Study guide for first exam
Study guide for first exam POSC230
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yuu Ri Moses on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC230 at James Madison University taught by Dr Johnatan Keller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Review Sheet- Exam #1 POSC230_0001 The 4 main subfields of international relations Foreign Policy - Countries’ external behavior/goals towards world around them Ex: US goals towards ME - Made by President/Leaders International Security -Traditionally: meant military threats -Modernly: other types of threats NOT military threats Ex: Food, environmental, disease security (Sufficiency?) International Political Economy (IPE) -currency -trade -global economic development International Organization/Law Ex: UN, International Criminal Court, humanitarian law, basic rights The major actors in international relations (states, IGO’s: International Governmental Org. IGOs, NGOs, etc.) -Members are states Ex: UN NGO’s: Non-governmental Org. -Individual people are members Ex: Int. Red Cross, Church Organizations MNC’s: Multi National Corperation (txtbk table 1.2) Ex: Exon Mobile, Exon, Walmart Terrorist Groups Bureaucracies -Sub-unit of state Individuals Ex: president, minister The difference between nations, states, and Nations Vs. States nation-states -Nations: have common history, language, identity, religion -States: a governmental entity that controls a population/territory Ex: country A state is sovereign(country can make own decisions w/boarders. Another country can’t tell another what to do) -Nations and states do not perfectly overlap w/each other. (non-state- when they do overlap) The 3 goals of political science/IR and how they Description (insufficient) differ -Describing other events in detail Ex: WWII- not just describe events, but why things happened Prediction (controversial) Ex: If you have good understanding of war, you can predict when it will break out -Don’t always have to predict what will happen to have good understanding Explanation (Primary Goal) -Why things happen Ex: Why war breaks out at certain times/places The difference between correlation and causation Correlation Vs. Causation (and what is meant by a spurious relationship) -correlation two things have together, don’t always mean one is causing another -causation x causes y Ex: (x)ice cream consumption goes up, (y)violent crime goes up, (z)both during hot temperatures; z causes x & y to move Spurious Relationship -When you think something is related for one reason A but it is reason B Ex: Easy to say Hitler caused WWII, when looked at more closely there’s more factors What types of causes/explanations belong at each System level of analysis: system, state, and individual State Individual The importance of these events/concepts in shaping Treaty of Westphalia (1648) the current international system: Treaty of -Ended 30yr War Westphalia, Balance of Power system, (Protestants vs. Catholics) Imperialism, Nationalism, World Wars I and II resulted in Independent State decisions Balance of Power System (among Great Powers) -England, France, Russia -Makes sure no country becomes too dominant -People respected sovereignty Imperialism Nationalism -French Revolution WWI/WWII -WWII: Exhausted Europe -No longer had the same power as before -“Lessons of Munich” 1938 -appeasement -Western allies appeased Hitler Major assumptions of the “Cold War Consensus” “Cold War Consensus” in the U.S. and the basic outlines/importance of -World divides into Communists & Free World(US as these key Cold War events and concepts: Truman a leader) Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Domino Theory, Proxy -negative attitudes towards change Wars, Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, Détente, Perestroika & Glasnost Truman Doctrine (1947) -Said US would support free ppl around world if under Communist threat -Global commitment to contain communism Marshall Plan & NATO -North Atlantic Treaty Organization *9/11 Article 5 Domino Theory -If one country falls to communism, everyone around them will too Proxy Wars Ex: Afghanistan ‘79 -having a rep in a conflict -supporting a side -indirectly fighting (proxies directly fight Kostan War (1950-1953) -1 test of containment -N. Korea invades S. Korea US Organized UN army to fight N. Korea Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) -narrowly avoided nuclear war -Kennedy promised not to invade Cuba -US Secretary agrees to pull missiles out of Turkey if Soviet pulls missiles out of Cuba Vietnam War (1965-1973) -Turning pt. in Cold War (for US) -Viet Kang -The Draft: picked ppl like lottery done by birthday had exemptions (college student) -college campuses held protests -58,000 killed end of unrestricted containment Détente -Relaxation of tensions -Nixon went to China to talk w/Soviet leaders (first to go to Communist China) Perestroika & Glasnost Geostrategic and ideological sources of conflict between the “Free World” and the Communist World during the Cold War Realism -lack of morality The differences between realism and idealism in the following 6 areas: nature of the international system, key actors, states’ priorities, human nature, Idealism role of IGOs, intra- vs. inter-state emphasis -interests and values (morality) -optimistic, believes in achieving peace Examples of realist and idealist presidents, and Obama the Realist arguments for “Obama as realist” and “Obama as -anti-war idealist” -cold-eyed realist Obama the Idealist The difference between classical realism and Classical realism neorealism Neorealism The differences between commercial, Commercial Liberalism democratic, and institutional liberalism -trade peace -econ. Interdependence means war doesn’t pay -wealth no longer based on territory Democratic Liberalism -democracy peace -institutional/normative constraints pacify democratic leaders Institutional Liberalism -rational, self-interested states will cooperate under anarcy -IGO’s can aid cooperation -establish “rules of the game” The basic arguments of the major alternative Marxism perspectives on IR: Marxism, social -States are not independent actors constructivism, feminist