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Final Exam Review

by: Veronica Morgan

Final Exam Review NTDT 10003

Veronica Morgan
GPA 3.7

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Notes over the final exam!! Includes every single thing you need to know.
Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Dr. Dority
Study Guide
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Dority in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
Nutrition Exam Review What is the scientific method and what are the steps involved? What are the different types of research studies discussed in class, including pros/cons. Be able to identify examples. Know the definitions that pertain to experimental studies (ex. control group, randomized, etc). Scientific Method – how to get from a question to an answer - Observation and question - Hypothesis = unproven statement that tentatively explains relationships between 2 or more variables - Conduct research to collect data - Results and interpretations - Develop a theory = a tentative explanation that integrates many different findings to further understand and define topic Observational study - Epidemiological / observational study = study a disease as it occurs in the population - Correlation = may suggest cause and effect but does not prove - Lets you have a huge research group - Can lead to false reporting and can lead to missing other factors - Cant prove something exists - Can make research less labor intensive - Cant control variables Intervention Study - Experimental = cause and effect - Change conditions and measure results - Can establish cause and effect - Many controls to worry about - Problems with money and ethical issues - Can be hard to study want you want to ex can’t try and give someone heart disease - Cant apply from test tubes to human beings Human intervention / clinical trials - Can control - Cant apply to all humans - Ethics Definitions - Randomization = process of choosing members of the experimental and control groups without bias - Experimental group = group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the control group except receive real treatment - Control group = group that doesn’t receive treatment - Blind experiment = subjects don’t know which group they’re in - Double blind experiment = neither researches or groups know which group is which Nutrients  Name all 6  Which produce energy and which do not? If they do not produce energy, what do they do?  What are essential nutrients? Be able to calculate calories and % of calories from carbohydrates, fats, protein, and alcohol. Nutrition = study of foods, nutrients, chemical components, actions, and interaction in body and influence on health - Nutrients = substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, repair, and maintenance - Carbohydrates – 4C/g - Fats – 9C/g - Protein – 4C/g - Alcohol 7C/g - Vitamins - Minerals - Water - Essential nutrients = body cannot make these nutrients so obtain from food - Water soluble vitamins B, C - Fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K - Vitamins and minerals regulate the release of energy and metabolism Malnutrition: what is the definition? Be able to recognize examples. - Malnutrition = any conditions caused by an excess deficiency or imbalance of calories or nutrients - Over nutrition = calorie or nutrient overconsumption sever enough to risk disease - Degenerative disease = chronic disease characterized by deterioration of body organs from misuse or neglect ex smoking, stress, unhealthy eating What is hunger vs. appetite? - Hunger = psychological need for food - Appetite = psychological desire to eat even when not hungry What are the reasons we make the food choices that we do? Food choices based on taste, availability, income, convenience, personal value, religion, advertising, positive associations, psychological needs, food prices, media - Social group = group people, family who depend on one anther and share set of norms, behaviors, beliefs, and values - Culture = knowledge, belief, customs, laws, morals, art, literature acquired by members of society and passed along - Ethnic foods – food eaten by a culture Religion and Food -buddhist = dietary customs vary depending on sect. many are lacto-ovovegetarians, because of restrictions on taking a life. Some eat fish and most eat no beef or poultry. Monks fast at certain times of the month and avoid eating solid food after the noon hour. - hindu = all foods though to interfere with physical and spiritual development are avoided. Many are lacto-vegetarians and or avoid alcohol. The cow is considered sacred and never eaten and pork is avoided. -jewish = kashrut is the body of Jewish law dealing with food. Kosher denotes all foods that are permitted for consumption. Lengthily list of prohibited food such as pork and shellfish. Laws define birds and mammals and how they’re slaughtered, how foods are prepared, and when they are consumed. -mormon = alcoholic beverages and coffee and tea and caffeine should be avoided. Morons are encouraged to limit meat intake and emphasize grains in the diet. They fast on the first Sunday of every month -muslim = overeating is discouraged and consuming only 2/3 capacity is suggested. Dietary laws are called halal. Prohibited foods are called haram and they include pork and birds of prey. Laws define how animals must be slaughtered. No alcohol and fasting during Ramadan -roman catholic = meat is consumed on Fridays during lent. No food or beverages consumed one hour before communion -seventh day Adventist = most are lacto-ovovegetarians. If meat is consumed, pork is avoided. Tea, coffee, and alcoholic beverages are not allowed. Water is not consumed with meals, but is drunk before and after meals. Followers refrain from using seasonings and condiments. Overeating and snacking are discouraged. Dietary planning principles 1. Adequacy – to provide enough essential nutrients fiber and energy 2. Balance- to avoid overemphasis