Intro to Psychology, Study Guide 3
Intro to Psychology, Study Guide 3 PSY 0001
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elise Gan on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0001 at Tufts University taught by Lisa Shin, Samuel Sommers, Heather Urry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tufts University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Elise Gan April 25, 2016 Seemingly important vocabulary Emphasized in readings and class 14, 15, 12, 13 584-594 Intro to Psychology Study Guide, Test # Chapter 12: Social Psychology 12.1 How Does Group Membership Affect People? • people favor their own group o bonding together provides numerous advantages o reciprocity – if a person helps/harms another, that person will help/harm them back o transitivity – people generally share their friends’ opinion of other people o outgroup homogeneity effect = tendency to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members o social identity theory = ingroups consist of individuals who perceive themselves to be members of the same social category and experience pride through their membership o ingroup favoritism = tendency for people to privilege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup o medial prefrontal cortex important for thinking about other people • groups influence individual behavior o social facilitation = the presence of others generally enhances performance § only if dominant response is good performance o deindividuation = state of reduced individuality, reduced self-awareness, and reduced attention to personal standards; may occur when people are part of a group o risky-shift effect – groups often make riskier decisions o group polarization = process by which initial attitudes of groups become more extreme over time o groupthink = tendency for groups to make bad decisions when the group is under pressure, is biased, etc. o social loafing = tendency for people to not work as hard in a group • people conform to others o conformity = altering of one’s behaviors and opinions to match those of other people or their expectations o normative influence = tendency for people to conform in order to fit in with the group o informational influence = tendency for people to conform when they assume that the behavior of others is the correct way to respond o social norms = expected standards of conduct, influences behavior o study by Asch (1955) – 5 confederates say wrong answer, 1 participant usually said wrong answer even though they knew the right answer (3/4) • people are often compliant o compliance = tendency to agree to do things requested by others o foot-in-the-door effect = idea that if people agree to a small request, they are more likely to comply with a large/undesirable request o door-in-the-face effect = people are more likely to agree to a small request after refusing a large request • people are obedient to authority o obedience = when a person follows the orders of a person of authority o Milgram’s experiment – participant asked to shock confederate if wrong answer is given; researcher tells them to continue; 2/3 went to the top voltage 12.2 When Do People Harm or Help Others? • many factors can influence aggression o aggression = any behavior that involves the intention to harm another § likely to happen when people feel socially rejected or when weather is hot o MAOA gene regulates neurotransmitter serotonin and is important in control of aggression o testosterone appears to have modest correlation with aggression § may also be the result of aggression though o culture of honor – men in this belief system are primed to reputations through physical aggression • many factors can influence helping behavior o prosocial behaviors = actions that tend to benefit others; favors/helping o altruism = providing help when needed without any apparent reward o inclusive fitness = explanation for altruism; focuses on adaptive benefit of transmitting genes rather that focusing on individual survival § kin selection – people are altruistic toward those they share genes with o reciprocal helping – one animal helps another because they may return the favor in the future • some situations lead to bystander apathy o bystander intervention effect = failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need when other people are present o diffusion of responsibility = bystanders expect other bystanders to help o people fear social blunders, looking foolish o people less likely to help when they are anonymous • cooperation can reduce outgroup bias o superordinate goals require people to cooperate o jigsaw classroom – students work together in mixed-race/mixed-sex groups; each member is an expert on one aspect of assignment; each group member is equally important 12.3 How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior? • attitudes = people’s evaluations of objects/events/ideas • people form attitudes through experience and socialization o people develop negative attitudes about new things more quickly than positive attitudes o mere exposure effect = idea that greater exposure to a stimulus leads to greater liking for it o people’s attitudes guided by peers, teachers, religious leaders, etc. • behaviors are consistent with strong attitudes o stronger attitudes predict behaviors better o more specific attitudes are more predictive o attitude accessibility – ease/difficulty that a person has in retrieving an attitude from memory • attitudes can be explicit or implicit o explicit attitudes = attitudes that a person can report o implicit attitudes = attitudes that influence a person’s feelings and behavior on an unconscious level § implicit association test (IAT) – measures