Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 324
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Bailey on Tuesday March 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 324 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Gene Brewer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 344 views. For similar materials see Memory and Cognition in cognitive linguistics and psychology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/15
The Visual Pathway Dominant primary visual cortex backposterior of the brain Processing Station lateral geniculate nucleus lateral geniculate nucleus LGN dorsal to V1striate cortex primary visual cortex g enicuostria te route path way what dorsal and where lateral pathway Striate visual Prestriate visual Nonlisuacortical areas StriatePrestriate extracts basic visual information coors movement shapes edges needs to know Where this object is in spacewhatthe object is LGN six layers 3 for each eye onoff surround cells respond to light across their receptive eld light on center activates receptors light on outside inhibits receptors VI basic information from the visual scene information is stored to be used later in topdown processing retinotopic organization spatial arrangement of the light on the retina is retained in the response properties of the V1 neurons inverted Hube amp Wiesel single cell recordings lead to a hierarchical view of vision in which simple visual featurespoints of light are combined into more complex ones adjacent points of light combine into a line damage to primary visual cortex hemianopia half of your vision is gone scotoma bind 39dots39 quadrantanopia a quadrant of your vision is gone simple cells derive response by combining the responses of several LGN center surround cells respond to different orientations compex cells derived by combining responses of several simple cells respond to orientation too but have larger receptive elds and require stimulation on their entire length hypercompex cells derived by combining the responses of several complex cells sensitive to length as well as orientation What pathway for spatial recognitionprocessing Jocann movement spatia transformations spatia relations Where pathway for object processing coor texture pictoria detail shape size The Structure of the Retina light comes in through the pupil and the image becomes inverted as it hits the retina retina ganglion cells cones and rods blind spot the area where the optic nerve is leaving the eye to signal inability to see stimuli in a particular region but can perform visual discrimination accurately cones detect objects in your direct line of vision requires more light to recognize an object higher action potential rods detect objects on your peripheral vision requires less light to detect an object lower action potential ex Disappearing Stars illusion OnOff Surround Cells centersurround receptive eld ex Herman Grid Illusion in LGN what is the nature of these stimulations Blindsight damage to the geniculostriate route impairs conscious vision but other aspects of vision are spared bind man maneuvering around boxes that are placed around him because of there being multiple visual pathways these other routes act unconsciously not a problem with your eyes but a problem with your occipital lobe V1 Cortical Blindness when the connection to the LGN is disrupted and you39re unable to consciously recognize objects damage to occipital lobe egaly blind Movement Perception we have these to create consistencies V5MT PET study in 1991 saw that this region was active when there were moving olots as compared to static olots akinetopsic biatera damage to this region sees the world in a series of still frames can detect movement in other senses Perceptual Consistencies color consistency V4 PET study in 1991 saw that this region was active when there were colored images as compared to gray scale images tries to compute the color of the object taking into account variations in lighting conditions responds to the same surface color if the light source is changed whereas cells in V1 do not understanding that even if something is blocked from your view it is still there achr0matopsic damage to area V4 sees the world in black and white retina and V1 cells still respond to different wavelengths of light competing a circle if you only see half wants to ll in blind regions Agnosias disorders in object recognition damage to the temporal lobes In tegra ti ve A gnosia failure to perceive object grouping principles are disrupted prevents stored knowledge of objects being accessed but does not prevent the patient from seeing basic visual elements able to copy and describe objects but cannot decided if objects are real or not or what their name is Associative A gn osia failure to understand the meaning of the object bc semantic Apperceptive failure to understand the meaning of object bc perception Orientation inabiity to determine the proper canonical position of an object Gestalt Principles object constancy achieved by mapping a potentially in nite number of visual depictions on to a nite set ofstored description of the structure of objects canonical contains the principal axis because the brain stores objects in a single viewpoint menta rotation involves view normalization from the seen viewpoint featurebyfeature suggestion that the stored structural descriptions are accessed by matching gestalt grouping Gesat Principles Law of Proximity we tend to group things that are close together Law of Similarity we tend to group things that look the same Law of Good Continuation showing two lines that bend and touch at a point with this principle it appears as though the two lines are connecting Law of Closure seeing a circle almost complete and then completing it in your mind Functional Specializations eg face