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SOC 2189 Study Guide: Exam 2

by: -deleted-apierson

SOC 2189 Study Guide: Exam 2 SOC 2189

Marketplace > George Washington University > Sociology > SOC 2189 > SOC 2189 Study Guide Exam 2

GPA 3.14
Alternatives to Imprisonment

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Alternatives to Imprisonment
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by -deleted-apierson on Wednesday March 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 2189 at George Washington University taught by Motivans in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Alternatives to Imprisonment in Sociology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 03/18/15
Alternatives to Imprisonment Study Guide Exam 2 Terms Frontend reform reforming imprisonment before imprisonment is even used Eg increase use of nonprison sentences reduce use of mandatory sentences etc Backend reform reforms made while offenders are in prison Eg revise parole revocation policies early release etc Community courts specialized courts that are nonadversarial in nature Community prosecution prosecutors are the ones who make most decisions Focuses more on the community needs than punishing the offender Sentencing circles talking about what sentencing means for offenders Began in Yukon territories in Native American disputes lores something if broken you can expect to find backlash Think cultural norms Criminal law is codified mores Concepts Traditional criminal justice system is imprisonment We imprison people to 1 Protect the public and 2 Provide punishment for offenders 3 core concerns of CJ system 0 Protecting the Public 0 Focus is on preventing crime 0 Deterrence 0 Rehabilitation programs and victim services 0 EstablishRespond to Blameworthiness 0 Equal under the law rights of the accused o Retribution objectives punishment should fit the crime 0 Practical and social costs Communityjustice shares two characteristics 1 Involving citizens in the formulation of crime control policies beneficial because it s customized to fit the needs of the local community 2 Responding to crime by seeking to rehabilitate the offender and repair the harm suffered by the victim and community rather than punishing the offender Difference between restorative justice and communityjustice communityjustice utilizes aspects of restorative justice but all of their aims are to better the community rather than the individual Restorative focuses on victimoffender relations more so than communityoffender relations Conflict Model criminal law originates from the conflict between different interest groups Law reflects the powerful and controlled behavior of dangerous classes It s a means of preserving the status quo Crimes of the wealthy are unaddressed Consensus Model criminal law arises from agreement among society as to what s a crime Criminal law is crystalizing there s a general consensus on what it is Criminal law is a function of social control Reconstruction and Imprisonment Purpose create country where equal citizenship is possible Federal presence in the south decreased and African Americans couldn t rely on USFG Emboldened angry whites to take action End of reconstruction opposing legislation pig laws and vagrancy codes Laws target African Americans and criminalizes black life Unemployment becomes a crime under vagrancy Connects between crime and race Blumstein and Nakamura Probability of arrest of some offenders does eventually become equal with the general population 7 years postfirst arrest Focus was on employment of convicted offenders lost money earned by released convicts came from family and friends not employment Lanni Community programs operate on the fringe of the CJ system it targets lowlevel crimes and quality of life offenses There s no obvious movement to expand community courts to include more serious crimes Communityjustice programs are generally more successful at earning legitimacy and build better relations between police and the community Objectives 1 Critique communityjustice practices could they be expanded 2 Gauging the effect that localized popular decisionmaking would have on the problems facing the CJ programs 3 Focuses on two practices Four prominent CJ initiatives 1 Community Prosecution 2 Community courts 3 Sentencing circles 4 Citizen reparative boards Community courts are more expertdriven so if we re wanting meaningful citizen participation how do we do it It s a criticism of community courts Court Cases US v Armstrong 1996 challenged difference in sentencing between crack and powder cocaine Ruled against Armstrong Very high burden developed needed to show intent of arrest numbers don t matter so much lcClesky v Kemp lcClesky black man sentenced to death for killing a police officer He appealed via 8th amendment and equal protection clause of the 14th amendment Ruled against lcClesky


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