how quickly a person associates concepts/objects with positive/negative words • discrepancies lead to dissonance o cognitive dissonance = uncomfortable mental state resulting from a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior o more justification of lying means no dissonance o postdecisional dissonance- makes people focus on the positive aspects of their choice and the negative aspects of the rejected choices o hazing makes membership in groups seem more valuable – had to go through embarrassing/difficult rites • attitudes can be changed through persuasion o persuasion = active/conscious effort to change an attitude through the transmission of a message o various factors affect persuasiveness: § source – who delivers the message § content – what the message says § receiver – who processes the message o elaboration likelihood model = idea that persuasive messages lead to attitude changes in two ways: the central route or the peripheral route § central route – people are motivated and able to process information § peripheral route – people not motivated or unable to process information 12.4 How Do People Think About Others? • physical appearance affects first impressions o nonverbal behavior = facial expressions/gestures/mannerism/movements by which people communicate o eye contact important in Western cultures • people make attributions about others o attributions = people’s explanations for why events or actions occur o personal attributions = explanations of people’s behavior that refer to their internal characteristics o situational attributions = explanations of people’s behavior that refer to external events o correspondence bias – expectancy that people’s actions correspond to their beliefs and personalities o fundamental attribution error = tendency to overemphasize personality traits and underestimate situational factors § people tend to focus on situations when interpreting own behavior § people tend to focus on personal characteristics when interpreting others’ behavior • stereotypes are based on automatic categorization o people construct categories to streamline the formation of impressions and to deal with the limitations inherent in mental processing o people may see illusory correlations – relationships that don’t exist o when people encounter someone who doesn’t fit a stereotype, they subtype – they put that person in a special category rather than alter the stereotype • stereotypes can lead to prejudice o prejudice = negative feelings/opinions/beliefs associated with a stereotype o discrimination = inappropriate/unjustified treatment of people as a result of prejudice o people tend to stigmatize those who pose threats to their groups o stereotypes can influence basic perceptual processes o modern racism = subtle forms of prejudice that coexist with the rejection of racist beliefs § tend to believe that discrimination is no longer a serious problem • prejudice can be reduced o can inhibit stereotypes § requires a lot of self-control in everyday life o perspective taking – people actively contemplating the psychological experiences of other people o perspective giving – people share their experiences of being targets of discrimination o reduce prejudice by: being heard (for minorities) and listening (for majorities) 12.5 What Determines the Quality of Relationships? • situational and personal factors influence interpersonal attraction and friendships o proximity – how often people come into contact with each other § more often, more likely to become friends o familiarity – people like familiar things more than unfamiliar ones § neophobia – humans fear anything new o matching principle – people who are more physically similar are more likely to become friends/partners o people tend to like those who have admirable personality characteristics and are physically attractive § people tend to find symmetrical faces more attractive o “what is beautiful is good” stereotype = belief that attractive people are superior in most ways § in reality attractive people more popular, socially skilled and healthy, but not necessarily smart of happy • love is an important component of romantic relationships o passionate love = state of intense longing and desire o companionate love = strong commitment based on friendship/trust/respect/intimacy o one theory of love based on attachment styles § people with secure attachment styles find it easier to get close to others • staying in love can require work o passion fades over time o if companionate love doesn’t form between people and passionate love fades, marriage will make people unhappy o four interpersonal styles that lead couples to discord: § being overly critical § holding the partner in contempt § being defensive § mentally withdrawing from the relationship o attributional style = how one partner explains the other’s behavior § accommodation – overlook bad behavior or respond constructively § distress-maintaining attributions – view each other in most negative ways Chapter 13: Personality 13.5 How Do We Know Our Personalities? • each of us has a notion of something we call the “self” • our self-concepts consist of self-knowledge o self-schema – consists of an integrated set of memories/beliefs/generalizations of self § helps us quickly perceive/organize/interpret/use information about the self § may lead you to have enhanced memory for information that you process in reference to yourself § brain activity in middle frontal lobes o working self-concept – immediate experience of the self § who it is you believe yourself to be § limited to the amount of personal information that can be processed cognitively at any given time § people often emphasize characteristics