the inscriptionin the case of Dai Iin we don t know who all the friends are who are saying farewell and the artist himself is only the vehicle for creating the image but he isn t personally involved SO the primary distinction between these two schools of painting has to do with social class as much as anything else amateurs were part of the educated elite literati tradition whereas those who were associated with the Iu school were professional artisans for the court brushes for hire 8 Discuss some new types uses of painting that developed in the Ming In the Ming Dynasty there was a reintroduction of court painting now that China was under imperial rule again In the paintings there are political innuendos about the legitimacy of the new rulership and depictions of subjects associated with power and domination artists created portraits of the emperors social occasions increasingly involve a paintingpresent paintings as a good luck to someone to congratulate someone to give as a birthday gift scholars commission portraits of their studios as marketing them and preserving them growing market of professional artistsdifferent from court artists in previous dynasty we don t know what happened commercially for artists outside of the court theme began to occur where one artist would do a painting in the style of another artist gtgtgtthis is where NI ZAN comes in form the Yuan Dynasty important to know who t into each category because that re ects who they allowed to follow as precedents in their own work painting in the style of so and so creative imitation and creative transformation not advocating for one to copy a former artists but rather to transform and embody the former style like but not alike Artist Dong Qichang had opinions on the two schools theory two schools theory extremely in uential theory that is important even today developed in the late Ming period if you look at all of Chinese painting there are two kinds of modes of painting these two modes correspond in a metaphorical way to the two schools of chang zen Buddhism the school of gradual enlightenment and the school of sudden enlightenment referred to the northern schoolgradual process and southern schoolsudden enlightenment in Buddhist history so in painting there is a similar phenomenon the kinds of painters who are very careful and cautious in the northern traditions where in the southern tradition the painters are much more intuitive rapid abbreviated spon taneous 9 all the various court artists from the tang dynasty and the northern song painting academy southern song court artists of the Zhe school professionals can all be put into the category of NORTHERN SLOW CAREFUL CAUTIOUS painters 9 all of the literati painters the scholar artists early northern song of Wu school painters can be put into the SOUTHERN tradition RAPID SPONTANEOUS painting so in the end Dong Qichang is saying that although some may think the difference between the amateur and the professional painters is a matter of social class he is saying because of the distinction of these Buddhist schools of north and south and how the painting is done and how they were trained similar to how the people are enlight ened there IS meaning about the difference in these two categories of painters that is not connected to the social class created two tracks of artists Paintings by Ni Zan most famous painter in the Yuan dynasty not part of the Yuan Revlolution but more addressed in relation to the Ming Dynasty where people start painting in the style of Ni Zan painted the same basic picture over and over but because he was the one writing the inscriptions and titling the painting it was his power to make the image be anything he wanted it to be artist is saying the subject of this painting is what I say it is once he names it something the painting turns into what he wants it to be Eg i if 39 gf if I I 39 39 r 1 3 5a e a 33 211 jg fill 3 1 a a at 4115 A5 1 m J ZL 39 x ea 39 4 434 1 I gen 3 r 52 I L quot ir 55 I M age m E is ill age e m 121 ri e that V are e 3 Mme joyful feelings of day a will linger long after we have parted gate I think of her slow careful painters focused on realism quick rapid brush stokes South North Tang Northern Song 7 Southern Song not court 7 Literati amateur Academy Professional Southern Song not COurt gt Southern Song Court Huizong realism etc Wu School gt Zhe School 9 Discuss the symbolism and meanings of garden imagery The Scholars Garden fr 1 I 5 basic elements to the scholars gardens 1 Water small ponds and lakes also metaphorically through rocks and gravel to suggest water 2 Rock used in various ways 3 Plants secondary material used more for emphasis and accent 4 Architecture small buildings and pavilions bridges pathways 5 Writing incorporate inscriptions in a number of ways concept of Shanshuimountain and wasters rivers Taihu Rock special kind of boulder found from Lake Tai massive pockets carved out from harder rocks sculptural rock form found at different scales in the garden in paintings as small trinkets for a desk these were urban gardens and walled off separated from the outside world often walls were within other walls courtyard spaces with various window decorations and openings gateways and entries to the garden passageways important focal point that is often cir cular moon gates these openings were treated pictorially they framed a picturesque view and created a composition views framed though windows and structures pathways are leading