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ANSC 1000 Lab Final

by: Hannah B.

ANSC 1000 Lab Final ANSC 1000

Hannah B.
GPA 3.5

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Dr. Huntington, Auburn University ANSC 1000 Lab Final Study Guide
Introduction to Animal Sciences
Dr. Carolyn Huntington
Study Guide
Auburn University, ANSC, ansc1000, Huntington, lab, animal, Animal Science
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah B. on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Carolyn Huntington in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Sciences in Animal Science and Zoology at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
ANSC 1000 LAB FINAL Dairy Lab Presentation Dairy Production -highly specialized -production, processing, and distribution -requires more technical skill than other livestock enterprises -total U.S. milk production continues to increase -number of dairy herds has been decreasing -average herd size has been increasing -total number of dairy cows in U.S. decreasing -milk production per cow increasing -result of good breeding, feeding, health, and management -standard for reporting milk production -305-day 2X ME is official length for reporting -2X = twice daily milking; 12 hour intervals -ME = Mature Equivalent adjustment -mature = 5 to 8 years of age the month lactation begins -yearly milk production (305-day 2X ME) -family dairy = 16k to 18k lbs -corporate dairy = 27k to 29k lbs -AU CVM dairy herd = ~22k lbs -average world production = 5,165 lbs Dairy Industry -top three number of cattle countries: India, Brazil, China -top three milk production countries: United States, India, China -top three number of cattle states: California, Wisconsin, New York Parts Identification Page 1 of 13 Evaluating Specific Dairy Character -head (least important part of conformation): want a clean, feminine, refined head proportional to body; feminine head and neck often lead to better reproduction -neck: long, lean, and blending smoothly into the shoulders; clean-cut throat and trim dewlap -shoulders: shoulder top should come to a peak; blades set tightly and smoothly against body -heart girth (very important): want large with well sprung fore-ribs blending into the shoulders and a deep, wide chest floor -barrel and underline: should be long and deep; ribs highly and widely sprung -hips to pins and thurl: must have a lot of room for reproduction -soundness (feet and legs): long, strong, flat bones -udder: evaluate capacity, attachment, teat size shape and placement, and balance; teats should be equally spaced, 2-3 in. long, smooth, and level hanging Breed Comparison NO -Holstein-Friesian -color: black and white or red and white -both horned and polled -mature weight: 1500 lb. (cows) -origin: Holland and NW Germany -average production: 19,100 lb. milk, 3.6% Butterfat -comments: large and rugged; primary U.S. breed (70% population); out produce others in total pounds of milk -Jersey -color: brown, tan, with or without white markings -both horned and polled -mature weight: 1000 lb. (cows) -origin: Isle of Jersey (England) -average production: 13,400 lb. milk, 4.7% Butterfat (highest percent of all breeds) -comments: second most popular; feed efficient; calves are small and delicate -Ayrshire: -color: light to deep cherry red or mahogany with white; normally have dark eyes and muzzle -both horned and polled (horns characteristically turn up) -mature body weight: 1200 lb. (cows) -origin: Scotland -average production: 14,400 lb. milk, 3.9% Butterfat -climate: northern temperate; can tolerate extremes in climates -not popular because: 1. nervous disposition 2. low milk production 3. low milk solids content Page 2 of 13 -Brown Swiss: -color: solid brown varying from light to dark; black muzzle -both horned and polled -mature weight: 1400 lb. (cows) -origin: Switzerland -average production; 16,000 lb. milk, 4.0% Butterfat -comments: hardy; heavy boned; thick; dual purpose in Europe; one of the oldest breeds; do well in cool and warm climates -Guernsey -color: shades of brown with white (sometimes reddish); lighter around eyes and muzzle -both horned and polled -mature weight: 1100 lb. (cows) -origin: Channel Islands (Isle of Guernsey) -average production: 13,400 lb. milk, 4.5% Butterfat -comments: yellow color to milk due to high fat content; characteristic leg problems Identification -necessary for proper record keeping -ear tags (most widely used) -easy to attach and read; match electronic ID number -hide brands: freeze branding and hot iron -neck chains (most common temporary use) -tattoos (most purebred registries require) Dairy Herd Improvement Assoc. (DHIA) -national, industry-wide dairy production, testing, and management record-keeping system -primary means by which genetic improvement is made in dairy cattle in the U.S. Breeding Terminology -calving interval: period of time from one calf to the next; ~13 months -freemartin: sterile female born twin to