that make them distinct from others • perceived social regard influences self-esteem o self-esteem = evaluative aspect of the self-concept in which people feel worthy or unworthy o reflected appraisal – people’s self-esteem is based on how they believe others perceive them o sociometer = internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection § low probability of rejection, usually experience high self-esteem o terror management theory – self-esteem gives meaning to people’s lives § protects people from horror associated with death o narcissism – trait associated with inflated self-esteem § love for the self, poor relations with others • people use mental strategies to maintain a positive sense of self o most show favoritism to anything associated with themselves o better-than-average effect – people describe selves as above average in nearly every way o social comparison – when people evaluate their own actions/abilities/beliefs by contrasting them with other people’s § likely to perform comparisons when they have no objective criteria § use a form of downward comparison when recalling own pasts o self-serving bias = tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors • there are cultural differences in the self o Westerners tend to be independent and autonomous § independent self-construals – sense of self is based on her/his feelings of being distinct from others o Easterners tend to be more interdependent § interdependent self-construals – self-concepts are determined to a large extent by social roles and personal relationships Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders 14.1 How Are Psychological Disorders Conceptualized and Classified? • psychopathology = sickness or disorder of the mind o earliest views explained apparent “madness” as result from possession o 1700s – people with psychopathology removed from society; asylums o 1793 – Philippe Pinel; moral treatment – a therapy that involved close contact with and careful observation of patients • etiology = factors that contribute to the development of a disorder • psychopathology is different from everyday problems o many behaviors considered normal in one setting may be considered deviant in other settings o psychopathology increasingly defined in terms of maladaptiveness • psychological disorders are classified into categories o 1952 – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published § DSM-5 released in 2013 • has three sections: introduction with instructions, diagnostic criteria for all disorders, and a guide for future psychopathology research o categorical approach – like DSM, implies that a person either has a disorder or does not o dimensional approach – consider psychological disorders along a continuum in which people vary in degree rather than in kind o comorbidity – multiple psychological disorders exist at once o p factor (similar to g) – one underlying factor involved in all types of psychological disorders o Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) = a method that defines basic aspects of functioning and considers them across multiple levels of analysis; from genes to brain systems to behavior § initially meant to guide research rather than classify disorders for treatment • psychological disorders must be assessed o assessment = examination of a person’s cognitive, behavioral, or emotional functioning to diagnose possible psychological disorders o prognosis – course and probable outcome o evidence-based assessment – approach to clinical evaluation in which research guides the evaluation of psychopathology • psychological disorders have many causes o diathesis-stress model = proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event o genetic factors can affect production and levels or neurotransmitters and receptors o genetic factors can also affect the size of brain structures and level of connectivity o environmental effects on the body also influence development and course of disorders o family systems model = considers problems within an individual as indicating problems with the family o sociocultural model = views psychopathology as result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures o cognitive-behavioral approach = views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive thoughts and beliefs § maladaptive thoughts/beliefs can be unlearned through treatment o internalizing disorders – characterized by negative emotions, can be grouped into categories that reflect the emotions of distress and fear § more prevalent in females o externalizing disorders – characterized by disinhibition § more prevalent in males o cultural syndromes – disorders that include a cluster of symptoms that are found in specific cultural groups or regions 14.2 Which Disorders Emphasize Emotions or Moods • anxiety disorders make people apprehensive and tense o anxiety disorder = psychological disorder characterized by excessive fear and anxiety in the absence of true danger § exhibit restless and pointless motor behaviors o specific phobia – fear of a specific object or situation o social anxiety disorder – fear of being negatively evaluated by others § one of the earliest forms of anxiety to develop, often at age 13 o generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) = a diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or even o panic disorder = anxiety disorder, consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror o agoraphobia = anxiety disorder, marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible o anxious individuals tend to perceive neutral situations as threatening o children who have an inhibited temperamental style are usually shy and tend to avoid