processing fusiform face area parahippocampal place area Attention process by which certain information is selected for further processing and other information is discarded Visual Search task of detecting the presence of absence of a speci ed target object in an array of other distracting objects perceptual features such as color and shape are de ned before attention pop out the ability to detect an object amongst distractor objects in situations in which the number of distraction presented is unimportant conjunciton a situation in which visual features of two different objects are incorrectly perceived as being associated to a single object attention needs to be deployed to combine features of the same object correctly Posner Cueing Task inhibition of return the cue sight is there but when you zoom out the target is not noticed due to the cue being inhibited example of exogenus attention based on stimuli Spatial Neglect both what happens with damage right parital action esions to the right inferior parital lobe why do actors enter from stage right we all neglect the left side more than the right Cognitive and Neural Maps Loci Map abiity to recreate a map of an area so that you can coordinate where to go Allocentricobjects in comparison to themselves Egocentricobjects in comparison to the body Building a spacial representation place cells rat Frontal Cortex Contributions to Action Basal Ganglia subcortex modulate force and likelihood of action Cerebellum subcortex monitor action online Frontal Lobes Anteri0r behavioral control Posterior motor control Primary Motor Cortex movement detection executes all voluntary movements of the body somatotopically Frontal Eye Field voluntary movement of eyes Lateral Premotor Cortex prepares movement based on extremal contingencies Medial Premotor Cortex SMA spontaneous well learned actions Prefrontal Cortex involved in coordination of cognition generally both external actions and internal thoughts damage here does not impair physical movements but the actions are inappropriatedisorganized perseveration repeating an action that has already been performed and is no longer relevant utilization impulsive actions on irrelevant objects in the environment Mirror Neurons respond to observed as well as selfenacted actions basis of learning via imitation and possibly understanding others ex monkey observing someone39s hands the neurons that control the monkey39s hand go crazy even though the monkey39s hands were not moving simulate yourself acting in the way that other people are acting to understand why they do what they do Free Will amp The Homunculus Homunculus homuncuus is the generally accepted ridiculous creature within each that controls the actions of each person but what controls the homunculus39 actions the homunculus puts a 39spot light39 on each movement and directs your actions to suit the situation Proprioception position of limbs in space Somatosensation knowledge of the present state of the body Paralysis and Action applied question conceptually Phantom Limbs your body is a map that somatic sensory cortex your brain creates the left side of your body corresponds to the right side of the brain because your left hand is amputated there is no more information being sent into the hand signals cannot be sent to the brain and so the sensory pathways in your brain takes the sensory information taken in the face and associates them with the hand as well crossing the streams Damage to Motor Areas Parkinson 395 Disease rigidity tremor when stationary lack of spontaneous movement slowness of movement Huntington 395 Disease Chorea excessive movement that you can39t control Computational Problems for Action sensory motor transformation problem linking together the position of an object in retinal space with the position of the limbs in bodily space uses the parietal lobes degree of freedom problem potentially in nite number of motor solutions for picking up an object how does the brain solve that problem generalized motor programs stored routines of action sequences that minimize problems Patients with quotblindsightquot report being unable to see stimuli presented in certain locations but can be shown to be able to make abovechance visual discrimination What is a likely explanation There are several different visual pathways and spared sub cortical pathways may enable some basic discrimination The main pathway from the eyes to the primary visual cortex V1 goes via which structure Lateral geniculate nucleus What is meant by the term quotobject constancyquot The ability to recognize an object across different viewing and lighting conditions What aspect of face processing does the quotMargaret Thatcher illusionquot illustrate Upright but not inverted faces are processed holistically What region of the brain is most closely associated with quotplace ceHsquot Hippocampus The process by which certain information is selected for further processing and other information discarded is termed Attention How do patients with neglect following right hemisphere lesions tend to perform on the Posner spatial cueing task They are able to orient to a cue on the right but have difficultly in detecting a subsequent target on the left What term denotes a sensation that an amputated or paralyzed limb is still present Phantom Limb The problem of explaining volitional acts or quotfree willquot without assuming a cognitive process that itself volitional is called the Homunculus Problem The lateral premotor region and the medial premotor region also called the supplementary motor area SMA are often said to have different functions How might these functions be characterized Lateral premotor is important for environmentallydriven actions but SMA is important for internallydriven actions
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