you to the picturesque views pavilions also act as viewing points who had these gardens they are for the scholars you had to be of a certain social class to afford these gardensthese are like mini landscape painting views Moon Gate how were gardens used scene that is depicted over and over again is a group of scholars in the garden engaged in various cultural pursuits playing instruments writing poetry collecting objects antiques on the tables to enjoy This theme brings to mind the famous gathering we see in Wang Xizhi s Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion speci c participation activity gardens are understood for places where scholars come and engage in various cultural pursuits 2 dominant strains of Chinese philosophy places of Daioist ref uge nature natural world etc and a social place where social interactions are happening very confucius roles Tao Qian Ming Dynasty Peach Blossom Spring depicts a fable story of a sherman drifting in his boat as he s moving down the river he gets lost in thought and loses track of where he is becomes aware of a powerful scent of the peach blossoms sees a cave like opening and wants to explore comes out on the other side of the cave and nds himself in a utopian land leaves to go and get his family to bring them back to the utopia but is unable to ever nd the entrance again it was a new realm that was separate from the ev eryday world depicts the meaning purpose of the Chinese garden it s walled in separated form the everyday world within the gardens there may be small caves or rocks around the edge of the water little bridges where you could see yourself going into utopia the garden evokes the idea of nding these openings to nd the garden the story of peach blossom spring is re ected in the Chinese garden gardens were in the urban area so this little utopia was further proved as a refuge from the hectic busy everyday life 10 Discuss the symbolism of Ming imperial tombs Architectural project of the Ming Dynasty creation of The 13 Imperial Tombs site outside of Beijing rst couple of Ming emperors and the rest of the emperors were buried at this site concept of the site reveals a great deal about beliefs and practices of the Ming emperors massive marble gateway as a gateway to the valley This gateway was made to look like wood but its actual material was stone ele ments of immortality and strength positioning of this gate is similar to the stone doors in some of the early tombs of the Han dynastydiving the everyday and the sacred afterlife Image 1 Long roadway leading in to the site lined with massive stone sculptures of real and fake animals and military gures represent the 2 major branches of the civil servicethe civil court and military functionally and metaphorically draw on the tradition of mingqi and provide gures for the realm of the dead performing speci c functions etc The animals or gures were in sets of two one pair standing and the second pair sitting gures as sculpture has been criticized as not particularly exciting because they are very stiff and formal different from other sculpture that emphasizes move ment and liveliness this stiffness was a re ection of the function of their duties on the site they are supposed to be solum gures acting as guardians protecting the site so really they are not a re ection of lack of sculptural ability traditions of using gateways to mark off burial sites reviving traditional burial practices new rulers are still connected and have a continuation of traditional values and ancient practices Tombs from the 13 imperial tombs Image 2 connect to earlier tradition tombs vary in size some have 2 courtyards some have three general structure and principles of the tomb are the same each has various gateways to pass through there is a walled complex for each tomb with various courtyards large stone structuresoul tower identi es the name of the person buried separation of tomb worldworld of the dead and world outside of it then the mound behind this is where the body is mountains in the background are borrowed for the landscape and in a way they are there to protect and look over the tomb only one of the 13 tombs has been excavated great reluctance over time to go into these tombs archaeologically for various reasons it s taboo what s the line between research and tomb robbery the entrances to these tombs are also very obscure and hiddenwith one excep tion this prevents people from going in as well the tomb that was excavated was happened upon accidently in the process of rebuilding a part of a tomb they found a tablet with part of a pirates map which described the entrance discovered the diamond wall entrance of the tombentire underground com plex all made of stone material of immortality permanence strength today is a museum China was not prepared archaeologically to deal with what they foundas a result there is a great reluctance to open other tombs all architecture in the tomb is mimicking other types of material but its all in stone In the tombs there were still oil lamps that were full as the room was airtight and once the tomb was locked the lamps burned out very quickly The symbolism for these lamps has to do with making the deceased comfortable and providing them with things from the everyday world so they are happy and do not wish bad things upon the real world from the after world once the gured out how to open the tombs everything was quickly damaged with exposure to the humidity just like we saw