on any food type or nutrient at the expense of another 3. Calorie control – to supply the amount of energy you need to maintain a healthy weight 4. Moderation – to avoid excess amounts of unwanted constituents such as solid fats and added sugar 5. Nutrient density – to create a healthy eating pattern that meets nutrient needs and stays within calorie limits 6. Variety – to incorporate a wide selection of different foods from within and among the different food groups rather than eating the same foods day after day Nutrient density -DRI = dietary reference intake: daily nutrient standards, set by NAS 1. estimates energy and nutrients of healthy people 2. design for different groups of people 3. apply to average daily intakes -RDA = recommended dietary allowance 1. cover 97%-98% of healthy people of age and gender -EAR = estimated average requirements: amount of nutrient recommended to meet the requirements for a nutrient for half of the people of special age group 1. use EAR to set RDA 2. if not sufficient scientific evidence to set EAR, AI is provided -AI = adequate intake 1. based on best estimate of need for nutrient 2. exceeds EAR and possibly RDA 3. Individuals may use both the RDA or AI as goals for nutrient intake -UL = tolerable upper intake level 1. max intake to prevent adverse effect 2. not recommended intake There are no established benefits from consuming amounts of a nutrient that exceed the RDA or AI for healthy individuals DRI for energy nutrients - Protein 10%-35% - Carbs 45%-64% - Fats 10%-35% - 1 hour of moderately intense physical activity each day - 20 to 30 minutes 4 to 7 days a week in a high intensity activity Dietary guidelines = published every five years by HHS and USDA 1. Follow a healthy eating pattern across lifespan 2. Focus on variety, nutrient density, amount 3. Limit calories from added sugars, saturated foods, sodium 4. Shift to healthier food and beverage 5. Support healthy eating patterns for all My Diet - Use to build healthy diet - Diet with mainly nutrient-dense foods may leave a discretionary calorie allowance - Food Label - Nutrition labeling and education act of 1990 - Must include: name of food, name of manufacturer, quantity, ingredient list, nutrition facts panel - Ingredients list - Net quantity (how much food in container) - Nutrition facts panel – FDA sets serving size - Recommendations for vitamins/minerals represent highest of all DRI values to ensure virtually everyone is covered - Mandaroty = calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbs, fiber, sugars, protein, vitamins A and C, calcium - Don’t have to put a food label if package is less than 12 inches, if its fresh food, if its made in store and sold there - Based on 2000 calorie diet - Takes highest amount of nutrients recommended for a person - If add extra vitamins or minerals they can make a statement on the front of the package Nutrient claims = claims used on food labels to help consumers get an idea of a foods nutritional profile Health claims= statement linked to the nutritional profile of a food to reduce risk of a particular disease, allowed to imply only that the food may or might reduce the risk of disease - Strict government guidelines Allowed to imply only that the food “may” or “might” reduce risk of disease Structure Function Claims: – Claims made without FDA approval – Cannot make statements about diseases or symptoms Table 2.7 1. Less, fewer, reduced = serving provides 25% fewer nutrition than a comparable foo 2. Light, lite = serving provides one third fewer calories than the comparison food or 50% less fat or sodium 3. Low calorie = no more than 40 calorie per serving 4. High fiber = 5g or more per serving 5. Fat-free = less than .5g fat per serving 6. Low-fat = less than 3 g fats per serving 7. Low in sodium -140mg sodium or less/ serving Table 2.8 1. Calcium/ vitamin D – adequate intake may reduce osteoporosis 2. Total fat – a diet low in fat may reduce cancer 3. Sodium – low sodium may reduce blood pressure 4. Saturated fat, cholesterol, trans fat – a low intake may reduce risk of disease 5. Sugar alcohols – low intake may reduce risk of tooth decay Some proposed changes to food label - Adding added sugars Kwashiorkor -Caused by inadequate protein in the presence of adequate food energy -All growth ceases -Skin & hair lose color -Edema in belly & legs Dysentery depletes nutrients - Still have body fat stores so can last longer - Body cant absorb nutrients Marasmus: -Energy deficiency disease (starvation) -Muscles wasted (including heart) -Low body temperature -Little body fat -Impaired brain development - Very small recovery because brain development and no calorie stores Strategies to address malnutrition  Dietary diversification: expand production, processing, marketing, and consumption of a wide variety of foods  Fortification: utilize widely accessible, commonly consumed foods to deliver one or more micronutrients – Biofortification: plant breeding for the specific purpose of enhancing the nutrition properties of crop varieties  Supplementation: nutrients are delivered directly by means of syrup or pills Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates composed of? Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen  Compounds made of single sugars or multiple sugars What are the two categories of CHO?   Simple and complex  Simple  naturally occurring sugars in fruit, milk, added sugars (honey, corn syrup and table sugar)  Complex   starch and fiber What are monosaccharides?  Name and describe the 3 monosaccharides discussed in class?   Single sugars Glucose = building block of CHO Fructose = found in fruits and honey, sweet  Galactose = seldom occurs in nature; usually in lactose  What are disaccharides? Name and describe the 3 disaccharides discussed in class.   Two sugars  two monosaccharides joined together o  Sucrose (glucose and fructose) ▪ Table sugar o  Lactose (glucose and galactose) ▪ milk sugar  ▪ helps in digesting dairy  o  Maltose (glucose and glucose ▪ found in malt beverages  ! What are polysaccharides?  