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Biology Final Study Guide

by: Anzlee

Biology Final Study Guide Biology 1120-001


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This is a great resource to help prepare you for the final!
Andrew Brower
Study Guide
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This 41 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anzlee on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1120-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Andrew Brower in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 04/27/16
Biology Final Study Guide!! •   The sun is the power of life on earth (photosynthesis) •   Plants provide: o   food by beginning the food chains (producer) o   fuel by either being burned directly or through fossil fuels o   building materials (cotton, wood, etc.) o   medicines (aspirin-bark of elm tree, etc.) o   ecosystem services (habitat, prevent erosion, produce oxygen) Plant Lineage and Important Adaptations: Non-Flowering Plants Green Algae- Chlorophyta •   may be unicellular or colonial and multicellular species •   mostly aquatic, produce a lot of oxygen •   can live in harsh conditions, even inside rocks •   have been classified as protists, but are very closely related to terrestrial plants (share chloroplast with both chlorophylls a and b, starch as a storage of sugar, and cellulose cell walls) •   became abundant around 700 million years ago, because oxygen levels increased and diversification of heterotrophic food chains •   help us understand the evolution of multicellularity •   *note- blue-green algae is not the same as green algae Land Plants •   very abundant, and many adaptations to prevent water loss •   most plants are protected from desiccation by a waxy cuticle and stomata, which prevent too much evaporation of water and take in the correct amount of carbon dioxide •   example of evolution: increased photosynthetic area •   defining characteristic- protection of embryos; some produce seeds; •   all have haploid and diploid phases; most have vascular tissue •   xylem- water transport; phloem- food transport Plant Life Cycles Haplodiplontic: •   Sporophyte- diploid generation •   Gametophyte- haploid generation •   Basics of life cycle: diploid produced spores through meioisis; spores divide by mitosis producing a haploid gametophyte; gametes are produced through mitosis (then two gametes fuse together again to form a 2n diploid zygote) Bryophytes •   non vascular plants: liverworts (hepiticophta), mosses (bryophyta), and hornworts (anthocerophyta) •   examples of important use: peat- (composed of moss) source of energy; drives global warming by drying out and releasing carbon dioxide •   dioecious- two separate sexes are included in the life cycle •   moss and liverwort life cycles- gametophyte is longer than sporophyte stage, sperm swim to egg then fertilization occurs (water must be present) •   moss life cycle- sporophyte actually grows out of the gametophyte Vascular Plants •   xylem and phloem •   evolution has allowed these to grow taller to gain access to the sun (lignin is part of the structure) Ferns •   Lycophyta and Pterophyta •   club mosses, no roots, seeds, or flowers o   whisk ferns-simplest morphology, 6 species, evenly spaced stems o   horsetail- 15 species, sporophytes at the top •   life cycle: does not pollinate itself, but instead mixes genes for diversity and maximized offspring; monoecious; sporophyte stage is more dominant than the gametophyte stage; a structure called the thalus grows out of the archegonia (female part) of the gametophyte stage Seed Plants Gymnosperms •   cycadophyta (cone bearing, dioecious), ginkophyta (gender different via tree; very old unchanged species with loose leaves), coniferophyta (cone bearing; dioecious) •   protection, dispersal, dormant phase; increase embryo survival by waiting for favorable environmental conditions •   life cycle: sporophyte phase dominates life cycle; female cones contain megasporocytes while male cones contain microsporocytes Flowering plants Angiosperms •   characterized from flowers and fruits; ovule enclosed within diploid tissue •   very diverse group of plants •   evolution of land plants; success of angiosperms may be because of pollination and seed dispersal interactions with animals; ex. colors •   seed plants are heterosporous: microsporangia- sperm; macrosporangia- egg; seeds have a dormant stage, and allow for more efficient dispersal and the spread of genetics •   pollen- sperm no longer