bull calf -gestation length: ~280 days -lactation period: length of time cow is producing milk; from calving until dry -predicted transmitting ability (PTA): estimate of genetic superiority (or inferiority) that an animal will transmit to offspring compared to herd mates Selection of Dairy Cows -average productive life is short = 3 to 4 years -normal herd turnover is about 30% -primary reasons for culling: reproductive failure, low milk yield, udder breakdown, foot and leg weakness, mastitis Breeding Dairy Cattle -cows checked for estrus twice daily -heifers large enough to breed at ~15 months -when in estrus, dairy cows may show: restlessness, enlarged vulvas, temporary decline in milk production, may permit other cows to mount them -A.I. 80-90% using superior sire semen -dairy bulls are often dangerous; use caution -inseminate while cow is standing in stall or stanchion ~12 hours after estrus detected -semen deposited in body of uterus -most dairy cattle are straightbred -milk production controlled by many genes (difficult to manipulate) & influenced by environment Page 3 of 13 Calving Operations -separate those ready to calve from herd —> place in clean maternity stall —> wipe calve dry as soon as it arrives —> remove membranes covering nostrils or mouth —> dip navel with iodine to deter infection —> ensure calves receive colostrum -calves should be immediately identified with ear tattoo, ear tag, photographed (if registered) -dehorn between 1 and 4 weeks of age -removing supernumerary teats (no value and may interfere with milking) -calves are fed by hand from birth until one week after wean -many producers remove bull calves —> fed for veal or beef -heifers grown, bred, and milked for one lactation period to evaluate production Housing Systems -stall barns -cows can be observed more frequently -loose housing -group basis, less intensive Nutritional Needs -vary widely during production cycle -water and energy two most limiting nutrients -total mixed ration (TMR) -blending all feedstuffs to meet energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin requirements -aim for about 45-60 day dry period prior to calving -needs fewer concentrates so cow doesn't become fat Body Condition Score (1 to 5) -underconditioned cows = heath problems -overconditioned cows = calving problems -evaluate rump, tailhead, and loin area Page 4 of 13 Health Related Problems -fatty liver syndrome (alert downer cows): liver fills with fat and is unable to function -ketosis: increased concentration of FFAs and ketones in blood, milk, and urine -displaced abomasum (twisted stomach) -milk fever: rapid drain of Ca to milk -dystocia -twinning -retained placenta -udder edema Controlling Diseases -dairy and beef cattle afflicted by same diseases, but some can be transmitted through milk -mastitis (most troublesome disease in dairy) -inflammation and infection of mammory gland Milk Production -more than 90% of world’s supply from dairy cows -buffalo goats, sheep also contribute Milk Composition -about 88% water and 12% solids -solids are about 3-4% fat (vitamins), 3.3% protein (mainly casein), 4.8% carbohydrate (lactose), less than 1% minerals (Ca and P) Nutritive Value of Milk -significant contribution to nation’s supply of nutrients -low in iron -osteoporosis (loss of bone mass) with aging —> milk is important for this population Horse Lab Presentation Horse Industry -top three horse countries: United States, China, Brazil -top three donkey and mule countries: China, Ethiopia, Mexico -top three horse states: Texas, California, Florida Breed Identification -American Quarter Horse -origin: first U.S. developed breed -distinguishing characteristics: -short, broad heads with large jaws and small ears -extreme muscular development -two types —> stock and thoroughbred -most popular breed in the U.S. -size: 14.2 to 15.2 hands; 1000 to 1250 lbs -strong points: -docile (good disposition) and tractable -muscular and rugged; agile and quick -cow sense -weak points: -some animals are short-strided -show ring standards have led to feet and leg problems -uses: stock horse, short-distance racing, pleasure riding Page 5 of 13 -American Saddlebred -origin: Kentucky and Missouri -distinguishing characteristics: -long, graceful, arched necks; “high heads” -level topline (back & loin); high tail set -much quality and refinement -size: 15 to 16 hands; 1000 to 1150 lbs. -strong points: -sloping shoulders, short backs -excellent gaits -weak points: -some are fine boned -uses: showing under saddle at gaits, fine harness show horses, pleasure riding -Appaloosa -origin: developed by Nez Perce Indians in the Palouse River Valley of NW Idaho, SE Washington, and NE Oregon -distinguishing characteristics: -color patter: blankets, leopard -white sclera of eye -striped hooves -mottled skin (muzzle and genetalia) -size: similar to quarter horse -strong points: -endurance and agility -rugged and adaptable to rough terrain -sound feet -weak points: -color pattern