Name and describe the polysaccharides discussed in class.   A polysaccharide is a complex CHO (poly saccharide = many sugar)  Up to 3,000 glucose units in each molecule of starch   Long chains, typically of glucose o  Starch and dietary fiber (starchy foods plant foods)  ▪ Insoluble fibers/soluble fibers ▪ Dextrins, cellulose, hemicellulose pectins, gums, mucilages, some hemicelluloses ▪ Potatoes, legumes, corn, wheat, rye and other grains ▪ Whole grains, legumes, fruits, veggies, brown rice, seeds, oat products, barley, etc.   What is enrichment? When is it used? What nutrients are added back to refined products?  Refined : process in which foods are removed of their coarse products !  Enriched : B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) and iron are added to refined grains/grain products   Fortified foods nutrients added to prevent deficiency or reduce risk of chronic disease Enrichment act of 1942 : initiative to lower the rates of vitamin and mineral deficiencies at the time o  Required some processors to replace some of the nutrients lost in the milling  process o  Twenty three different nutrients are lost with the removal of the wheat germ and wheat bran What is the difference between soluble and insoluble fiber?  What health benefits do you get  from each? Note the difference between how fiber is processed in your body compared to other carbohydrates (ex. does it provide calories after digestion?).  Do not memorize specific food  sources of insoluble and soluble fiber. **does not provide energy because bonds cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes  INSOLUBLE: o  Does not dissolve in water o  Holds water in colon increases bulk  o  Stimulates muscles of GI tract o  Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin o  Wheat bran, brown rice, green beans, nuts, rice, seeds, skins/peels, many veggies   SOLUBLE: dissolve or swell in water o  Cholesterol lowering o  Improved blood glucose control  o  Pectins and gums o  Barley, broccoli, carrots, corn, fruits, legumes, oat bran, oats, potatoes, rye  HEALTH BENEFITS: o  Obesity replaces calories from fat, prolongs eating time bc chewiness of food  o  Digestive tract disordersprovides bulk and aids intestinal motility ▪ Constipation, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids o  Colon cancer speeds time through intestines and protects against prolonged  exposure to carcinogens o  Diabetesmay improve blood sugar tolerance by delaying glucose absorption  o  Heart disease may lower blood cholesterol by slowing absorption of cholesterol and binding bile Digestion: order of digestive process, enzymes discussed in class, fate of CHO (Figure 4­3).   Digestive System: body system composed of organs and glands associated with the ingestion and processing of food for absorption of nutrients into the body  Digestion: process by which foods are broken down into smaller absorbable products  Absorption : passage of nutrients of substances into cells or tissues Digestion continued:  1 to 4 hours after a meal all starch is digested and absorbed and circulates through cells as glucose 1.  Carbohydrate digestion in the mouth salivary glands secrete a  watery fluid in the mouth to moisten food ­ enzyme begins to break  down starch into smaller polysaccharides and maltose 2.  Pancreas produces carbohydrate digesting enzymes and releases them  through common bile duct into small intestine enzymes split  polysaccharides into disaccharides enzymes on surface of cells of  small intestine break down into simple sugars (monosaccharaides) 3.  Absorption of monosaccharaides takes place in small intestine 4.  Simple sugars are absorbed into blood and travel to liver liver  regulates amount of glucose circulating in the blood a.  ** liver converts all monosaccharides to glucose ! 5.  Fiber passes intact through the digestive tract through th  ge  intestine and is eventually excreted, some fiber is digested by bacteria  in the large intestine What is glycogen? What do we use it for? Where is it stored?  Glycogen is a polysaccharide made of many chains of glucose  If there is more glucose in the blood than the cells need, the liver and muscles can make and store glycogen  Muscles: 2/3 of glycogen stores, use during exercise  Liver: 1/3 of glycogen stores, maintains blood glucose levels  Once the body’s energy needs are met and glycogen stores are full, CHO are converted to fat Identify and describe the action of the hormones used to control blood glucose levels.  removing glucose from bloodrom the pancreas in response to high glucose levels; assists in  the blood  hormone released from the pancreas that signals the liver to release glucose in  High blood glucose  extra glucose converts to glycogen or body fat  Low blood glucose   glucose released from glycogen stores What are the differences between Prediabetes, Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational Diabetes?  Diabetes: 126 mg/dL or higher  Pre­Diabetes: 100­125 mg/dL o  BG levels higher than normal, but not in diabetes range  o  Long term damage likely occurring o  Can prevent progression to type to DM   Type 1 – happens at age lower than 10 usually, pancreatic cells destroyed, body can respond to  insulin, but doesn’t produce any, use insulin as  treatment   Type 2 o  Risk factors: family history, over age 45, overweight, inactive, high blood  pressure, abnormal cholesterol/triglycerides, prediabetes, history of diabetes during pregnancy   Gestational Review Diabetes Classification handout!!! How do we diagnose diabetes? What is insulin resistance?  How does Type 2 diabetes change over time?  Testing fasting test, casual test (13 !  