needs water for dispersal; wind, birds, insects, etc. •   embryo- seeds package them with a food supply and protect them from desiccation (nutritive tissue and protective coat) •   life cycle: anther- meiosis takes place to produce male pollen grain with three nuclei (1 is tube, 2 is fertilization); ovule/megaspore- female (ovary grows into fruit while the ovule grows into seed); pollen lands and produces pollen tube, then double fertilization takes place •   structure of flowers: •   Examples of Types of Angiosperms: o   amborella- most basal lineage o   star anise o   nymphaeales- water lilies o   magnoliales- magnolias, avacados, nutmeg, etc. o   monocots- monophyletic group; seed with single cotyledon, no true wood, flower parts usually in multiples of three, parallel venation; ex- bananas, asparagus o   dicots- 2 cotyledons; parts in multiples of 4 or 5; branches venation; ex- beans o   eudicots- many species, ex. cacti, pitcher plants, cacao pods •   Growth and Structure o   growth is often indeterminate; initiated from meristems (many cells divide here rapidly and allow the plant to continue growth) o   Primary vs. Secondary Growth: §   primary growth is when the plant grows into the soil and up into the air through apical meristems §   secondary growth is when the plant grows wider and thicker through lateral meristems o   variation in shoot (above ground):root (below ground) ratio- dependent on nutrient levels in soil o   parenchyma cells function in photosynthesis and gas exchange o   collenchyma cells are sturdier and act as a support o   sclerenchyma- support, transport, protection (secondary cell wall- lignin) o   epidermal- outermost, secretes waxy cuticle o   guard cells- open/close to limit water loss, o   trichomes- hair like projections for defense and water loss o   Types of Tissues: §   ground tissue §   vascular tissue- xylem: sclerenchyma cells dead at maturity; vessel elements and tracheids; phloem- sieve tube elements and companion cells §   dermal tissue: root hairs- increase surface area for absorption of minerals and water, •   Plant Transport •   Water transport through the xylem is passive (direction: up) o   80-90% of herbaceous plants are made of water; 50% of woody plants o   Must maintain turgor pressure (stomata opens and closes to maintain this) o   Water potential- tendency of water to move from high to low pressure; solute + pressure potential = water potential (solutions have negative solute potentials and water has zero solute potentials) o   Most water is absorbed by root hairs and travels to xylem, through: §   transmembrane route (straight through water channels) §   apoplastic route (between pores/cell walls) §   symplastic route (through plasmodesmata) o   Does water get pushed or pulled? Pulled through transpiration!! •   Sugar/nutrient transport through the phloem is active (bidirectional) o   Phloem- moves products of synthesis o   Cells include: sieve-tube cells that act as doors; companion cells provide support o   Essential Macronutrients: §   Nitrogen §   Potassium §   Calcium §   Phosphorous §   Magnesium §   Sulfur o   Examples of micronutrients: chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, boron     Types of Plants Based on Consumption •   Parasitic plants- tap into vascular tissue of the host to receive nutrients •   Carnivorous plants- receive nitrogen directly from other organisms, ex. pitcher plants •   Epiphytes- commensal with fellow plants, meaning both plants benefit Sensory System in Plants •   can sense: light, gravity, touch, parasites, etc. •   respond by: change in growth, cellular activity, and genetic expressions (response to stimuli: tropism) •   Light: o   Phototropism/photomorphogenesis o   plants respond particularly to blue light (not to green light) o   the stomata responds as well as the growth pattern o   auxin is the hormone responsible for this tropism (cells at the tip of the plant senses and sends a signal to create the response) o   can sense shade because there are different wavelengths (full sunlight has an equal ratio of far red light to red light while shade has more far red light which acts as an inhibitor and can trigger photomorphogenesis); plants can sense when there are plants crowding them, so they will produce thin long stems to elongate o   etiolation- white stems grow to elongate instead of produce chlorophyll; once in sunlight, chlorophyll will be produced •   Gravity o   Gravitropism o   shoots grow up, roots grow down o   auxin on the lower side of the stem has a higher