with the terra cotta army Figure 3 we see pottery with the massive blue and white ceramics dragon gures a distinguishing feature of the dragon motifs were the number of claws that the Dragon had 5 claws is for imperial use dragons and cloud motifsrelated to immortality symbolic throne for the emperor and his two wives dragon throne with dragon motifs among the goods in the tomb also included a strange gold mesh cap worn by the emperorhas a dragon motif king sher feather head dress worn by the empress birds became extinct be cause of the popularity and demand for this headdress Image 1 Spirit Way Valley of the Ming Imperial Tombs 39h 39I H l 7 11 Identify and discuss characteristic work of the Qing individuals painters individual artists of the qing idea of gures who thought themselves loyal to the fallen dynasty to avoid serving the new court under Qing rule one could go to the monastery and be a monk qing rulers use art similar to how they have used it in earlier periods art as a tool to make political claims to advertise for the emperor etc Hong Ren Qing Dynasty 7716 Coming of Autumn mu J u r m 1 J r j fn I g I quotMariquot r i 39 39I I l I h I ll5 rr I a ecusly 3 41quot a Iquot i quot TiTim39i fl if 1 0quot LI E a a artist who joined the monastery to not have to deal with con ict of the new rulers of the Qing Monochrome empty dead spacessimilar to Ni Zan few signs of habitation creates unappealing and uninviting environment invoking spindly trees has a deeper meaning representation about how the artist feels about new leadership Gong Xian Qing Dynasty Landscape 1 Illa 7 l x q I 39gt N h I 1quot F u stylistically creates images with dramatic contrasts of dark and light sense of foreboding dramatic scenery dark clouds suggesting impending dramatic events that are or will take place includes a small pavilion with no one there empty uninhabited uninviting worlddoomsday aspect parallel to Hong Ren in that through completely different stylistic means they arrive at the same conclusion and stance of revolting the new ruler both are alien and alienating monochrome heavy wash and brushwork Zhu Da Ba Da Shan Ren Qing Dynasty Bird Fish and Rock quot 39 l mevw v ifquot 5 it M39 J related to the Ming imperial line Zhu Da was a Ming prince having those connections he would have most likely been viewed more suspiciously than the average scholar took refuge in a monastery for a large part of his life he behaved in a very bizzare became or pre tended to be a deaf mute may have suffered from a mental illness putting on an act to avoid being looked at suspiciously by the Qing created unique and personalized idiom theme of sh and rock underwater views of the sh sh is looking at the rock suspiciously because rock is unstable metaphorically representing the contemporary situation where people may be suspicious of their environment under new rule not used to seeing underwater views a point of view we don t usually see Zhu Da Ba Da Shan Ren Qing Dynasty Bird on a Rock again rock is a very unstable feature in the painting nothing around them balanced and could just tip over the birds are also perched strangely they may fall right over as well again metaphorically representing the current political situation and the uncertainty around it birds are looking up at an overhanging rock something that could possible fall without notice ambiguity of the world and these object s place 11 CONTINUED Identify and discuss characteristic work of the Qing individuals painters Dao Ii ShitaoQing Dynasty 1000 Ugly Ink Blots i I 39 w V rl39rin L39J most well known artist in the Qing distantly related to Zhu Da t00k refuge at the monastery similar to other artists left behind much artwork when he became a monk and wrote a lot about painting wr0te about theory of art and creativity his writings helped interpret what his paintings meant 10000 ugly ink blots arguing about creativity as we move across we see a little drawing of a hut with a gure insidewe can then read it as a sort of landscape painting the dots are coalescent to make tree forms d0ts are rhythmic the different brush stroke gives representation of different plants what Dao Ii is addressing is the whole theory of creative imitation the idea that earlier painters should be the basis of your style who did the rst artists look to for their inspira tion answer nature Dao Ii ShitaoQing Dynasty Wilderness Colors C wilderness colors painting collection collection of album leaves p0ems basically describes what the painting is The luster of bamboo encircles the wilderness colors the re ection of a house ripples in the owing water sh0wing a gure that is surrounded by a natural world of the colors and sounds and is inspired by that goal is not only to engage style but the experience of being immersed in nature themes go back to the rejection of Dong Qichang in that paintings are not just about following someone else s style of painting but that they are about nature and the actual natural world around us Idea of animate and inanimateviewed as animated by chi energy that course through them brush is the vehicle to get energy out of the painter and onto the paper painting is embedded with the chi energy of the painter 12 Discuss some of the functions of painting at the Qing court Qing rulers use art similar to how they have used it in earlier periods art as a tool to make political claims to advertise for the emperor etc western techniques were introduced to make more realistic portraits of the