will not breed true -reputation for stubbornness -“rat-tailed” condition -uses: stock horse, pleasure riding, showing, racing -Arabian -origin: desert county of Arabia; oldest breed of horse -distinguishing characteristics: -“dished” head (concave profile) -high head carriage, long arched neck -short back, level topline, high tail carriage -size: 14 to 15.2 hands; 800 to 1000 lbs. -strong points: -appealing heads; long necks -strong backs -unsurpassed as an endurance horse -weak points: -small size -combined immunodeficiency (CID) gene -uses: pleasure riding, showing, endurance and competitive trail riding, racing -comment: only 5 lumbar vertebrae instead of 6 -studies have shown that only 30% of Arabians have one less vertebrae and that is not much different from the general horse population Page 6 of 13 -Morgan -origin: New England States; foundation sire is “Justin Morgan” -distinguishing characteristics: -long, sloping (“well laid back”) shoulder -high, upright head carriage -level topline, short back -dark liver and black chestnut colors are common -size: 14.1 to 15.1 hands, 1000 to 1200 lbs. -strong points: -docile dispositions -rugged with goof agility and endurance -weak points: -small size -uses: showing, pleasure riding, endurance and competitive trail riding -Standardbred -origin: strictly an american creation -foundation breeding: thoroughbred, some morgan, and other -distinguishing characteristics: -shorter, heavier boned, and courser than thoroughbreds -no clear breed type, selection based on speed -size: 14.2 to 16.2 hands, 850 to 1200 lbs. -strong points: -strong, sound feet and legs -race under harness at either a trot of pace -trot: two-beat diagonal gait -pace: two-beat lateral gait -calmer dispositions than thoroughbreds -weak points: -plain heads and necks -pacers do not make athletic riding horses -uses: harness racing, amish buggy horses, shown as “roadsters” -Tennessee Walking Horse -origin: Tennesse -distinguishing characteristics: -natural overstride of hind feet -ability to do running walk -more rugged, heavier muscled, coarser American Saddlebred -sickle hocks are common -size: 15 to 16 hands, 1000 to 1200 lbs. -strong points: -fast moving, comfortable gaits -good disposition -weak points: -some tend to be coarse headed -soring controversy -uses: pleasure rinding, showing at walk, running walk and canter, field trials Page 7 of 13 -Thoroughbred -origin: England and further developed in the US -distinguishing characteristics -body is long, deep chested -somewhat leggy -size: 15 to 17 hands, 1000 lb (racing) to 1450 lb (breeding) -strong points: -deep heart girth -heart (desire to win) -speed and athletic ability -weak points: -nervous, high-strung temperament -some are light boned -uses: racing, hunters and jumpers, polo -Paint and Pinto -origin: from the Spaniards via Mexico -distinguishing characteristics: -two basic color patterns; does not breed true -overo: white does not cross back -tobiano: white crosses back between withers and tailhead -comments: -most paints are practically purebred quarter (same size, strength, weaknesses) -Palomino -origin: United States -distinguishing characteristics: -body color -strong points: -same as breed of origin -weak points: -same as breed of origin -uses: show horse, parade Parts and Positions of the Horse Page 8 of 13 Aging Teeth -parrot mouth: upper jaw is longer than lower jaw (overshot) -monkey mouth: lower jaw is longer than upper jaw (undershot) -full mouth: all permanent teeth; 5 years Page 9 of 13 Galvayne’s Groove -9 to 10 years: groove appears at gum margin (a) -15 years: groove is halfway down labial surface of incisor (b) -20 years: groove extends entire length of labial surface of incisor (c) -25 years: groove disappears from upper 1/2 of tooth -30 years: groove disappears completely Digestive Tract -hind-gut fermenters -forage-based diets of grasses and legumes -concentrate mixture containing grains, protein supplements, vitamins, and minerals -food spends about 15 minuted in the stomach -60% to 70% of protein and soluble carbs digested in small intestine -80% of fiber digested in cecum and colon -bacteria in cecum aid digestion Colic -devastating digestive disorder -caused by abrupt changes in diet, feeding schedule exercise regime, or housing -pain due to gas distension, decreased gut mobility, parasitic infection, twisted gut, etc. -exhibit pawing, pacing, rolling -most cases mild, some require surgery Founder -rotation of the coffin bone in the hoof -often incorrectly used with laminitis (disease of laminae of the foot) -front feet more often than rears -can be an acute or chronic condition -many causes: CHO overload, hard ground, lush pastures, colic, lameness -no treatment; corrective shoeing can help Body Condition Score -more horses are overfed than underfed -range of BCS from 1 (emaciated) to 9 (obese) in horses -stalling places more emphasis on good feed than if running on good pasture Breeding Season -mares teased