English 2202 Final Exam Study Guide
English 2202 Final Exam Study Guide 2202
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda White on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2202 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Jill Galvan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see British Literature 1800-Present in Foreign Language at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
ENGLISH 2202: BRITISH LITERATURE FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE TEXTS/AUTHORS: main themes, important info to know 1. Oscar Wilde, “The Decay of Lying” (923) a. Speaker: Cyril, Vivian (Wilde’s character-she tells his ideas on art) b. Addressee: Victorians/dandys who don’t get art c. Wilde’s opinions on art through a dialogue between two characters A. Wilde had an immense distaste for realism B. Art for arts sake, never expresses anything but itself, don’t surrender imagination for realism/truth telling C. Bad art imitates nature, must be translated into conventions D. Art does not have to represent anything 2. Oscar Wilde, preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray (924) a. Speaker: painter b. Addressee: Victorians (wanted to shock them) c. Important info A. Preface was a “screw you” to the reader B. Wilde is going to tell them they are not reading his “art” the right way C. Art for art’s sake D. Wilde is excusing anyone from finding a moral meaning in his work E. Nonsensical wording F. Art should be useless and of no moral value G. Art criticism is an elite activity and the average Victorian does not understand or interpret art correctly =philistines! H. Paradox for Victorians: liked realism but turned off by the ugliness of life I. Wilde privileges “manner”—don’t overlook the surface to find meaning, just focus on the surface 3. Oscar Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest (924) a. Absurd, unrealistic play, antirealism, satire, funny, witty b. Ridiculousness, absurdity, irony: a trivial comedy for serious people c. Pun: earnest/Ernest=becoming earnest (but not really) d. Critiques marriage plot, Victorian lifestyle and dandy e. Idle rich: self-mocking (job is smoking, eating, etc.) f. Aristocrats fritter away their wealth g. Critique marriage: Gwen and Cecily just met and want to get married, become friends immediately but then become caddy h. Women like to consume frivolously, plan out their lives in their heads and try to fit the men in i. Marriage as an institution needs to be taken down, but it is what aristocrats and Victorians value (irony) j. Algernon invents alternate identity—want to escape their life and obligations 4. Wilfred Owen, “Arms and the Boy” (1146) a. A boy is given weapons to play with like toys b. Indoctrinating children from a young age on how to be a man c. Implies there will be a hard awakening for this boy because no one will ever be tough enough to NOT be traumatized by war d. Owen suggests this boy will become an animal and so tough that this won’t effect him e. But people will always be effected by war f. Allusion to Virgil: sings about a warrior g. Boys experiences vs. the fictions by which the boy was raised h. Shows boys vulnerability and that boy’s body will never be an animal killing machine, but will always be human and vulnerable to tragedy i. Uncover old cliché about glory of war 5. Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est” (1147) a. Owen was considered a “war poet”, fought in WW1 b. Poem reflects on own experience as a soldier and his intimate point of view c. From perspective of a soldier d. Irony: image of soldier at war: not heroic and glorified, but bent double, coughing, going through sludge e. Sickness, disability, weakness, fear of war=the truth! f. Senses dulled by fatigue, get gassed, haunted by images of war g. Addresses the soldier with ptsd, can never forget what he saw h. Think about what it means to die for your country i. Allusion: idea of boy becoming a man through war---war is actually unmanly and depressing 6. W.B. Yeats, “The Second Coming” (1178) a. Modernist, interest in contacting spiritual world b. Spiritual wisdom and ideas shown c. Yeats saw history as composed of 2000 year cycles d. Alternation between Christian era and anti Christian era e. Series of “gyres” or inverted cones that eventually overlap f. As one cone forms, another cone overlaps (sets of values) g. Pagan vs. Christian cones intendecting h. Shows a gradual approach/2 coming: not of Jesus, but of something else where things fall apart i. Metaphor: falconer: shows social, political, moral stability and human control—but he lets the bird go and it flies in a gyer: shows anarchy of present in 1920 j. Political and social upheaval, waxing of anti Christian values and waning of Christian values k. “passionate intensity”: the worst activists are violent, passionate, havoc—don’t believe in their cause, just want