unfamiliar people and novel objects • unwanted thoughts create anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorders o obsessive-compulsive disorder = disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions § obsessions – recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts/ideas/mental images § compulsions – particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over § one explanation is that the disorder results from conditioning • posttraumatic stress disorder results from trauma o posttraumatic stress disorder = disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma § those with PTSD often have chronic tension, anxiety, and health problems § may experience memory and attention problems • depressive disorders consist of sad, empty, of irritable mood o major depressive disorder = disorder characterized by severe negative moods or a lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities o only long-lasting episodes that impair a person’s life are diagnosed o leading risk factor for suicide o persistent depressive disorder = form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depressive disorders § symptoms are less intense o twice as many women as men suffer from depressive disorders § some theorize that it’s because women’s multiple roles cause stress that results in increased incidence of depression • depressive disorders have biological, situational, and cognitive components o depression has genetic component o damage to left prefrontal cortex can lead to depression o seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – periods of depression that correspond to the shorter days of winter o how an individual reacts to stress can be influences by interpersonal relationships, which play an extremely important role in depression o learned helplessness = cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events in their lives • bipolar disorders involve depression and mania o mania – an elevated mood, can vary in degree and is accompanied by major shifts in energy level and physical activity o true manic episodes last at least one week o bipolar I disorder = disorder characterized by extremely elevated moods during manic episodes and depressive moods as well o bipolar II disorder = disorder characterized by alternating periods of extremely depressed and mildly elevated moods o much less common than depression o family history of a bipolar disorder is the strongest/most consistent risk factor 14.3 Which Disorders Emphasize Thought Disturbances • dissociative disorders are disruptions in memory, awareness, and identity o dissociative disorders = disorders that involve disruptions of identity, of memory, or of conscious awareness § commonality is the splitting off of some parts of memory from conscious awareness § dissociative amnesia – person forgets that an event happened or loses awareness of a substantial block of time § dissociative fugue – rarest, most extreme form; involves a loss of identity § dissociative identity disorder (DID) = occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual • separate identities usually differ substantially • schizophrenia involves a split between thought and emotion o schizophrenia = psychological disorder characterized by a split between thought and emotion; it involves alterations in thoughts, perceptions, or consciousness o between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of the population o positive symptoms – excesses, addition of abnormal behaviors o negative symptoms – deficit in functioning o delusions = false beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality o hallucinations = false sensory perceptions that are experiences without an external source § usually auditory o disorganized speech = speaking in an in coherent fashion that involves frequently changing topics and saying strange or inappropriate things § loosening of associations – frequently changing topics § clang associations – stringing together of words that rhyme but have no other apparent link o disorganized behavior = acting in strange of unusual ways, including strange movement of limbs, bizarre speech, and inappropriate self-care § catatonic behavior – show a decrease in responsiveness to the environment o negative symptoms = symptoms of schizophrenia that are marked by deficits in functioning, such as apathy, lack of emotion, etc. § not reduced by antipsychotic medications o runs in families o schizophrenia results from abnormality in neurotransmitters 14.4 What Are Personality Disorder? • personality disorder – style of interaction is long-lasting and causes problems in work/social situations • personality disorders are maladaptive ways of relating to the world o cluster A: characterized by odd/eccentric behavior; schizoid, schizotypal, etc. o cluster B: characterized by emotional/erratic behavior; borderlines, antisocial, etc. o cluster C: characterized by anxious/fearful behavior; avoidant, obsessive-compulsive • borderline personality disorder is associated with poor self-control o borderline personality disorder = characterized by disturbances in identity, in affect, and in impulse control § twice as common in women as in men § usually impulsive § strong relationship exists between the disorder and trauma/abuse • antisocial personality disorder is associated with a lack of empathy o antisocial personality disorder (APD) = personality disorder in which people engage in socially undesirable behavior, are hedonistic and impulsive, and lack empathy 14.5 Which Psychological Disorders Are Prominent in Childhood? • autism spectrum disorder involves social deficits and restricted interests o autism spectrum disorder = developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, by impaired communication, and by restricted interests § children seem unaware of others, have deficits in communication, and have restricted activities and interests § there is a genetic component § gene mutations may also play a role § those with autism may have impairments in the mirror neuron system • attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a disruptive impulse control disorder o attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) = disorder characterized by restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity § children with ADHD need to have directions repeated over and over § genetic § generally are not given diagnoses of ADHD until they enter structured settings Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders 15.1 How Are Psychological Disorders Treated? • psychotherapy = generic name given to formal psychological treatment • biological therapies = treatment of psychological disorders based on medical approaches to disease and to illness o disease – what is wrong with the body o illness – what a person feels as a result • psychopharmacology – use of medications that affect brain or body functions • psychotherapy is based on psychological principles o Freud believe treatment gave rise to maladaptive thoughts and behaviors § free association – client would say whatever came to mind and the therapist would look for signs of unconscious conflicts § dream analysis – therapist would interpret client’s dreams o insight = general goal of psychoanalysis; a client’s awareness of her/his own unconscious psychological processes and how these processes affect functioning o psychodynamic therapy = form of therapy based on Freudian theory; aims to help clients examine needs, defenses, and motives as a way of understanding distress § look for recurring themes and patterns in thoughts and feelings § focusing on interpersonal relations and childhood attachments § new approach offers fewer sessions and more focus on current relationships o client-centered therapy = empathic approach to therapy; encourages people to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth through greater self-understanding § reflective listening – therapist repeats the client’s concerns to help them clarify their feelings § motivational interviewing – addresses client’s ambivalence about problematic behaviors o behavior therapy = treatment based on the premise that behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned through the use of memconditioning o exposure = behavioral therapy technique that involves repeated exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus or situation § prolonged exposure is effective for PTSD § exposure and response prevention effective for OCD § systematic desensitization – gradual form of exposure therapy o cognitive therapy = treatment based on idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions § treatment strategies attempt to modify these thought patterns o cognitive restructuring = therapy that strives to help clients recognize maladaptive thought pattern and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality § rational-emotive therapy – therapist acts as a teacher explaining the client’s errors in thinking and demonstrating more adaptive ways to think and behave § interpersonal therapy – focuses on circumstances: relationships the client attempts to avoid § mindfulness-based cognitive therapy – based on principles derived from mindfulness meditation • two goals: to help clients become more aware of their negative thoughts and feelings when vulnerable and to help them disengage from ruminative thinking through meditation o cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) = therapy that incorporates techniques from cognitive and behavior therapy to correct faulty thinking and change behaviors o group therapy less expensive and provides opportunity to improve social skills o systems approach – individual is part of larger context § some therapists insist that family members be involved in therapy § expressed emotion = pattern of negative actions by a client’s family members; the pattern includes critical comments, hostility directed toward the person by family members, and emotional overinvolvement o Eastern cultures less likely to talk about mental illness • medication is effective for certain disorders o psychotropic medications = drugs that affect mental processes o anti-anxiety drugs = used for treatment of anxiety o antidepressants = used for treatment of depression § monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors – breaks down serotonin in the synapse § selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – inhibit reuptake of serotonin § tricyclics – prevent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake o antipsychotics = used for treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders that involve psychosis § one side effect is tardive dyskinesia – involuntary twitching of muscles • alternative biological treatments are used in extreme cases o electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) = procedure that involves administering a strong electrical current to the person’s brain to produce a seizure; effective for some cases of severe depression o transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) – magnetic field interrupts neural function in a brain region § single-pulse TMS – occurs only during brief period of stimulation § repeated TMS – occur over an extended time o deep brain stimulation (DBS) – surgically implanting electrodes deep in the brain § first widely used to treat Parkinson’s § few side effects and low complication rate • effectiveness