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Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Murry

Exam 4 Study Guide Bio 1144

GPA 3.68

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Here is the study guide for exam 4 covering Respiratory, Urinary, Endocrine, Reproductive Systems and Animal Development. All vocabulary words are included as well as a general outline of things to...
Biology II
Thomas Holder
Study Guide
Biology, study, guide, Respiratory, Respiration, Urinary, Endocrine, reproduction, animal, development, gametes
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Murry on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 04/27/16
Exam 4 Study Guide (Final Exam) Master Vocab List • Gills – organs for gas exchange in • Osmosis – diffusion of water from fish and some amphibians high to low concentrations across • Countercurrent Exchange selectively permeable membrane Mechanism – blood and oxygen • Osmoregulation – regulation of salt flowing in different directions in a and water balance in bodily fluids, gill design cells, and tissues • Cutaneous Respiration – gas • Ammonia – nitrogenous waste that exchange through the skin becomes toxic when it is stored in • Buccopharyngeal Respiration – the body mouth breathing • Urea – primary nitrogenous waste of • Lung Respiration – gas exchange amphibians and mammals occurs in lungs • Uric Acid – primary nitrogenous • Cilia – filters out particles in the waste of birds and reptiles nasal cavity to keep them from • Gout – build up of uric acid stored in getting into the body joints • Nasal cavity – contains cilia and • Metanephric kidneys – most mucus which warms and moistens advanced for of kidneys; drained by • Internal nares – 2 opening in the a ureter, has lots of nephrons, and back of the nasal cavity where nasal filter at much higher blood pressures cavity and mouth cavity connect • Ureter – a tube draining the kidneys • Pharynx – where respiratory and carrying waste product to urinary digestive system cross paths bladder • Glottis – opening to respiratory tube • Urinary Bladder – place where urine • Epiglottis – flap to prevent things is stored from entering the glottis • Urethra – tube that released urine from the body • Larynx – the voice box • Trachea – the windpipe; largest • Nephron – functional unit of all section of the respiratory pathway vertebrate kidneys tube • Glomerulus – capillary bed that • Bronchus – a lung filters/cleans the blood • Bowman’s Capsule – receives filtrate • Bronchioles – smallest tubes in respiratory pathway branching off from glomerulus bronchi • Renal Tubule – receives filtrate from • Alveoli – air pockets that are ending Bowman’s Capsule of respiratory tube; site of gas • Loop of Henle – constricted portion exchange of tubule (loop) in the kidney to slow the force of the substance moving • Diaphragm – important part of respiratory system that makes through and absorbs more water and breathing possible; expands and nutrients while secreting more waste relaxes to pull air in and out • Endocrine glands – have to ducts to • Inhalation – diaphragm contracts and secrete hormones directly into pulls down to bring air into lungs bloodstream • Exocrine glands – have ducts • Exhalation – diaphragm relaxes and pulls up to expel air from lungs • Hypothalamus – produces releasing • Budding – unequal division of an hormones that regulate pituitary organism where an outgrowth hormones detaches and becomes a new • Pituitary – secretes hormones that individual regulate other endocrine glands • Gemmulation – an internal bud • Gonadotrophins – act on gonads forms inside the parental body and • Thyrotropins – act on thyroid gland when parent is damaged or dies, the • Adrenocorticotropins – act on the internal bud is released adrenal glands • Gemmule – an encapsulated • Growth hormone – stimulates cell (internal) bud division • Fragmentation – multicellular animal breaks into 2 or more parts and each • Prolactin hormone – stimulates mammary glands to produce milk fragment may become a new • Melanophore-stimulating hormone – individual pigment dispersion • Sexual Reproduction – involves • Vasopressin – acts on kidney to production of sex cells • Gametes – haploid cell that is direct reduce urine flow result of meiosis/cytokinesis; halves • Oxytocin – stimulates release of milk in mammary glands and stimulates chromosome number muscles of the uterine lining to • Fertilization – fusion of male and contract during birth female gametes; restores • Thyroxine – promotes normal chromosome number • Zygote – fertilized egg development of the nervous system • Cortisol – an anti-inflammatory • Hermaphroditism – individuals hormone having both male and female • Aldosterone – promotes reabsorption reproductive