concentration to allow the plants to grow up against gravity; meristematic cells in root cap sense gravity •   Touch o   Thigmotrophism o   directional growth; not rapid; example- response to wind would allow them to not grow as tall and have a thicker stem o   nutation- slowly swing around so they can find something to wrap around o   plants move rapidly through: charges created from action potentials of water/nutrients passing through membranes; turgor pressure •   Other tropisms: electrotropism (electricity), chemotropism (chemicals), thermotropism (temperature), etc. •   Sensing Time/Day and Night o   flower opening and closing o   leaf folding/unfolding o   scent production Dormancy •   have the ability to cease growth and become dormant to survive •   protection from freezing, drought, and heat shock •   allow better chance of seed survival as well to spread genes Chemical Signals in Plants •   plant hormones are involved in internal signaling processes •   7 categories: o   auxin- mediates phototrophic response (promotes bending and elongation), increases plasticity of cells, mediates gravitopic response which allows roots to grow downwards (inhibits cell elongation) o   gibberellins- responsible for elongation of stems, hasten seed germination o   abscisic acid- induces dormancy, suppresses bud growth, opens and closes stomata (opposite of gibberellins) o   cytokinins- help cell division and differentiation; most in root apical meristem; pathogens/bacteria can cause this to be overproduces which leads to large growths on the plants called a “crown gall” o   brassinosteroids- broad spectrum of effects; triggered by environment o   ethylene- helps fruit development/ripening and leaf and flower senescence; can be manipulated to delay ripening Plants are Affected Negatively by: •   Herbivores •   Nematodes •   Fungal Spores •   Pathogenic fungi •   Bacteria and viruses •   Mites •   Insects (ex. wood, leaf, fruit boring insects) Plants Fight Back •   Allelopathy- plant vs. plant: slow growth or block seed germination •   Forms of offense: thorns, spines, sap, latex, chemical toxins •   Antagonistic coevolution: evolution of chemical and physical deterrents •   Systemin- hormone produced by damaged cells, which then binds to undamaged cells which then produce jasmonic acid •   Jasmonic acid acts as a defense and ‘distress call’ •   Pathogen-Specific Response: o   Hypertensive response- response to invader: rapid death around site o   Systematic acquired response- prepares for future attacks (allows it to respond quicker in the future)     Plant Reproduction •   Tradeoff in size vs. number: o   Make many small seeds (each has few resources) or make few larger offspring (higher change of survival) ? o   Make many small flowers or a few large flowers with lots of attractants ? o   Life span of plants varies with the amount of reproductive cycles (annual, biennial, perennial) o   Some have extensive secondary growth while others do not •   Flowering Time/Maturity o   Phase changes (development) lead to reproductive maturity o   Once they are ready, they wait for cues: §   Light: short day plants flower when days are getting shorter; long day plants flower when days are getting longer; day neutral plants just flower when they are mature (this can be artificially manipulated) §   Temperature: some require cool weather (vernalization) §   Autonomous: nothing environmental, just maturity (shoot is “determined” when it is ready to go) §   Plants have floral specialization and symmetry (radial or bilateral) •   Pollination o   Once pollen is formed, pollination may occur where the pollen lands on the stigmata o   Water (rare) o   Wind o   Bees (collect pollen and nectar) o   Birds (plants produce tubular flowers with nectar to attract birds) o   Bats (light colored flowers that produce strong scents at night) o   Moth (similar plants to bats, but with long nectar spurs for moth’s long tongues) o   Butterflies o   Flies (attracted to rotting smells which flowers produce) •   Plant-pollinator coevolution and speciation •   Self-Pollination o   Advantages: no energy used to produce attractors and produces uniform offspring o   Disadvantages: interbreeding, much less genetic variation o   Self-incompatibility: must have different genes in stigma and pollen tubes/male and female parts o   Dioecious plants are either male or female, meaning pollen has to be transferred for fertilization to occur o   Monoecious plants produce male and female parts separately on each plant o   Dichogamous plants