of treatment is determined by empirical evidence o placebo effect = improvement in physical or mental health following treatment with a placebo or treatment that has no active component on the disorder being treated o evidence-based treatments more important • therapies not supported by scientific evidence can be dangerous o self-help books make questionable claims o need to avoid therapies with no scientific basis to confirm effectiveness • a variety of providers can assist in treatment for psychological disorders o clinical psychologists (PhD) o psychiatrists (MD) o counseling psychologists (PhD) o psychiatric social workers (MSW) o psychiatric nurses (BSN) o paraprofessionals o not enough trained people available to provide traditional one-on-one psychotherapy o technology-based treatments – use minimal contact with therapists and rely on smartphones, computer programs, or the Internet § example: apps to keep track of mental states 15.2 What Are the Most Effective Treatments? • treatments that focus on behavior and on cognition are superior for anxiety disorders o anxiety-reducing drugs beneficial in some cases, but there are risks of side effects o therapists may use virtual environments to simulate the environments and feared objects o cognitive restructuring helps with panic disorder § goal to break connection between trigger symptom and the panic § as effective or more effective than medication • both antidepressants and CBT are effective for OCD o SSRIS reduce the obsessive components of some depressive disorders (and OCD) o exposure and response prevention important for OCD § more effective over long-term o DBS may be an effective treatment § significant reduction of symptoms and increased daily functioning • many effective treatments are available for depressive disorders o usually SSRIs given o cognitive-behavioral treatment goal is to help person think more adaptively o therapy and medication together have best results o some people respond well to phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder – exposure to a high-intensity light source for part of each day o for some, aerobic exercise can reduce depressive symptoms o ECT seems to be effective § TMS works too, but won’t replace ECT o DBS may also be a valuable treatment when no other options o men reluctant to admit to depression o women twice as likely to be diagnosed with depressive disorders • lithium and atypical antipsychotics are most effective for bipolar disorder o lithium stabilized mood o atypical antipsychotics stabilize mood and help with mania o people usually also put on antidepressants o psychotherapy can help people accept their need for medication • antipsychotics are superior for schizophrenia o medication is essential in treatment o social skills training helps address deficits in those with schizophrenia o most people improve over time o training in specific cognitive skills has been less effective 15.3 Can Personality Disorders Be Treated? • dialectical behavior therapy is most successful for borderline personality disorder o dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) = combines elements of the behavioral and cognitive treatments with a mindfulness approach based on Eastern meditation § three stages: • therapist targets person’s most extreme and dysfunctional behaviors • therapist helps person explore past traumatic experiences that may be at the root of emotional problems • therapist helps person develop self-respect and independent problem solving • antisocial personality disorder is extremely difficult to treat o these people care little about others’ feelings o they live for the present and care little about the future o anti-anxiety drugs are beneficial in short-term, but not the long-term o behavioral approaches work best when therapist controls reinforcement and patient is in a group o cognitive approaches don’t work as well because they don’t care that what they’re doing is wrong o no evidence indicates that they produce long-lasting or even real changes o conduct disorder – childhood condition known to be a precursor to antisocial personality disorder 15.4 How Should Childhood Disorders and Adolescent Disorders Be Treated? • children with ADHD can benefit from various approaches o some children grow out of it o central nervous system stimulants may help § increase attention and ability to concentrate § children interact more positively with parents § many side effects § short-term benefits may not be maintained over long-term o behavioral treatment aims to reinforce positive behaviors and ignore or punish problem behaviors § time consuming and intensive § behavioral therapy more effective in long run • children with autism spectrum disorder benefit from structured behavioral treatment o applied behavioral analysis (ABA) = intensive treatment for autism based on operant conditioning § minimum of 40 hours per week § behaviors that aren’t reinforced diminish o SSRIs do not help o oxytocin improves social functioning § particularly useful for reducing repetitive behaviors, inappropriate touching, questioning, and self-injury o early diagnosis allows for more effective treatments • the use of medication to treat adolescent depressive disorders is controversial o concerned that SSRIs might cause teens to become suicidal § FDA required warning labels o 2004 - treatment for adolescents with depression study (TADS) – provided evidence that SSRIs are effective in treating adolescent depression § all treatment groups experienced a reduction in thoughts of suicide compared with the baseline o psychotherapy is effective on its own, but is better with medication
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