theory, and critical theory/postmodernism Social Constructivism -Views actors’ identities & goals as socially constructed -social interactionhelps create identitiesgoals behaviorsocial interaction Feminist Theory -Assumed gender matters -liberal feminism- equality btwn sexes -difference feminism- there’s a distinct dif. btwn men and women Critical Theory/Postmodernism -non-posivist- no single objective to reality The differences between Graham Allison’s 3 models Rational Actor of the foreign policy making process: Rational -Treats states as if they were unitary(everyone feels Actor, Organizational Process, and same) & rational actors(countries pursue national Bureaucratic Politics interests) Organizational Process Ex: Cuban Missile Crisis -Organizations play important roles throughout policy process - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) Bureaucratic Politics -Foreign Policy Making is a game among actos who differ in goals & power *President -Where you stand depends on your role -Determining outcome Answers to these questions from the 13 Days 1. Video: 1. What examples of bureaucratic politics and organizational SOPs can you identify? 2. How does JFK’s real influence differ from 2. presidential power “on paper”? Identify scenes. 3. What does O’Donnell mean by “this is a setup?” 3. The Democratic Peace: the main empirical Empirical Finding finding, the two primary theoretical -Democracies do not fight other democracies explanations, and the major empirical and -Democracies do fight other non-democracies theoretical critiques D --no-- D D --yes-- N N --yes—N Two primary theoretical Explanations -Democratic Institutions- Checks and Balances, separation of power, executive accountability (president, prime minister) -Democratic Norms- expected behavior between states, respect for others’ rights Empirical Rights -Democracy and war are both RARE -B/c it hasn’t happened doesn’t mean it wont Theoretical Rights -Alliances & wealth Ex: ice cream consumption vs violent crime move together(correlation) The findings of Mansfield & Snyder regarding democratization and war-proneness Empirical findings on public opinion, elections, and Public Opinion war Elections War How these psychological biases can affect foreign Mirror Imaging policy decision-making: mirror-imaging, -assuming others share our perceptions, values, cognitive consistency, motivated biases, calculations attribution biases, & prospect theory Cognitive Consistency -avoidance of dissonance -cognitive dissonance Ex: stereotype -we like consistency Motivated Biases -“wishful thinking” -you want something to be true so you convince yourself it is -Emotions keep you from thinking in a clear logical way Attribution Biases Ally Enemy Positive Disposition Situation Act (someone’s (something forced natural them to act out) character) Negative Situation Disposition Act Prospect Theory -challenge to rational choice theory -predicts people will… -risk-adverse in domain of gains 10% chance getting $3000 80% chance gaining $4000, 20% chance gaining $0 -Risk-seeking- take risk to avoid loss 80% chance losing $4000 20% chance losing nothing 100% chance of losing $3000 The 6 conditions under which leaders’ beliefs and 1. Distrust personalities will be more likely to affect foreign -acts as a filter on threat perception policy -raises doubts (more assumptions of threats in decisions) -associated w/aggressive foreign policy (FP) behavior 2. Cognitive Complexity (either/or vs. more complex) -affects openness to information -either/or closed to new info -more complex- higher cognitive complexity, more willing to see new info -“impulsive” vs deliberative decision process -act quickly vs take more time to make decisions -sees more complexity in world -thinks through more alternatives -Implications for risk-taking and aggressive actions -more cognitively shallow *when there’s dip in complexity war could break out -high complexity words: sometimes, possibly -low complexity words: always 3. Personal Characteristics & Policy Choice -Belief in ability to control events -based on “locus of control” concept -how well one can control events -a leader who thinks they can control more aggressive (more foreign/domestic policies) -leader w/less control confidence more cautious (passive policies) 4. Group Think -Irving Janis’ study of fiascos -Pearl Harbor, Vietnam, Watergate, Bay of Pigs -excessive concurrence-seeking -looking for agreement/consensus within group -harmful when sacrificing things when coming to agreement -Symptoms: -overestimations of group power/morality -close-mindedness- incomplete survey of info, options, risks/consequences -pressure toward uniformity -caused: collegiality, insulation(isolation) of group, no tradition of impartial leadership, lack of clear decision-making methods -occurs in grp w/shared values 5. 6. Understand how these personality traits can affect foreign policy behavior: distrust, cognitive complexity, belief in ability to control events Understand groupthink: its definition, causes, Group polarization/choice shift symptoms, and possible solutions -group chooses more extreme option Ex: racial/sexual prejudice, Juries’ punitive damage awards, risk taking Understand group polarization/choice shift: how it works and likely causal mechanisms Chapter 1 The collective goods problem and the 3 collective goods problem: the problem of how to principles for solving it: dominance, reciprocity, provide something that benefits all members of a and identity group regardless of what each member contributes to it dominance: a principle for solving collective goods problems by imposing solutions hierarchically (p.4) reciprocity: a response in kind to another’s actions; a strategy of reciprocity uses positive forms of leverage to promise rewards and negative forms of leferage to threaten punishment (p.5) identity: A principle for solving collective goods problems by changing participants’ preferences based on their shared sense of belonging to a community (p.6) Globalization -The increasing integration of the world in terms of communications, culture, and economics; may also refer to changing subjective experiences of space and time accompanying