Insulin resistance  condition in which the body produces insulin but does not use it  effectively glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells   leads to type 2 DB or pre DB Over time it may damage many of the body’s systems Describe the artificial sweeteners discussed in class (including brand name: Table 4­11)  1879 – first artificial sweetener discovered 5 sweeteners approved in US o  Acesulfame­K o  Aspartame (equal, nutra sweet) ▪ Composed of 2 amino acids: phenylanlanine and aspartic acid, broken down and digested in body ▪ Over 200 studies show safety, but people born with phenylketonuria need to avoid aspartame ▪ FDA approved for pregnant women ▪ FDA acceptable daily intake = 50 mg/kg of body weight o  Neotame 8,000 times sweeter o  Saccharin (sweet n low) ▪ Oldest artificial sweetener ▪ Studies showed bladder cancer in rats, given the amount of saccharin equal to 850 cans of soft drinks a day, no link shown in humans o  Sucralose (splenda)  600 times sweeter ▪ Manufactured by replacing 3 hydroxyl groups (­OH) on the sugar molecule with chlorine ▪ The chlorine atoms are exceptionally stable and prevent sucralose from being metabolized for energy o  Stevia (truvia) – herbal sweetener, not approved as food additive ▪ Herb in chrysanthemum family ▪ Extract approved by FDA in 2008 (whole leaf has not been approved) ! What are the 3 main classifications of lipids?   Triglycerides  Phospholipids   Sterols  **Phospholipids and sterols make up 5% of lipids in our diets What are the functions of fat in the body?  What are the functions of fat in foods?   BODY:  Concentrated form of calories  Serves as an energy reserve  Major component of cell membranes   Insulate the body  Provide padding and protection to vital organs  Nourishes skin and hair  FOODS:  Provides calories   Provides satiety  Feeling of fullness or satisfaction after meals  Carry fat­soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids   Contribute aroma and flavor  Fat soluble vitaminsA D E and K  able to live and dissolve in fats  Fat substitutes: difficult to find one that will replicate similar smells and tastes etc. Wha is the structure of a triglyceride? Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = triglyceride  95% of fats in our food are in this structure  Glycerol  3 carbons  in each carbon there is a fatty acid attached (3 fatty acids) What are fatty acids? What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?  Chains of carbon and hydrogen  Contain an acid group (COOH)  Chain length = number of carbon atoms hooked together   Short chain = soluble in water  Long chain = insoluble in water  Saturation = the number of hydrogen atoms in a fatty acid   Anywhere between 4 and 24 carbons  More than 10­12 carbons we start to see the fat and water separateimpact how fats work in our food and how we digest it  There is no “pure” oil that is only one type of fat, rather combinations of fats Saturated fatty acid: full loaded with hydrogen atoms  ­ indicates single bond !  =  indicates double bond Unsaturated fatty acid:   monounsaturated = 1 point of unsaturation polyunsaturated = 2 or more points of unsaturation   C=C is a point of unsaturation Name and describe the 2 essential fatty acids. What are the health benefits of omega­3 FA?   The human body can synthesize all the fatty acids it needs from CHO, PRO, and fat except two:  Linoleic acid ­ omega 6 o  PUFA o  Abundant in vegetable oils   Linolenic acid – omega 3 o  PUFA o  Abundant in fish oils, flax seeds o  2 types of omega 3 –EPA and DHA o  lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides  o  slower clot­forming rates o  enhanced defenses against cancer o  reduced inflammation in arthritis and asthma sufferers What role does the degree of saturation/unsaturation play on foods? What do food manufacturers do to alter this?  Amount of unsaturated FA in a fat affects the temperature at which fat melts o  Unsaturated = more liquid o  Saturated = more solid   Points of unsaturation are weak – can be attacked by oxygen and turn rancid  Can treat hydrogenation  Add hydrogen to points of unsaturation   Lose health benefits of unsaturation  Can create trans fats  Many food manufacturers didn’t like adding oil to their foods expire quicker and taste different  Double bonds are weak spots What makes phospholipids different than other fats?  Name and describe the common phospholipids discussed in class.  Have a water soluble head and fat soluble tail  Lecithin acts as aemulsifier (allows fat to suspend in water) !  Lecithin is a natural compound  added to foods to keep things from separating (ranch  and water) What makes cholesterol different from other fats? What are the functions of cholesterol?  It is only found in animal foods  Large molecules with multiple ring structures  Also made in the body  Incorporated in cell membranes   Makes bile Makes sex hormones Made into vitamin D  Deposited in artery walls, leading to plaque buildup and heart disease Digestion: where it takes place, enzymes discussed in class (Figure 5­4)   1. Mouth ­ some hard fats begin to melt  2. Stomach – churning action mixes fat with stomach acid; lipase breaks apart a small amount of fat  digestive juicesile, stored in gallbladder, released into small intestine, emulsifies fat with  4. Pancreas – produces pancreatic lipase which enters small intestine  ** no bile in stomach, not a lot of digestion there  three different layers of muscle in stomachchurn food  Chylomicron o  Comes from the actual fat we eat   Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) o  Carries fat packaged or made by the liver to various body tissues  o  Fat in our body that we made (too much protein, etc) o  Leftover VLDL becomes LDL (bad)  Low density lipoproteins (LDL) o  Carries cholesterol to body cells   High density lipoproteins (HDL) o  Carries cholesterol in the blood back to the liver for recycling or disposal  o  H(happy)DL made in our liver and is healthy for us Describe the process of plaque formation in the arteries as discussed in class. What factors can cause injury to the arteries?  