have both stamens and pistils, but they reach their maturity at different times o   Herkogamous plants have both, but they are separated in a locational way on the plant •   Asexual Reproduction: o   Vegetative plants- plants are cloned from parents o   Apomixis- embryos are produced asexually •   Fruit Production o   Simple fruits come from a single ovary o   Aggregate fruits come from multiple ovaries o   Multiple fruits are from multiple flowers •   Seeds are dispersed by wind, water, and animals Animal Diversity and Classification Defining Characteristic of Animals: •   Heterotrophs •   Multicellularity •   Some type of movement •   Sexual reproduction (no alternation of life cycles) •   Embryonic development •   Unique tissues (not in porifera) •   Very diverse physical characteristics as well as habitat •   35 phylums Classification Branches •   synapomorphy (tissues) o   parazo: no symmetry, tissues, or organs o   eumetozoa: shape, symmetry, and usually have organs §   radiate §   bilateria (develop from 3 germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm); two groups: •   protosome- cleavage of zygote is spiral, blastopore becomes a mouth, predetermined fate of embryo •   deuterosome- cleavage of zygote is radial, blastopore becomes an anus, identical daughter cells o   three planes: sagittal, frontal, transverse Variable Trends: Body Cavity •   digestive tract can be longer and larger; more storage; more surface area •   acoelomates- no body cavity •   pseudocoelomates- have a pseudocoel •   coelomates- have a coelem Body Plans •   example: triploblasts: three layers of tissues (found in some worms) DNA Sequencing •   has changed the original form of classification to a genetic level Open vs. Closed Circulatory System Evolution of Nervous System •   mainly in longitudinal cords through the body; usually have a brain Segmentation •   locomotion is far more effective •   sections can develop in different paces Feeding Habits •   filter feeding (some marine animals) •   deposit feeders (some worms •   herbivores (some insects) •   predators •   parasites: endoparasites (live inside); ectoparasites (live outside) Different Forms of Movement Reproduction •   usually sexual reproduction; sometimes asexual •   internal vs. external fertilization •   oviparity (‘live-bearing’) vs. viviparity (‘egg-bearing’) Metamorphosis •   Some animals undergo metamorphosis •   Complete (ex. fruit fly) vs. incomplete (ex. grasshopper) Basal Animal Clades Porifera •   Sponges: o   most basal animals o   likely related to choanoglagellate protists o   lack tissues; most lack symmetry o   similar to protists o   adults are sessile: attached to something and don’t move o   little coordination o   three layers: choanocytes, mesophyl, outer epithelial layer o   draw in water through pores that gets filtered by choanocytes to feed o   spicules: provide defense and structure o   reproduce: sexually (release gametes) or by fragmentation (cells are totipotent: sponges can grow from one cell) o   each individual makes sperm and eggs, but at different times o   can re-form after cells are dissociated Organized Tissues -Epidermis and nervous system; gastrodermis -True body symmetry: radial- cnidarian and ctenophora; bilateral: all others Cnidara o   mostly marine o   diploblastic- two body layers with two basic body plans o   carnivores o   oral opening, but no anus (food goes in and out at the same place) o   nematocycts- painful stinging mechanisms o   classes: hydrozoa (2700 species, few are fresh water), syphozoa (jellyfish, 200 species, two life stages: medusa-free living and sessile- polyp, in ground), cubozoa (‘fire jellies’, may cause death), anthozoa (sea anemone and coral, 6200 species, colonial corals made of millions of polyps, reef is secreted exoskeletons of anthozoa species), anthozoa (sea anemones, no skeletons, can move slightly) Ctenophora o   90 species o   propel themselves through the water (8 plates of cilia) o   have an anus o   have sticky tentacles to get prey Acoelomorpha o   worms o   bilateral symmetry o   tripoblastic o   small and live in soil, detrivores o   controversial phylogenic location Lophotrochozoa Name comes from 2 main structures: •   Lophophores: play a role in suspension feeding; mouth and anus can be located closely •   Trochophore: swim and may feed using cilia Phylum Potifera: Rotifers •   aquatic •   filter feed •   corona covered with cilia around mouth area •   asexual and sexual species (the bdelloid species are only ever asexual) •   mouth and