organs in the tubules of the kidney • Monoecious – condition of having both sex organs in the same body • Epinephrine – tunes up body in • Sex Reversal – the same organism emergency response (aka: adrenaline) can produce either egg or sperm and • Norepinephrine – antagonist to switch between the two, sometimes epinephrine (aka: nonadrenaline) during the same breeding season • Gastrin – stimulates the secretion of • Self fertilization – sperm and egg are produced in the same body HCl into the stomach • Cholycystokinin – stimulates gall • Cross fertilization – each individual bladder to release bile salts into the capable of producing own offspring, small intestine; stimulates pancreas but eggs and sperm cross over to secrete enzymatic juices into the • Parthenogenesis – development of an small intestine embryo from an unfertilized egg • Biparental Sexual Reproduction – 2 • Organismal Reproduction – production of new organism individuals with separate sex organs (offspring) and sex cells; offspring produced • Asexual Reproduction – from union of male and female reproduction that does not involve gametes from genetically different sexual activity and produces individuals • Oviparous – condition of female genetically identical offspring • Binary Fission – parent divides by laying eggs outside the body; mitosis into 2 approx. equal parts fertilization either internal or • Acrosome – contains enzymes that external aid in penetration of the ovum • Ovoviviparous – condition of eggs • Flagellum – a sperm’s swimming enclosed in a structure retained feature within the female’s body before • Ovary – major female reproductive giving birth to live young; internal organ fertilization • Ova – potential eggs • Viviparous – condition of live • Oviduct – the uterine tube bearing with a maternal connection; • Uterus – implantation site of fertilization must be internal fertilized egg • Natural Selection – measure of the • Endometrium – lining of uterus differential survival and differential which builds up with tissue and reproduction capillaries to increase blood flow • Germ Cells – cells that lead up to • Cervix – distal end from ovary; development of reproductive organs entrance to uterus • Seminiferous tubules – tightly • Vagina – receptacle for penis in packed/coiled tubules that represents the site of sperm production copulation; the birth canal • Vulva – external genitalia • Leydig cells – secrete testosterone • Ovarian follicle – the ovum and • Sertoli cells – provide nourishment surrounding cells to sperm and cells associated with • Corpus luteum – remnant of follicle development of sperm after ovulation (aka: the yellow • Epididymis – site of sperm storage body) and maturation • Ovulation – release of egg • Vas Deferens – for rapid sperm • Estrous Cycle – narrow window of transport female fertility • Ejaculatory Duct – also for rapid • Menstrual Cycle – 28 day uterine sperm transport; at junction of Vas Deferens and seminal vessel cycle • Polar bodies – not functional • Urethra – conducts both sperm and gametes; mechanisms to get rid of urine extra chromosomes • Seminal Vesicle – secretes liquid and • Triploblastic development – oil for transport, prostaglandins to stimulate uterine muscle contraction, formation of 3 germ layers in and fructose for sperm nutrition advanced animals • Fertilization – initiates process of • Prostate Gland – secretes lubricated embryonic development moisture • Cleavage – produces a mass of • Bulbourethral glands – secretes smaller cells lubrication directly into urethra • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) – • Blastula – a hollow ball of cells • Blastomere – hollow cavity of a ball initiates sperm production in the of cells seminiferous tubules • Meroblastic cleavage – partial or • LH (luteinizing hormone) – incomplete cleavage; only animal stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone pole divides • Testosterone – required for the • Holoblastic cleavage – complete cells division producing 2 equal development and maintenance of blastomeres male reproductive system • Gastrulation – produces 3 cell layers: • Neurulation – produces future the ectoderm, mesoderm, and nervous system and segmented body endoderm plan • Invagination – band of tissue pinches • Organogenesis – results in tissues in to create opening called blastopore becoming organized into functional • Archenteron – future digestive tract organs composed of differentiated produced by endoderm cells • Notochord – mesodermal-derived • Neural Plate – a thickening of structure providing rigidity along ectodermal cells around the dorsal axis of embryo notochord • Neural Crest – cells overlying dorsal portion of neural tube Outline of Things to Know The Respiratory System • What is the function