Elevated blood cholesterol, heart disease  Atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of a cholesterol­ containing plaque)  LDL cholesterol (bad) deposits cholesterol in the arteries  HDL cholesterol (good) reduce risk for heart attack by taking cholesterol out of the arteries What is LPL (lipoprotein lipase)? What does it do?  One fat cell  LPL is an enzyme whose purpose is to fill cells back up with fat  LPL gets triggered when we consume fat What are theAmerican HeartAssociation dietary recommendations for fat/cholesterol?  Total fat: 30% or less of total calories !  Saturated fat and trans fat: 10% of total calories  !  PUFA: up to 10% of total calories  MUFA: up to 20% of total calories  Dietary cholesterol: less than 300 mg/day on avg ! Name and describe the fat substitute discussed in class.  No single fat substitute has been developed that performs all the functions of fat  Used to lower calories  Found in dairy products, frozen desserts, baked foods, cake and cookie mixes, frostings   Developed from: protein, carbohydrate, fat  Fat based: olean/olestra o  Synthetic fat o  Made of sucrose and Fas  o  Provide 0 cal/gram o  Interferes with absorption of fat soluble vitamins large amounts = abdominal  cramping, diarrhea Proteins What are proteins made of? What is different about them than CHO or fat?  Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms  Some also contains sulfur atoms  Roles that proteins play in the body are far more varied than CHO or fat   Arranged as strands of amino acids  Protein eaten in excess is stored as fat   All enzymes are proteins  Egg white is used as standard against all other proteins What structures make up an amino acid?  How many are there? What are essentialAA?  Do not memorize the names of the individual amino acids.   building blocks of protein  contain amine group (nitrogen containing group), acid group, and chemical side chain   20 amino acids with 20 different side chains make up most of proteins of living tissues  side chains vary in complexity from a single H atom to a complex ring structure  Essential  AA: the body cannot make these, 9 amino acids are essential  Nonessential  AA  the body can make them when it has nitrogen ( from amine group) and backbone fragments (from CHO and fat) How are proteins made? What type of bonds forms? What happens to protein production when an AA is missing?  Protein synthesis: condensation of two AA to form a dipeptide  Dipeptide = 2 amino acids   Tripeptide = 3  Poly = 4 + ! Name and describe the functions of body proteins. 20% of our total body weight is protein   enzymes  antibodies o  large proteins that are produced by one type of immune cell in response to invasion of the body by unfamiliar molecules o  can develop an immunity to that antigen   hormones o  do not catalyze reactions directly, but act as messengers that respond to maintain a normal body environment (blood glucose)   transport vehicles o  moves nutrients and other molecules in and out of cells   oxygen carriers  growth and maintenance  new body tissues are made of proteins during growth, loss of tissue, hair and nails, skin, etc  enzymes ­ ALL ENZYMES are proteins!  Work as catalysts to help chemical reactions take place  Fluid balance  to remain alive, a cell must contain a constant amount of fluid, proteins attract water  Protein helps with cell integrity  Acid­base balance   Energy source o  Used when insufficient CHO and fat o  Energy deficiency is always accompanied by protein deficiency Digestion: where it takes place, enzymes, what happens to the protein along the way (Figure 6­1).  **majority of digestion occurs in small intestine  1. In the mouth, chewing crushes and softens protein­rich foods and mixes them with saliva  2. Stomach acid uncoils protein strands and activates stomach enzymes/denatures the protein (hydrochloric acid in our stomach that uncoils proteins) o  pepsin breaks the protein strands into dipeptides, tripeptides, and polypeptides  o  a mucous coating on the stomach wall protects the stomach’s own proteins from the harsh stomach acid and protein­digesting enzymes  3. Small intestine the fragments of protein are split into free amino acids, dipeptides and tripeptides with the help of enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine o  enzymes on the surface of the small intestinal cells break these peptides into  amino acids and they are absorbed through the microvilli of the small intestine into the blood  proteases: enzymes from pancreas and small intestine  peptidases: enzymes on the surface of small intestine ! 2 1  denaturation:  change in shape of protein brought on by heat, alcohol, acids,  bases, salts r other agents first step in protein breakdown What are complimentary proteins?  2 or more food proteins whoseAA assortments provide all of the essentialAA o  ex. Peanut butter sandwich Recommended intakes – be able to calculate the RDA for  protein!   DRI committee: 10­35% total calories Recommended protein allowance (RDA): .8 kg of desirable body wt  per day  RDA Calculations:  Step one:  find desirable weight for a person’s  height  Step two: change pounds to kg (divide  by 2.2)  Step three: multiply kg by .8 g/kg Proteins (Vegetarian Diets Only) Vegetarian diets – pros and cons (Know the types of vegetarian diets ­ Table 6­2 in your notes)  Goals: obtain neither too few nor too many calories  Obtain adequate quantities of complete protein  Obtain the needed vitamins and minerals  Pros: vegetarian protein foods are higher in fiber, richer in vitamins and minerals, and  lower in fat compared to meals   if done correctly, lower rates of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity  more likely to be at desirable weight, lower cholesterol levels, and lower blood pressure  Types  Lacto­vegetarian  Milk and milk products are included  Meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs are excluded  Lacto­ovovegetarian  Milk and milk products and eggs included  Meat, poultry, seafood excluded  Ovovegetarian  Eggs are included  Milk, milk products, meat, seafood excluded   Strict vegetarian/ vegan  All