anus at different ends •   live in most soils •   Relative: Phylum Cycliophora o   circular mouth covered in cilia o   live near mouths of lobsters Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms •   bilaterially symmetrical •   have distinct mouth and anus •   organs and internal digestive tract throughout (acoelomate) •   absorb food and have excretory system composed of canals with flame cells o   Class Tubellarians (Planaria) §   simple eyes §   gas exchange through body §   can be cut and grow back other section §   asexual reproduction possible through division §   sexual reproduction: “penis facing” the worm that stick the other with its double penis will be the male and the other will have to produce the eggs for fertilization o   Class Trematoda: flukes §   Clonorchis sinensis- parasitic; live in liver of organisms, ex. humans §   Schistosoma- live in digestive systems; sexual reproduction §   Snails may be infected by Leucochloridium that alters snail behavior and usually is ingested by a bird which then has the host within it o   Class Cestoda: tapeworms §   hang on to inner walls of hosts through attachment organs (scolex) §   absorb food through skin §   1% of cows are infected by tapeworms = cook your meat!! •   Phylum Nemertea: ribbon worms o   posses a mouth and anus o   extremely simple bilateral animal; has an entire digestive system Phylum Annelids: Segmented Worms •   have bristles called chaetae (many- polychaetes; few- oligochaetes) •   two sets of muscles down body, can make it long ad skinny or short and fat •   each segment of worm contains excretory system and nerves •   muscles allow for locomotion •   eat soil, get nutrients, and digest left overs o   Class Polychaeta §   “bristle worms” §   usually live in marine ecosystems §   may be free living/moving, or dug into soil §   parapodia- extension of body; homologous extension of segmented body that is used for movement/locomotion §   larvae start out as trochophores with bands around them §   Genus Osedax- found on wale carcasses; root-like structure for absorption; bacteria helps break down marrow of wale; sexual reproduction; males are microscopic and live within females o   Class Citellata §   oligochaete- few bristles on each worm §   tons of species §   fully or only partially aquatic §   can be giant §   hermaphrodites- reciprocal mating; produce cocoon §   some are leeches- saliva may contain anesthetic (prey cannot feel it or blood loss); some leeches are predators/scavengers; razor sharp teeth; oral and anal sucker Phylum Molluska: Molluscs •   most diverse group •   most morphologically posses: a shell, an oral end with grasping structure, foot- tracker muscles; internal organs and some type of nervous system; gill system •   shell: calcareous; various layers with ability to secrete gases •   radula: chewing mouth part (most molluscs have this, but not bivalves) •   marine molluscs have planktonic larvae that can swim around and disperse themselves o   Class Polplacophora- chitons §   slow moving; scrape algae off of rocks for food §   covered by 8 hard plates o   Class Gastropoda- gastropods §   snails, slugs, nudibranchs (naked gills; use toxin and venom) §   single shell; many do not have shells §   move by waves of muscular foot (slide along on mucus) §   mostly sexual reproduction; reciprocal mating o   Class bivalvia- bivalves §   clams, oysters, scallops §   two shells §   aquatic filter feeders §   only group that does not have a radula §   sexual reproduction §   unionid mussels put their larvae into fishes’ mouths o   Class Cephalopoda- cephalopods §   cuttlefishes, squids, nautiluses, octopuses §   generally reduced shell (not nautiluses) §   feet are modified into tentacles §   additional to radula is a beak §   developed eyes, nervous system, and large brain §   many have the ability to change color and camouflage (chromatophores) §   all predators §   movement includes: crawling, swimming, and jet propulsion (ex. squids have a type of jet proportion- in through mantel, out through funnel) §   ex. giant squid: architeuthis Ecdysozoa •   Ecdysis: “to escape”- they all grow by shedding their exoskeleton Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms •   very abundant species •   some are parasitic, some free-living •   bilaterally symmetrical •   flexible and thick cuticle covers their bodies •   pharynx allows them to suck and then pass food through their mouths •   usually sexually reproducing •   pseudocoel body cavity (fairly simple- pressure from being filled