emperor Multiple portraits of the emperor were made to re ect his different sides and make him more familiar and accepted by the people Emperor is either being adrressed as a scholar or a military person duality of rolesh CC 0 3 wen llterary CC 0 0 wu mllltary sorry this answer is short a lot of these questions are repetitive and he really did not discuss this very much as we rushed through the end of class material If I get any more information I will update the le 13 Discuss the image of the emperor as represented in the Qing Castiglione Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong on Horseback Emperor represented in a western style Castiglione artist that introduces western techniques instrumental in teaching western techniques for painting responsible for doing the portraits of the emperors Chinese landscape style but the realism of the horse is much more european Qianlong Emperor wearing armor and emblems of the military portrayed as a military commander leader Re ects how the Qing respected the existing Chinese culture and traditions in their dressing attire but also shows how they are adapting these traditions to t their uses hunting on horseback Anonymous Qing Dynasty The Emperor as a Scholar e l I quoti if I u i F 115 17 I n l I i quot 39 gt w Emperor represented as a scholar image shows how the emperor is respecting traditional Chinese culture and practices of calligraphy and painting seated in a library room with the tools of the trade dragon motifs on robe robe is altered to open to the side not down the front adapting to t his needs pr Qihlmg Emperor as the Bodhisattva Marijasri Emperor as the Bodhisattva showed that the emperor was very committed to Buddhism and traditional practices had a Buddhist teacher and practiced Buddhism image showing Qianlong as the center of a Buddhist universe taking the roles of the boshisattva of wisdom he is making the mudras with his hands presenting himself as the Bodhisattva a higher power to help others become enlightened Castiglione Qing Dynasty Qianlong Emperor Watching Children at Play Emperor as a family father gure This is a unique and rare image as we never see any emperors in this type of setting in the image the emperor is holding a baby on his lap quintessential confucius father gure showing him in a domestic fatherly role wants to represent that he is an upholder of confucius tradition and respects traditional Chinese culture and confucianism 14 Explain the symbolic and stylistic features of Qing garments Qing Dynasty Embroidered silk Dragon Robe Qing rulers favored a style of garment that was more suitable for horseback riding that was related to their seminomadic marshals sorts of traditions so they altered the traditional Chinese garment to t their needs asymmetrical closure rather than a frontal opening tight sleeves rather than loose sleeves the robe had 9 5 clawed dragons 3 on the front 3 on the back 2 on the shoulders and the 9th dragon was the emperor himself wearing the garment The emperor transforms the robe and is also transformed by it concept of the placement of the dragons 9 fold square or a circular cosmological circle square pattern 9 is a cosmologically special number in the forbidden city all the doors have 9 rows of 9 knobs all combinations that add up to 9 are a multiple of 9 Emperors robe also has motifs of long life well being wisdom etc officials at the court had very strict regulations and very strict rank badges different ranks had different garments status garments the features of the garment represents the status of the individual wearing it 15 Discuss ways in which some modern and contemporary Chinese artists engage tradition Xu Bing 1955 A Book From the Sky book from the sky creating volumes using the traditional Chinese methods for creating book hand carved printing blocks after is has been written 1000 times the scroll is physically rich with the meaning of this practice yet it is somewhat unretreivable because you are left with a black block of ink what is the meaning of this tradition what have we gotten from it the fact that it was the Orchid Pavilion preface also nods to the traditions of scholars in the gar dens and the activities they were engaged in as Chinese tradition Xu Bing 1955 New English Calligraphy Chairman Mao make the past serve the present make the foreign thing serve China Showing how calligraphy and the Chinese written language has changed over time this iteration of calligraphy is re ecting Chinese writing but in fact anyone can read the english letters it is hiding Qian Songyan 20th C Guohua Style Landscape M w r E 931 2321 M thi Quohua National painting term also means traditional Chinese painting these paintings continued earlier Chinese traditions after the establishment of the people s republic we see painting and other art forms are highly politicized painting could be seen as a very powerful type of tool to project a certain view or issue with the ruler background has a contrast to a modernized scene there is an emblem of the pastgtBuddhist architecturepagoda formbathed in a red color of the sun rising understood as particular commentary under new leadership china is modernizing and industrializing emblem of the past and is illuminated by the red sun emblem of communism Shi Lu 20th C Fighting in Shaanxi r 71 I equot 1 7 mvg 77 a v quotW WI lag mm 5 5amp5 1 J U l at gt shifting interpretations Chairman Mao re ecting on the war going on in the mountain landscape was rst