animal foods excluded   Macrobiotic diet   Extremely restrictive diet based on metaphysical beliefs and consisting mostly of  legumes, whole grains, and certain vegetables   Semivegetarian  Some but not all animal products Vitamins and Minerals What are vitamins? What is the difference between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins? Vitamin: potent, essential compound that performs carious bodily functions that promote growth and reproduction and maintenance of health   Discovered 100 years ago  Organic and contains carbon  Do not provide calories (energy) Water – soluble   B vitamins : thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin b6, folate, vitamin b12, biotin,  pantothenic acid, vitamin   Found in watery components of food  Fragile in foods – can be washed out or destroyed easily  Body excretes excess if blood levels rise to high, low risk of toxicity   Only short term storage supply available – deficiency symptoms appear quickly  To minimize water soluble vitamin loss  Refrigerate fruits and vegetables (degradation)  store fruits and veggies that have been cut in airtight wrappers (oxidation)  microwave or steam veg in small amounts of water and then use that water for soups or  casseroles  avoid high temps and long cooking time  work as co enzymes and assist enzymes in doing their metabolic work Fat – soluble   vitamins A, D, E, K Vitamins to know water soluble   folate  conenzyme for the synthesis of DNA and formation of red blood cells   folate deficiency causes anemia (blood is unable to deliver oxygen to cells   deficiency symptoms: fatigue, diarrhea, irritability, forgetfulness, headache, lack of  appetite  higher risk of deficiency during growth  helps prevent neural tube defects during pregnancy  spina bifida: incomplete closing of bony casing around the spinal cord which leads to  partial paralysis  anencephaly: major parts of the human brain are missing  found in fresh, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and seeds  easily lost when foods are overcooked, canned, or dehydrated  adult DRI (RDA) is 400mcg  FDA mandated that all grain products are enriched in folate  Vitamin b12  Important in the protection of nerve fibers  Works closely with folate to produce red blood cells  Deficiency: folate unable to build red blood cells = anemia  High levels of folate mask a b12 deficiency – nerve paralysis and damage  Found in aminol foods: milk, meat, cheese, eggs  At risk for deficiency: vegetarians ,people with intrinsic factor, elderly who are not able  to produce stomach acid (atrophic gastritis)  Vitamin C  Required for protection of collage (protein foundation material for bones teeth skin and  tendons)  May fight chronic disease by functioning as an antioxidant (prevent damage to the body  as a result of chemical reaction that involve the use of oxygen)  Free radical: highly toxic compounds created as a result of chemical reactions that  involve oxygen  Can it cure the common cold? – placebo effect  Found in oranges, citrus fruits, broccoli, cantaloupe, strawberries  A single serving of any of these foods provides half the DRI for vitamin C  Deficiencies are unlikely except in infants who are not given a source of vitamin C or in  children or elderly who do not eat enough fruits and vegetables Fat soluble vitamins  Found in fats and oils of foods  Stable in foods  Stored in liver and body fats  Regular intake recommended  Megadoses can build up to toxic levels: dose of the or more times the amount normally  recommended  Deficiency symptoms develop slowly  Vitamin A  Helps maintain epithelial tissue: cells that form the outer surface of the body and line the  body cavities and principal passageways  Also involved in production of sperm, normal development of fetuses, immune response,  hearing, taste and growth  Deficiency leads to night blindness   1 years worth of vitamin A can be stored in the body (90% in the liver)  Deficiency will not develop until stores are depleted  Rarely seen in developed countries; serious problem in developing countries  Toxicity – joint pain, dryness of skin, hair loss, irritability, fatigue, headaches, weakness,  nausea, liver damage  Hazard in vitamin A supplements: little risk of hazard in beta carotene supplements  Beta carotene = orange colored pigment found in plants and converts to vitamin A  Converts slowly to vitamin A so that excess amounts are not stored as vitamin A but  stored in fat deposits instead  Member of carotenoid family  Carotenoids: pigment found in foods that have antioxidant properties   Bright green, yellow, orange, and red fruits and vegies  Milk, cheese, butter, eggs, liver   Vitamin D  Major role in bone making / assistance   Assists in absorption of dietary calcium  Makes calcium and phosphorus available in the blood to be deposited as the bones harden  Body can synthesize it with the help of sunlight, regardless of dietary intake  Liver uses cholesterol to make vitamin D precursor – converted to vitamin D by sun =  altered by liver and kidneys to active form of vitamin D  Disease that affect the liver or kidneys may lead to one deterioration   Can get vitamin D from sunlight or diet ( fish, eggs, liver, milk)  Sun exposure for 5­15 minutes on face, hands, and arms several times a week is usually  enough  Vitamin D deficiency: osteomalacia ­ occurs in adults, bones become soft, porous, weak,  bowed legs and curved spine  Rickets: bone softening in children  Know the vitamins discussed in class, including functions, food sources, deficiency  diseases/symptoms (if any), toxicity symptoms (if any).  Described above  Explain the link between B vitamins and heart disease.  Low intake of folate, b12, and b6 are linked to risk of heart disease because of the  increase of homocysteine  Chemical that is toxic to the blood vessels of the hart  Increase in blood clot formation and increase in damage to arterial walls  May be toxic for brain tissue and brain cognitive ability What are minerals?  