of the Respiratory System? • What is the site of gas exchange? • What gas goes into the body and which gas comes out? • Describe how gills work through the Countercurrent Exchange Mechanism • How many pairs of gills do fish have? Amphibians? • What is Cutaneous Respiration and which animals use it? • What is Buccopharyngeal Respiration and which animals use it? • What is Lung Respiration and which animals use it? • What animal group requires the most oxygen? • Describe the pathway of air flow and the associated organs • Why is the diaphragm important? The Urinary System • What is the function of the Urinary System? • What produces ions? • Why is osmoregulation important? • How do humans gain water? • What factors cause water loss in humans? • Distinguish between nitrogenous wastes of vertebrates o Ammonia o Urea o Uric Acid • What is the largest organ of the Urinary System and its function? • Describe all the organs of the Urinary System • Where is urine stored in the body? • What is the functional unit of all vertebrate kidneys? • What are nephrons composed of? o Identify structures and their functions • What are the 3 stages of cleaning blood? • What is the goal of the kidneys/cleaning blood? • Know differences of the nephron between freshwater fish, saltwater fish, and mammals The Endocrine System • What is the function of the Endocrine System? • How are hormones secreted and transported? • Know types of Endocrine Glands, their functions, and the functions of the hormones they secrete. o Hypothalamus o Anterior Pituitary o Posterior Pituitary o Metabolic Hormones and Associated Glands • Know difference between Endocrine and Exocrine glands The Reproductive System • What is the function of the reproductive system? • Know difference between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction • Know the types of asexual reproduction o Binary Fission o Budding o Gemmulation o Fragmentation • Can animals reproduce both sexually and asexually? • What are the male and female gametes? • Which gamete costs the most energy to make? • What process reduces the chromosome number? • What process restores the chromosome number? • Know the types of sexual reproduction o Hermaphroditism o Parthenogenesis o Biparental Sexual Reproduction • What is the only Class of animal to not experience parthenogenesis? • Know the difference between Oviparous, Ovoviviparous, and Viviparous reproductive patterns and give an example of animal that experiences each. • Does Sexual or Asexual reproduction require the most time and energy? • What is the main advantage of sexual reproduction? • What is the biggest disadvantage of asexual reproduction? o What does this mean for asexually reproducing species’ survival? • Where do the testis develop? • What is the site of sperm production? • Where are sperm cells stored until maturity? • Where are defective sperm cells reabsorbed? • Which cells are involved with the male reproductive system? • Know organs of the male duct system and their functions • What is the Copulatory Organ? • Know accessory glands of male reproductive system and their functions • What is the importance of testosterone? What effects does it have on the body? • Know parts of a sperm and their functions • What is the major reproductive organ of the female reproductive system? • How many ova are produced at puberty? Will all of these become mature eggs? • Know organs of female duct system and their functions • Where does fertilization normally take place? • What hormones are important to the female reproductive system? • What are the effects of estrogen? • What are the effects of progesterone? • What happens to the endometrium if fertilization does not occur? • Describe the Menstrual Cycle o Days 1-5 o Days 6-14 o Days 15-28 • What gets rid of extra chromosomes • What is the ultimate goal of oogenesis • How many chromosomes does a human zygote have? Animal Development • How many germ layers do advanced animals have? • What are the 5 stages of animal development? • Does fertilization occur internally or externally? • Distinguish between types of Cleavage • What does Gastrulation produce? • What does the endoderm form? • What does the mesoderm form? • What does the ectoderm form? • What does the first blastopore become in Chordates and Echinoderms? • What is the importance of Primordial Germ Cells • What produces the future nervous system? • What does the neural tube develop from? • What forms all neurons and supporting cells of the PNS? • What else does the neural crest form? • What process produces future organs? • When do organs form? • When do organs become fully functional? • What specializes tissues and decides the function of newly forming organs?


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