allows it to gain rigidly); no defined circulatory system •   ex. Trichinella- trichinosis, Enterobius- pinworms, and Ascaris- intestinal roundworms •   may cause many diseases: ex. filariasis- Filaria, Dirofilaria (canine heartworm) Phylum Onychophora: velvet worms •   segemented, no joints on limbs •   produces sticky slime to catch prey •   ‘living fossil’ •   not many species Phylum Tardigrada: tardigrades- “water bears” •   segmented body, unjointed limbs •   microscopic •   aquatic organisms; may be found with mosses or lichens •   usually sexual reproduction (females lay eggs; may produce genetic identical eggs which would allow for parthenogenesis asexual reproduction) •   can withstand harsh environments (can dry out completely, live for many years) Phylum Anthropoda: insects, crustaceans, spiders •   most diverse animal phylum (insects, crustaceans, myriapods, and chelicerate) •   exoskeletons with jointed appendages (protects and provides a location for muscle attachment) •   segmented body: head (sensory organs), thorax (legs/wing attachment), and abdomen (other organs/reproductive features) •   eyes: generally compound- composed of many ommatidias (many lenses which take in pieces and are assembled clearly by brain; ex. fly); some are simple: ocelli/stemmata (single lenses which distinguish light vs. dark; ex. caterpillar) •   circulatory system: open; reduced coelom •   nervous system: double chain of segmented ganglia go along the ventral surface of body •   respiratory system: no single major organ; small branches (tracheaes) act as air ducts, air then passes through spiracles from trachea •   excretory system: Malpighian tubules Class Chelicerata: ticks, spiders, scorpians •   anterior and posterior body sections o   Arachnida; order araneae: spiders §   some spin webs, many actively hunt §   have poison within their glands Class Crustacea: lobster, shrimp, crabs, barnacles •   larval stage •   two pairs of antennae •   leg pairs •   barnacles- sessile •   crustaceans- parasitic Class Myriapoda: centipedes, millipedes •   many legs •   segmented bodies Subclass Insecta •   most species on earth belong to this class •   various species may include wings •   example: order coleoptera: beetles; order lepidoptera: butterflies and moths Non-Vertebrate Deuterostomes •   zygote has radial cleavage •   indeterminate development of identical daughter cells •   blastopore develops into an anus •   mesoderm from endodermal cells Phylum Echinodermata •   hard, calcium-rich exoskeleton (ossicle plates) under skin o   ossicles diffuse in flexible bodies o   ossicles fuse in rigid bodies •   move and feed using a water vascular system •   secondary radial symmetry- bilaterally symmetrical during larvae development, but then become radially symmetrical; usually in body plan of five •   endoskeleton- epidermis contain neurosensory cells; always growing •   water vascular system- begins in ring canal based near esophagus and five radial canals expand through body; separate from other systems; functions in operate feet: water pressure changes expand and contract tube feet •   coelom works as body cavity •   reproduction- usually sexual and external •   many have the ability to regenerate if their central disk is present •   very diverse; 20 extinct classes, and many currently present o   Class crinoidea- sea lilies and feather stars §   sessile o   Class asteroidean- sea stars, “starfish” o   Class ophiuroidea- brittle stars §   largest class §   slender arms that are used for feeding, not movement o   Class echinoidea- sea urchins and sand dollars §   no distinct arms §   move on tube feet or spines §   some urchins may be venomous, some are herbivores; mouth on ventral side with five teeth §   sand dollars are flat with short spines; scavengers o   Class holothuroidea- sea cucumbers §   scavengers §   inject organs from anus for defense Phylum Xenoturbellida •   “strange flatworms” •   small, no brain or organs; only blind gut Phylum Hemichordata •   “acorn worms” •   burrow in mud •   suspension feed •   share traits with chordates, such as gill slits Phylum Chordata •   characteristics: dorsal nerve cord, notochord, pharyngeal slits, and postanal tail •   dorsal nerve cord- nerve cords run down dorsal (back) part of body •   notochord- stiff and flexible support (replaced by vertebrate in vertebrates) •   pharyngeal pouches- used for filter feeling in non-vertebrates; used for gill slits in aquatic vertebrates Non-vertebrate chordates: •   Cephalochordata- Lancelets o   no scales