to stir things up and agitate society l. “ceremony of innocence”: Christian ritual of celebrating Christ is unguided and done away with m. speaker becomes a “seer” or prophet of the future n. 2 ndcoming: judgment day usually, but different for Yeats o. birth of an anti Christian era=2 ndcoming of Yeats!! p. Allusion to sphinx slowly creeping across desert—can’t stop it from coming (like new anti Christian era) q. Violence is part of human nature; moral order is dropping—evil sneaking up on you 7. Katherine Mansfield, “Miss Brill” (Carmen) a. Modernist, shows social fragmentation b. Miss B. goes each Sunday to the park and believes she and the others are in a play where everyone is interacting and plays a part c. She eavesdrops and hears people making fun of her in her necklet d. Realizes she is wrong and she is really alone, socially fragmented e. Doesn’t stop to get her cake with almond (like a reflection of her boring, ordinary life) a piece of cake is her biggest thrill f. Emphasis on flights of fancy, but it leads to a lonely life for her g. Feels like an actress, but others don’t and she feels her life is bleak h. Distanced from her emotions i. Her and her fur: same life=taken out to have a good time, but then feels rejection and like she is still alone in the world, must return home to her box (dull life) j. Fragmented psyche: emphasis on compartmentalization of psyche: we get an intimate point of view of Miss B, but it is oppressive, sad and disturbing, unhappy 8. T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land (1317) a. Very difficult, modernist poem, but not difficult for no reason b. Supposed to represent a new type of art: Avant garde, rejection of realism and unified representation of the world c. Disorienting form and style (enjambment) d. Reality is experimental and subjective e. Poem consists of many pieces all put together, but don’t all connect f. Fragmentation of social life which is highly ordered, commercialized, repetitive g. Modern life: busy, multi-task, self-consumed, don’t notice what is going on around you because you are self-absorbed. h. Atomization and fragmentation of life/the psyche i. Distorted allusion to Chaucer and Canterbury tales j. Struggle between death and life of WW1 k. Land Is desolate, nothing can grow, draught l. Motif of water: is there hope for the wasteland? Rebirth coming? m. Several allusions to mythology, history, authors, etc. (Tiresias) n. Makes reader feel alienated (like modern people, typists, etc.) o. Attempts to find new way to show reality p. References Hinduism (a shift from Christianity) q. Speaker desperately acting through moral and social order to search for anything to give a spiritual answer 9. Virginia Woolf, from A Room of One’s Own 1203) a. Sees modernism as an opportunity to push for something new b. Not really “hopeful” but sees a new opportunity for women to speak c. Early ideas of feminism: rejects gender roles of angel in the house of the Victorian period d. Funny, ironic, light hearted e. Aims to kill the angel in the house ideas f. Interest in the thinking, feeling, point of view of woman g. Psycho-analysis, stream of consciousness h. Show how humans actually think i. Woolf tells of her experience speaking at a college and researching women and fiction j. All women need is time, money and a room of their own to be able to produce great writing…but they usually never get that k. Opportunity for Woolf to experiment with form: combines real experiences with fictional ones l. Life before the war: simple, happy, pleasant m. After the war: complex, modern, darkness, harder more deep feelings n. Did war kill romance? o. On the verge of WW2: fear, uncertainty, call stable truths into question p. Starts to think about literature and intelligence of women q. Women can be scholars too, but only men are recognized (like her story of Shakespeare’s supposed sister Judith who was just as intelligent and well-written but was never given the chance to show it) r. Different experiences at different colleges s. Separate spheres paradigm (women need a private space to be free, but they don’t have it) t. Woolf is at a museum researching women and fiction—women are stopped from being geniuses 10. W.H. Auden, “Musee des Beaux Arts” (1401) a. Museum of beautiful art in Brussels b. Speaker is a visitor to this museum c. Looks at works from the “old masters”: about suffering, understanding the human position—sees a place of human suffering d. People’s suffering takes place while others go about their normal lives and they never notice (allusion to Christ’s death) e. Focus on the mundane, ordinary while others go through trials f. Profound suffering is often unnoticed by others due to social fragmentation and atomization, and self-absorption g. Icarus: suffers, dies while others go about their normal lives (in the picture the speaker looks at: Icarus isn’t even a main