Inorganic compounds found naturally in the earth’s crust  Amount of mineral in a food depends on what region that food was grown in  We still have to consume the minerals to make things in our boy  Minerals are a part of structural components in our body  Know the minerals discussed in class, including functions, food sources, deficiency  diseases/symptoms (if any), toxicity symptoms (if any).  Major vs trace  Major minerals: an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts greater  than 5 grams – needed in large amounts in diet  Trace minerals: an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts less than 5  grams – needed in smaller amounts in diet   Calcium (major)  Most abundant mineral in the body  99% of body calcium’s is in bones  Remaining 1% responsible for transmission of nerve impulses essential for muscle  contractions, maintenance of blood pressure, blood clotting, and works as cofactor for many enzymes  Calcium deficit during growing years and adulthood contributes to gradual bone loss  or osteoporosis  Increase in protein = increase in calcium excretion  Found in milk and milk products, green vegetables, few fish, and shellfish   Phosphorous (major)  Second most abundant in body  85% bound with calcium in bone and teeth  Part of DNA and RNA  Many enzymes and the B vitamins become active only when a phosphate group is  attached  Activator to allow things to happen in body  We can get it from pretty much any good  Pb and chocolate are high in phosphorous  Extra phosphorous in body = body tries to find calcium to balance it out  Calcium is found in bones – bones become weak and soft  Calcium and phosphorous harden and form little crystal like structures under the skin  – itches   Iron (Trace)  Body oxygen carrier when bound to hemoglobin (protein in RBC)  Deficiency = iron deficiency anemia – weakness, tiredness, headaches, increased  sensitivity to cold, caused by malnutrition or blood loss  Iron overload  Toxic to tissue (liver)  Most common causes: hemochromatosis  Meats, poultry, fish  Processed grains are enriched with iron  Iron can be obtained from using iron cookware  Heme iron vs nonheme iron – heme is more readily absorbed   Vitamin c promotes iron absorption  Tannins (tea, coffee) can interfere with absorption  Iodine (Trace)  Part of thyroid hormones – regulate body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction  and growth  Amount of iodine in foods reflects the amounts present in the soil  Iodized salt introduced to prevent deficiencies – still where we get most of our iodine  Cretinism = sever mental and physical retardation of an infant caused by iodine  deficiency during pregnancy  Goiter = enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency   What are phytochemicals? What do they do in the body?  In what form should phytochemicals  be ingested and why?  Phytochemicals = nonnutritive substances found in plants that possess health protective  benefits   Act as antioxidants, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, prevent cataracts, slowing or  reversing certain cancers, lower risk of osteoporosis What are the best foods to consume to meet the DRI for vitamins and minerals? Do not  memorize the specific nutrients found in each food category of MyPlate, but know the general  concepts discussed in class.  Grains, cereals, margarine, milk and dairy  Veggies, fruits, grains, milk, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, nuts, etc  Vitamin d is commonly added to food  Iron, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, folic acid, calcium, vitamin a and d What are functional foods? Do not memorize the specific functional foods discussed in class.  Dietary supplements used by more than 50% of adult population  Deficiency diseases are rare  Functional foods: foods that provide additional physiological and psychological benefit  beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs   OJ – contains 35% of DV for calcium and 25% of DV for vitamin D per serving   Diet coke plus – provides 15% DV for niacin, b6 and b12, and 10% DV zinc and  magnesium per 8oz serving  Alcohol How many calories does alcohol provide per gram?  (Do not memorize the calorie content of  specific alcoholic beverages.)  7cal / g but not a nutrient  Proof = two times the percentage of alcohol  Where is alcohol absorbed and metabolized in the body?  How does alcohol break down in the  body? What happens to the alcohol as it is waiting to be broken down?  Not stored in body; stored as fat  No alcohol is absorbed in the mouth and esophagus  Some alcohol is absorbed in the mouth and esophagus  Some alcohol absorption takes place in stomach (about 20%)  Upper small intestine is the primary site of absorption (80%)  Alcohol is absorbed intact and then broken down  Alcohol dehydrogenase: enzyme in liver is responsible for breaking down alcohol  Alcohol – liver – dehydrogenase – acetylaldehyde +h20 – acetone – CO2 and H2O  Until all alcohol has been metabolized in liver, floats in body, affecting rain and other  tissues  Almost all EtOH is metabolized by liver (some leaves via lungs or via kidneys then urine  also feces, breast milk, and saliva   Avg person can eliminate .5oz EtOH per hour What is difference between how men and women metabolize alcohol? ­ Dehydrogenase factor – varying amounts ­ If someone has more of this enzyme, BAS is lower ­ Women have higher BAC after consuming same amount as men ­ Women absorb 30% more alcohol intact ­ Smaller amounts of water in womens bodes = increase BAC ­ Dehydrogenase is 40% less active in stomach of women ­ Men tend to expire in lungs and sweats more than women  How does alcohol affect the body? What parts of the brain are affected and how?   First is judgement and reasoning   Next most sensitive: voluntary muscle control and emotion­governing centers (sensory  area)  Last to be affected: respiration and heart control  What is the difference between functional and metabolic tolerance?  