viewed as a positive image of Chairman Mao but later criticized and reinterpreted as a subtle critique of Mao because he was standing alone suggesting he was cut off from the people the people coming up the mountain are struggling and Mao is not helping them potent and malleable imagesmeanings can change depending on how they are interpreted lots of posters and images of Mao in the 19th century used to portray a certain image to appeal to the people the images were not made without Mao s approval image of his with his arm up associated with the start of the cultural revolution images showing him out and about with normal peopleshowing connection with the people visiting agricultural areas etc illustrate and underscore that he is an everyday person who will engage with the activities of the people multi ethnic relationships humble surroundings this connects to the images we see of Emperor Qianlong trying to appeal to the people and create multiple ways for people to connect with him Study images not addressed in a particular questions Comparison we did in class Ma Lin Southern Song 13th century Watching Clouds inscribed by emperor Lizong Silk Fan Northern Song fan 1 small shadow of a mountain 2 gure is much more apparent 3 has lots of open space 4 focus is on the gure relaxing looking meditative engagement looking to the fog the clouds the gure directs your gaze onto the same activity he is doingre ection 5 painting tries to be the painting equivalent of a poem I walk to where the waters end and sit and watch when the clouds rise 6 small scale 7 fan 8 asymmetrical with the perspective grounds not very clear SIMILARITIES they are both monochrome use ink and wash stresses texture strokes in both Monumental Mountain 1 mountain is very prominent and takes up a lot of room 2 gures are lost in the landscape and small not a prominent aspect of the painting 3 has barely any open space the mountain taking up 23 of the painting 4 people bustling around working moving 5 not attached to a poem or inscription 6 large scale 7 large hanging scroll 8 clear foreground mid ground and background and is very symmetrical Wang Xizhi 353 CE Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion Wang Xizhi 353 ce Orchid Pavilion Preface Calligraphy by Wang Xizhi sci1 pgquot irniutAm Hui 51 15 35M or 1 C li iti iiung emperor Stain1quot the Ulric112113111 er npcmr LJbL lJ 111 Illquot113 ml39l39mu Nm Emily m the GrimLung empinmr Inscriptian E111 px nur Huitsung if Chang 39quot1ch39LlHu Lang Liulop in the Ch39ttn ir39usn ipu39ma by the Eh39ienulung label by the Sifters ung mnpcmr lungrmpumr dart l IMF emperor only when we get to the 4th century do we see writing behaving as an art form this artist Wang Xizhi was the rst person who t this category of calligraphy as writing 51111 luF il rrlpr Oi HuiBung Seals of Emperor E lurismm39lg Training mm of ls 39l39 l713 quotl39339uquotlal1 l39l Ll ul l the artist himself had an elaborate estate and garden with a stream running through and on the day of the spring festival he invited poets painters and intellectuals to his estate spending the day engaged in drinking writing poetry and doing calligraphy servants oated wine glasses on lotus pads down the stream to be picked up when it passed you on the bank gures are represented very casually in contrast to the formal conservative gures we have seen before now there is a background as well in the painting in the context of formal portraiture these casual gures and their casual clothing were somewhat out of place or shocking to the setting at the end of the day Wang Xizhi takes all the poems and writes a preface to them this preface became the most prized and wanted piece of calligraphy in china before writing it he would watch the geese swimming in the water and this gracefulness would inspire his calligraphy effortless owing alcohol lessens your inhibitions and makes you more free DOte iS With it also represented in the calligraphy something profound is revealed through the writing preface written at the end of the spring festival gathering places where he has crossed out certain things gone back to edit yet all of these elements are preserved even in the copies because these are preserved as revealing the whole process of the art form calligraphy is the only form or writing or art that the viewer is able to recreate because the stroke by stroke structure of calligraphy teachings and the elements and orders of basic calligraphy the mistakes show the process or the pathway of how it was written ultimately calligraphy is Viewed at the premiere form of self expression through line Wang Xizhi although most famous his own calligraphy barely exists besides the late copies his writing is found in some places among other very elite emperors or people on scrolls these scrolls were owned and inscribed by these elite his artwork was just two lines of calligraphy yet this small artwork was highly valued by many famous people and emperors his calligraphy is the main piece of artwork what is valued in calligraphy is not the content of the writing but who actually wrote it the note could say im out of oranges ill get some more next week but it would be highly valued just because of the person who wrote it 9 same sort of impulse americans have with autographs something is worth a lot more if it is signed or a handwritten please feel free to email me dmontzkauoregonedu hope this study guide helped you
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'