figure even though its about his story) h. You barely notice Icarus is even there: reminiscent of society where people suffer, but goes unnoticed i. Poem is one long sentence (enjambment)—keeps your mind traveling like when you look at a painting: scan the whole thing over and over—reflects form of the poem: you brush over important things j. Fragmentation, social alienation, isolation (of the body and mind) 11. Ngugi wa Thiong’o, from Decolonizing the Mind (1456) a. Example of Post-Colonial Literature b. 20 century focus on decolonization: countries fight for the independence from the empires, want to be their own nation with own values c. often involves violence: trying to kick out old ideas d. colonization effects history: what we learn as far as culture, identity, language e. Ngugi talks of the children in Kenya who were forced to learn English f. The stories they heard all taught morals and lessons, how to be a hero g. Emphasis on the power of language and how it teaches how we see the world h. People were punished for not learning English i. Ethnic cultures want to tell their own stories of their own cultures and first the mind must be “decolonized” through language and experience j. Colonialism is about control of land, people, culture, minds, etc. 12. Nadine Gordimer, “The Moment before the Gun Went Off” (Carmen) a. Perspective of a Whit living in south Africa b. Apartheid, colonization c. Working to get rid of segregation laws d. How people interact with segregation e. Resistance to apartheid f. Element of realism in writing g. Political polarization h. Narrative defines history and references the symbols of a broader social and historical pattern: paranoia and psychology i. Discussion of racism j. Marias Van der Vyver: shot a laborer, said it was an accident k. White shot a black: vision in south Africa l. Brutality against farm workers m. Farmers duty to raise cattle, crops n. Riding in car with rifle, jolt sets the rifle off: Lucas was accidentally shot o. Van der vyver was of high political standing, but still had to testify the shooting was an accident p. Blacks have more rights now: ban der vyver has heightened security because of this, fear of infiltrators q. Many attended the black’s funeral r. Many were effected by his death s. Son was killed t. Gordimer connects two races as victims of injustice of apartheid u. Marias shows interest in the black boy/Lucas: victim of a freak accident, negligence v. Apartheid has become something that mentally segregates and prejudges. White community won’t accept discrimination w. Moment before: there was a connection of a black and a white: father and son: the moment before is how life should be lived-not the moment after 13. Kazuo Ishiguro, Never Let Me Go a. Themes of insularity, being cut off b. Emotional value of exchanges c. Rumors, don’t know the truth about a lot of things d. Dystopia: imaginary world where one aspect is horrible (i.e. clones giving up their organs) e. Bildungsroman and dystopian genres combined f. Kathy’s P.O.V.: wants to tell her story, accepting of her fate, not mad g. Ruth: upset, questioning, thinks they are modeled from trash h. Motif of trash/rubbish: their collections, the clones themselves, treated like cast-off items with no value i. Cottages give them more freedom, but they can’t really go anywhere or do anything: trapped in an inevitably desolate world with no bright future (like trash) j. Cannot deviate from their set path: school-cottages-carer-donor k. Kathy tells the story: to make her experience known, to know that the clones are people with feelings l. Euphemisms: “complete” =death, “carer” =help the clones donate, like a nurse, “donor” =not donating, but forced to give up organs m. Imprisoning the mind: taught from birth what their purpose is n. Kath dwells on the past and makes it a big deal: but still placidly accepts her fate like the others o. Life is about memories p. Reliable narrator: q. Allusion to Frankenstein VOCABULARY TERMS A. Definition of term and important things about context B. Associated Text/Author/time period/etc. 1. Dandy a. An upper-class, Victorian man who takes a lot of pride in his appearance, focus on looks and often portrays feminine characteristics and sexuality, often accused of being homosexual. Idea during this time was that men/women should cultivate their appearance to be desirable b. Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest---Algernon is considered a “Dandy” 2. Art for art’s sake a. The idea that art should not have to take on a moral appearance, be didactic, or teach any sort of moral or social lesson. It is just meant to be looked at and be beautiful, pleasurable, aesthetically pleasing. Art should not be judged by it’s morality, but by its beauty. Resists “realism” because it is ugly and it is supposed to teach something b. Associated with Wilde, “Picture of Dorian Gray” and the Aesthetes (late Victorian ideas about art and beauty—how art should be judged). The painter of Dorian Gray is attracted to Dorian. 