What are the results of  developing these tolerances?  Tolerance: the decrease of effectiveness of a drug after a period of prolonged or heavy  use  Metabolic tolerance: with continued exposure, alcohol is metabolized at a higher rate  Long term exposure to alcohol – increase to counteract the inhibitory effects of alcohol  exposure  Increased nerve activity helps chronic alcohol users function normally when they have a  higher BAC  Functional tolerance: actual change in sensitivity of drug  Normal and chemical and electrical functions of the nerve cells increase to counteract the  inhibitory effects of alcohol exposure  Increased nerve activity helps chronic alcohol users function normally when they have a  higher BAC What are the health benefits and health risks of drinking alcohol (as discussed in class)?  Light alcohol use – has little impact on nutritional status of someone in good health  except possible weight gain   Heavy alcohol use: decease protein synthesis in cells, inflammation of stomach cells,  intestines will decrease in absorption of thiamin, folate, b12, liver will decrease in  activation of vitamin D and decrease in bile production, kidneys will excrete vitamins   Benefits: research shows death rates lowest among those who report consuming one drink a day, moderate intake may decrease chance of heart disease, increase in HDL inhibits  blood clotting, gallstones and type 2 diabetes are less likely to occur in moderate drinkers  Health Risks  Risks outweigh any benefits that may come later in life  Accidents: poor judgement, slow reflexes, violence  Drug interactions: alcohol and other meds may compete with each other for metabolism  in liver  Night blindness: alcohol blocks formation of retinal (night vision)  Breast cancer: increased risk for women  Other cancers: throat, esophageal, colon cancer  Can erode and cause cell damage  Liver damage – hepatitis and cirrhosis   High blood pressure and stroke  Pancreatitis  GI symptoms: stomach lining irritation, impaired intestinal enzymes/ transport symptoms  Brain damage/ decrease in cells   Decreased sex hormone production  Anemia: poor nutrition as a result of excessive alcohol, decreases iron and vitamin B  Emotional / social problems – anxiety, depression, domestic violence  Weight Management (May revise this section after class April 18) Know the difference between overweight, underweight, and obesity. What are the problems  associated with all three?  Overweight : weight between 10% to 20% above the desirable weight for height, or a  BMI of 25 to 29.9  Obesity: weight 20% or more above the desirable weight for height, BMI greater than 30  ­ Problems are decrease in longevity abdominal hernias, complications with pregnancy  and surgery, increase in cancers, depression, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol,  hypertension, increase in heart disease, arthritis, respiratory problems, liver disease   Underweight : 10% or more below desirable weight for height, BMI less than 18.5  Problems are infertility, osteoporosis, decrease in energy reserves, menstrual irregularity   Healthy : BMI 18.5­24.9  Extreme Obese : BMI >40 Be able to calculate Body Mass Index and know the clinical guidelines for BMI.  Divide weight by square of height  Weight (kg) / height (m2)  (Weight (lbs) / height (in2)) x 703  2.2lb = 1kg  1inch = 2.54cm, 1cm = .01m How does body fat distribution play a role in risk for disease?  Know how to calculate waist­to­ hip ratio.   Central fat is at more risk for disease What are the different ways to measure body fat and how do they work?   Hydrostatic (underwater weighing)  Less a person weighs underwater compared to the persons out of water weight, the  greater proportion og body fat  Skinfold test – thickness of a fold of skin is measured using a caliper  Bioelectrical impedance – measures how quickly electrical current is conducted through  the body How do you use waist circumference, waist­to­hip ratios, and total body fat percentage to  determine disease risk?  Men >40inches  Women >35 inches  Waist to hip ratio: men>1, women>.8 How many calories make up 1 lb of fat?  3500 calories Name and describe the 3 components of energy expenditure.   Basal (resting) metabolic rate (60%­65) rate body expends energy to support vital  functions at rest, heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure: does not include voluntary active  Diet induced thermogenesis (5%­10%)  Physical activity (25%­35%) What factors affect BMR (increase and decrease)?  Increase: caffeine, fever, growth, height, high thyroid hormone, male gender, muscle,  smoking, stress   Decrease: age, low thyroid hormone, reduced energy intake  Describe the 2 causes of obesity related to genetics (as discussed in class).  Fat cell theory  Overweight child has ↑ number of fat cells  Weight loss in adulthood only decreases SIZE of fat cells, not number of fat cells  Fat cells have enzyme Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) which enables cells to store body fat  The more LPL, the more the body cal pull triglycerides into fat cells for storage  Ob gene   Produces a hormone (leptin)  Leptin tells us to stop eating   As fat stores go up, leptin goes up, decrease in appetite, and increase energy expenditure   As fat stores down, leptin goes down, increase in appetite, and decrease in energy  expenditure  Maybe overweight people have defective Ob gene??  Environment / bad eating behavior  Availability of food  Lack of opportunity for vigorous physical activity  Hunger: programmed by heredity (physiological)  Appetite: influenced by learned responses (psychological) What happens in our body when we overeat and fast?  Overeat   Carbs turn to glucose turn to liver and muscle glycogen stores  Fat turns to fatty acids turns to body fat stores  Protein turns to amino acids turns to fat after losing nitrogen in urine  Fasting  Liver and muscle glycogen stores – glucose – energy   Body fat?


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