this process (p.17) North-South Gap -The disparity in resources (income, wealth, power) between the wealthy West and the poorer countries of Africa, Middle East, Asia, and Latin America (p.19) Containment -A policy adopted in the late 1940’s by which the US sought to halt global expansion of the Soviet influence on several levels (military, political, ideological, economic). (p.24) Sino-Soviet Split -A rift in the 1960’s between communist powers of Soviet Union and China, fueled by China’s opposition to Soviet moves toward peaceful coexistence with US (p.26) Chapter 2 League of Nations -An organization established post WWII -Today’s UN -achieved certain humanitarian and other successes but was weakened by the absence of US membership and by its own lack of effectiveness in ensuring collective security. (p.35) Munich Agreement (1938) -A symbol of failed policy of appeasement -agreement signed in 1938, allowed Nazi Germany to occupy a part of Czechoslovakia. -Rather than appease German aspirations, it was followed by further German expansions, which triggered WWII (p.36) Power -influence or capabilities that create influence -someone who can make others take actions that would otherwise not be taken Geopolitics -The use of geography as an element of power, and the ideas about it held by political leaders and scholars (p.40) Anarchy -a term that implies not complete chaos but the lack of a central government that can enforce rules (p.41) Norms -the shared expectations about what behavior is considered proper (p.41) Sovereignty -A state’s right, at leas in principle, to do whatever it wants within its own territory -traditionally sovereignty is the most important international norm (p.41) Great Powers vs. Middle Powers great powers: the most powerful states’; greatth power club was exclusively European until 10 century. (US) (p.44) middle powers: states that rank somewhat below great powers in terms of their influence on world affairs (Brazil, India). (p.46) Power Transition Theory -A theory that the largest wars result form challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy, when rising power is surpassing (or threatening to surpass) the most powerful state. (p.147) Hegemony & Hegemonic Stability Theory hegemony: One state’s holding of a preponderance of power in the international system, so that it can single-handedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted (p.48) Hegemonic Stability Theory: “holds that hegemony provides some order similar to a central govt. in the international system: reducing anarchy, deterring aggression, promoting free trade, and providing a hard currency that can be used as a world standard NATO & Warsaw Pact NATO: North Atlantic Treat Organization; a US-;ead military alliance; formed in 1949 with mainly West European members, to oppose and deter Soviet power in Europe. It is currently expanding into the former Soviet bloc. (p.51) Warsaw Pact: Soviet-lead Easter Euro. Military alliance, 1955-1991; opposed NATO alliance (p.51) Arms Race -A reciprocal process in which two or mores states build up military capabilities in response to each other Zero-Sum vs. Non-Zero-Sum Games zero-sum games: situations in which one actor’s gain is by definition equal to the other’s loss non-zero-sum games: it is possible for both actors to gain (or lose). (p.58) Prisoner’s Dilemma Game -A situation modeled by game theory in which rational actors pursuing their individual interest all achieve worse outcomes than they could have by working together. (59) Chapter 3 International Regime -A set of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain international issue area (such as oceans or monetary policy). (p. 66) Collective Security -The formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by an actor; sometimes seen as presupposing of the existence of a universal organization (UN) to which noth the aggressor and it’s opponents belong. (p.68) Interest Groups -Collations of people who share a common interest in the outcome of some political issue and who organize themselves to try to influence the outcome. (73) Rally ‘Round the Flag Syndrome -The public’s increase support for government leaders during wartime, at least in the short term. (p.75) Optimizing vs. Satisficing optimizing: Picking the very best option satisficing: find a satisfactory but less than best solution to a problem (p. 82) Arbitration - Positive Peace -A peace that resolves the underlying reasons for war; not just a cease-fire but a transformation of relationships, including elimination or reduction of economic exploitation and political oppression. (p.93) Philosophy of Nonviolence/Pacifism Philosophy of Nonviolence: Pacifism: Difference vs. Liberal Feminism difference feminism: believes that gender differences are not just socially constructed and that views women as inherently less warlike than men (on average). (p.96) liberal feminism: emphasizes gender equality and view the “essential” differences in men’s and women’s abilities or perspectives as trivial or nonexistent. (p.96) Gender Gap -polls showing women lower than men on average in their support for military actions, as well as for various other issues and candidates. (p.99) Material From Canvas Readings Basic reasons why Douthat argues that Obama is a realist and Saunders claims that Obama is not a realist. What kinds of “unanswered questions” or puzzles about Operation Desert Storm does the bureaucratic politics model help to explain? (Holland article) What does Keller mean by the terms “Constraint Respecters” and “Constraint Challengers?” Which presidents were the subjects of the case studies in this article, and what were the major findings about these presidents’ decision-making styles? According to Keller & Foster, what is the state of the research on “diversionary war” and what can we learn about the likelihood of diversionary actions by looking at political leaders’ characteristics? What 3 major “problem representations” were constructed after the 9/11 attacks, and how do these representations lead to different policy preferences? (Keller “Problem Representation” article)
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