3. Philistine a. Someone (a Victorian) who is ignorant about or indifferent to art/beauty/high culture. They are unappreciative, average, middle class, crass and materialistic. This is a critique of Victorians saying they are condescending and not everyone can understand and appreciate art b. Wilde, preface to “Picture of Dorian Gray” 4. Satire a. Similar to Irony/comedy where you make fun of something without outright saying it. A literary/artistic mode or style in which a subject is represented contemptuously and critically through humor. Usually some aspect of human nature, society or culture is criticized and there is a desire to shine a light on this foolishness through humor. Points out institutions by making them seem ridiculous. b. Wilde, Importance of Being Earnest: the idle rich/aristocrats don’t work and escape responsibility to have fun (Cecily, Algernon, Jack, etc.). they claim things like it’s very hard and tiring to do nothing, that their occupation is smoking or eating muffins 5. Marriage Plot a. Typical “Rom-com” plot: there’s a couple, go through conflicts and hardships, end up together. A literary plot that revolves around the plot of marriage of 2 characters through their courtship. Entails trials, reversals, problems they must pass, plot culminates in marriage. To get to true love and happy ending, must go through obstacles. b. Wilde, Importance of Being Earnest: Wilde makes the marriage plot absurd. Cecily and Gwendolyn want to marry men they just met, they record “pretend” trials in the diary. Story makes fun of the romantic comedy and targets females. They pattern their life how they want to be then fit the men into it. Offers a gender critique as well. Play satirizes the marriage plot and makes jabs against marriage (i.e. homosexuality) 6. Labonchere Amendment a. 1885: law that prohibited gay sex and homosexuality/male sodomy. b. Wilde, “Trial”: Wilde fell in love with a man (Douglas) who’s dad got wind of it and did not approve. He went to Wilde’s hotel and put a note calling wilde a “sodomite” but put “somdomite”--- resulted in 3 trials. Wilde sues Douglas’ father for the misprint and for calling him gay (even though wilde was gay). He took Douglas’ father to court, but trial ruled that Wilde was Gay. Wilde lost the suit and was brought up on criminal pursuit of being gay. Wilde sues and results in hum jury (can’t decide). He was convicted later and spend 2 years in prison. 7. Irony a. Depicting the opposite of what you would expect. Verbal irony = sarcasm, situational irony = get the opposite. b. Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est”: ironic image of the soldier at war bend double like old beggars, coughing going through sludge, not the historic, glorifying experience people expect. c. Wilde, Importance of being Earnest: Marriage is awful, but it is also what Victorians strived for and valued 8. Allusion a. An element of modernism, when a text references a historical moment or another text, mythology, the Bible that creates meaning (different than allegory which lasts the whole story) b. Never Let me Go: involves some similar elements reminiscent of Frankenstein (scientist, all secluded, experiment with human limits, ethics) c. Waste Land: full of allusions, “April is the Cruelest Month”- allusion to beginning Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales which shows spring as joyous. Tiresias alluded to also 9. Tiresias a. A Blind Prophet in mythology, hovers over the working class/modern girl who lives alone, spent time as both a man and woman. From Homer’s Odyssey. Awaits the guests. b. Wilde, The Waste Land: Part 3, the fire sermon, story of the woman typist coming home from work at the end of the day and Tiresias is waiting for her. He’s a hovering presence who watches the woman, opposite of the angel in the house—sees the dual perspective of the woman and her male guest 10. Stream of Consciousness a. A type of literary style that gets inside the individuals point of view to capture their memories, thoughts, random associations right at the moment they occur and in the order in which they occur. Circular thoughts b. Virginia Woolf, A Room of One’s Own: said if she had an ashtray and didn’t look out the window she wouldn’t have seen the cat. Something lacks from the conversation now that she is thinking about other random things: has a thought, thought changes, try to trace back to how you got that thought. Shows psychological awareness and shows a fragmented, unstable view of the self (influence and research of Freud and the unconscious). This is a tapping into the unconscious and seeing how it works: fragmented psyche. Modernism aspect, mimics the way the mind actually thinks vs. a linear narrative 11. Icarus a. Son of an