daily by stallion to determine stage of estrous cycle -mare squats and urinates is in estrus, reacts violently if not -wash vulva and wrap tail before breeding -breed mare ~2 days after heat, every other day -stallions stand 2X day for short period of time -gestation length: about 335 days or 11.5 months -foal born nose and forelimbs first -placenta should be shed within first four to six hours, fed colostrum wishing 2 to 3 hours -average birth weight of foal = 100 to 120 lb -age of foal at weaning: 4 to 6 months -weaning weight: 400 to 600 lbs. Restlessness -stall-walk, pawing, sweating, may roll, looking back at her flanks, pace fences line, isolation, lay down frequently, carry tail high, vulva very distended and related Page 1 0 of 3 Controlling Disease and Parasites -west nile virus: transmitted by mosquito or bird -tetanus: injury which allows microorganisms to invade through skin -rhinopneumonitis: causes abortion -equine encephalitis (sleeping sickness: viral infection of brain -distemper (strangles): bacterial disease in upper respiratory tract -rotational dewormers Methods of Identification -tattoo inside upper lip (raceorses), freeze brand (liquid nitrogen), hot-iron brand, electronic implants Good Body Conformation -head: proportional to rest of body and blend in well to the neck; small ears set close and usually erect; bright eyes wide apart -neck: medium length, slightly arched; relatively thin -shoulder: 45 degree slope -too steep: short, choppy stride -chest: distinct inverted V between front legs, well muscled, medium-wide -back and barrel: prominent withers that are high, muscular, well finished at the top and extend well into the back -rear quarters: long hip and croup; broad, full, well muscled stifles -feet and legs: diagrams above Meat Lab Presentation Beef Overall Information -average dressing percent of cattle: 58% to 62% -expected yield of retail cuts: 55% to 75% Beef - Carcass Grades -know grades for young animals (up to 42 mo.): prime, choice, select, standard <— high quality -know grades for older animals (after 42 mo.): commercial, utiity, cutter <— lower quality -know the sex classes for beef: steer (male castrated before sexual maturity), heifer (has not had a calf or matured), cow, bull, stag (male castrated after sexual maturity) -how is the sex of a carcass determined? by looking at the fat in what is known as the cod or scrotal region (steers) or the udder region (heifers) -quality grade is based on maturity and marbling Beef - Yield Grade -measure amounts of fat, lean, and bone in the carcass -based on 4 wholesale cuts: round, loin, rib, and chuck -yield grades are determined based on: -amount of fat measured 0.10 in. over the rib-eye muscle -kidney, pelvic, and heart fat -area of rib-eye muscle in sq. in. -hot carcass weight -a preliminary yield grade can be determined by estimating or measuring the outside fat of the rib-eye muscle (12th rib fat thickness) -adjust the PYG by 0.3 for every square inch change in ribeye from the size given for a particular carcass weight Page 1 1 of 3 Swine Overall Information -average dressing percent of hogs: 70% to 74% -yield of retail cuts: 66% to 80% Swine - Carcass Grades -quality grades: acceptable and unacceptable -determined by quality of lean meat and yield Swine- Yield Grade -yield grades determined by thickness of backfat and degree of muscling -US No. 1; US No. 2; US No. 3; US No. 4; US Utility -thick —> thin -US Grade = (4 x last rib BF) - (muscle score) -muscle score: 1 = thin; 2 = avg; 3 = thick -four lean cuts: ham, loin, picnic shoulder, boston butt -loin eye area is the large muscle in the pigs back that makes up the meat of a pork chop Page 1 2 of 3 Arithmetic Measures of Reproductive Efficiency Percent Calf Crop: (calves weaned/calves exposed) x 100 Pregnancy Rate: (cows pregnant/cows exposed) x 100 Calving Interval (interval 1 (in days) + interval 2 (in days))/number of intervals Other important records or information frequently obtained -birth weight -age at first calving -calving difficulty (dystocia) -milking ability of dam Measures of Growth Rate and Efficiency Average Daily Gain (ADG): (final weight-initial weight)/days between weight Feed Conversion (F/G): lb. consumed/lb. gained Measures of Standardized Growth Rate Adjusted Weaning Weight (AWW): 205-day AWW = ((WW-birth wt)/age in days) x 205 + birth wt Weaning Weight Ratio: (AWW of a heifer/AWW of all heifers) x 100 Yearling Weight (365-day weight): ((wt close to 365 days - actual weaning wt)/days since weighing) x 160 + 205 day AWW Yearling Weight Ratio: (adj. 365-day weight/AYW of all contemporary animals) x 100 Weight Per Day of Age: actual weight/actual age in days Measures of Carcass Traits Dressing Percent: (hot carcass wt/live slaughter wt) x 100 Shrinkage: ((hot carcass wt-chilled carcass wt)/hot carcass wt) x 100 Carcass Value: live value of animal per 100 lb/dressing percent Page 1 3 of 3


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