inventory, Daedalus. Imprisoned in a labyrinth by a king that Daedalus made angry. Daedalus was an inventor so he crafted wings of wax and feathers so they could fly away and escape, but Icarus flew too close to the sun and the wings melted and he fell (into the ocean in some cases). b. W.H. Auden, “Musee des Beaux Arts”: poem imagines the fall of Icarus as the viewer sees Breughel’s painting of “Landscape with fall of Icarus”. An ekphrastic poem about a painting. Speaker notices that while Icarus is falling and drowning, everyone is self- occupied and just going about their business and no one seems to notice someone else is going through pain. Highlights the atomization, social fragmentation, and disillusionment of society. Icarus’s death seems irrelevant and people hardly notice: we have subjectivity as the spectator of a work of art, modernist point of view 12. End-stopped line a. A poetic term where a line of poetry ends with a conclusive mark of punctuation (. ; , ? !). functions like a period, but any line that ends in punctuation b. Auden? 13. Enjambment a. Line of poetry that does not end with any punctuation, but the thought continues onto the next line. (opposite of end stopped line) b. W.H. Auden, “Musee des beaux arts”: author wants your mind to travel on like when looking at a painting and just look right past Icarus. Implied continuity, non-interruption, flowing form. No one stops what they are doing when Icarus falls, viewer just skims over his legs in the painting 14. Post-Colonial Literature a. A work of literature by someone who lived in a former European colony and colonization now effects the present, the past lingers in their thoughts as an after effect of colonialism. “Post”=after colonialism ended. A reaction to the commentary on colonialism and its effects on the past, present, and future. Things start to fall apart, effected by history, language, culture, etc. b. Ngugi, “Decolonizing the Mind”: noticed how children in Kenya were forced to speak and learn English which “colonized the mind” and it effects their world view. The mind is imprisoned by colonial ideas and can use language as part of the colonial experience. We develop our values through language and stories 15. Worldview a. A set of beliefs, truths, values held by a group of people of your as an individual or you as part of a group. American’s worldview vs. other cultures. Overall collection of thoughts on how life and reality works, shaped by language, stories and language you speak b. Ngugi, “Decolonizing the Mind”: children in Kenya grew up with an American worldview due to what they were forced to learn 16. Apartheid a. In South Africa, the oppression of people of color. Similar to segregation, but more extreme. Military consequences for violation and segregation is very serious. Segregation lasted from 1948 to 1990s while decolonization continued. Took a long time to get rid of the Jim Crowe (separate but equal) laws. A strict segregation of races b. “Moment before the gun went off”: the perspective of a white in south Africa and how they interact with segregation 17. Bildungsroman a. A coming of age story, revolving around education and what you learn in school and about life. “roman” means a novel. Involves rights of passage to adulthood and it’s a transitional period between real life and world you live in (how an individual reacts with society) b. Ishiguro, Never Let me Go: 1 part of the novel takes place at a school, genres are highly mixed in this story, part at cottages like college, how the individual meets society, forced into a role that is chosen for her—cannot deviate from that path 18. Motif a. Recurring image or event related to a theme b. Never Let me go: trash, rubbish, fences, frames, imprisonment, etc. images of these recur and become symbols for other things (like trash being the symbol of the clone’s life—means nothing, useless). Motifs are distorted 19. Dystopia a. An imaginary, fictional place that is very pad and would be awful to live in for some prominent social/political/technological reasons. The opposite of “utopia” or fictional perfect place (less interesting). Combines with bildungsroman and science fiction to create a social, intellectual maturity in protagonist, rumors, no one knows what is going on at times—neglected, exploited people suffer. World is crumbling, one crucial thing about society is twisted and awful b. Never Let me Go: clones that must donate their organs: only an illusion of good society 20. Euphemism a. Sugar-coating or misleading terms with positive connotations and giving them negative meanings. A code for a negative word b. Never Let Me Go: complete=death, carer=not a caring person, donor=but they are forced to give organs, “hailsham”=fake calling, “guardian” parent like who guard and teach students, possible=person who kids may be modeled on
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