o   notochord that runs through o   simple; not many organs •   Urochordata- Tunicates o   sessile adults o   tadpole larvae that have chordata characteristics o   filter-feeder o   no major cavity or segmentation Vertebrates: Fishes and Amphibians (chordata continued) •   evolved in ocean •   vertebral column •   distinct head •   neural arch •   internal organs (liver, kidney, endocrine glands, circulatory system) •   endoskeleton •   six groups of fishes: hagfish, lampreys, sharks and rays, ray-finned fishes, coelacanths, and lungfish (over half of vertebrates are fish) •   four groups of terrestrial animals: salamanders and frogs, turtles/snakes/lizards, birds, and mammals Fish •   Hagfish o   no eyes, fins, or jaws •   Lampreys o   dorsal fins, no jaws or eyes •   Chondrichthyes o   sharks and rays o   jaws; teeth- system of losing teeth o   lay eggs or eggs or live birth •   Ray-finned fishes o   body covered in scales o   internal bone skeleton o   highly mobile fins o   lateral line system- allows them to sense pressure within the water o   gill cover (operculum) o   swim bladder- allows for buoyancy in water o   usually external fertilization •   Lungfish o   lobe-finned fishes o   possess lungs o   can support weight while on land Terrestrial •   Amphibians o   legs, lungs, more advanced heart o   eggs prone to desiccation so they lay them in water o   breathe by gulping Reptiles (including birds) Reptilia: turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators and crocodiles •   amniotic egg contains: embryo sack, yolk sac for nutrients, allantois sac for waste, and the albumen provides water •   adaptations for land o   thoracic breathing- expansion of rib cage allows for negative pressure to draw in air o   amniota- breathing through rib cage or diaphragm and improves circulator system; dry and water tight skin, scales made of keratin o   internal fertilization o   cold-blooded: ectothermic- heat obtained from external sources; poikilothermic- body temperature fluctuates with outside temperature (birds and mammals are homoeothermic endotherms) •   Testudinia- turtles and tortoises o   Order Chelonia §   anapsid- differ because they do not have temporal holes in skull §   have a protective shell (carapace- top part, plastron- bottom part) §   turtles- usually aquatic and carnivorous §   tortoises- terrestrial and herbivorous §   must lay eggs on land §   envirornment determines sex §   many migrate §   some grow very large and/or old §   Euryapsida- extinct marine reptile §   o   Order Rhynchocephalia- lizardlike; only found on New Zealand coast; endangered •   Lepidosauria- snakes and lizards o   Order Squamata §   lower jaw not joined to skull directly §   copulatory organ is paired in males §   Mosasaurs- extinct marine lizard §   about 3000 species of snakes •   batesian mimincry- harmless species benefits from looking like a venomous species (ex. scarlet kingsnake looks like coral snake) §   Amphisbaenia- worm lizards •   Crocodilia- crocodiles and alligators o   haven’t changed over millions of years o   resemble birds more than other reptiles (care for young; four-chambered heart) •   Aves- birds o   many dinosaur birds lived through Cretaceous mass extinction §   ex. of dinosaurs: archaeopteryx and microraptor gui o   feathers (reptilian scales were modified) o   flight skeleton (thin and hallow bones) o   present day bird adaptations §   efficient respiration (air flow trades between lungs and different sacs) §   efficient circulatory system §   endothermy (body regulates semi-constant temperature) §   feathers: insulation, signaling, flight §   higher blood pressure and heart beat speed §   large four-chambered heart §   metabolism and skeletal changes allow for more efficient flying •   long keel sternum bone for large flight muscles, produce heat in tissues, hallow bones o   Order Passeriformes- songbirds; 60% of bird species; bright colors and elaborate songs Mammals •   Gradual transition of processors: pelycosaurs, therapsids, then mammals •   Amniotic egg- adaption to living on land; various layers for proper growth •   About 4500 species •   3 main characteristics: hair, endothermy, and lactation o   hair: insulation, camouflage, defense, sensory organ o   mammary glands: females nurse offspring with antibodies and nourishment; about half of energy is milk is from fat o   endothermy: four-chambered heart for circulation, diaphragm, and high metabolism •   placenta- present in some mammals; allows area for exchange of gas, water, and nutrients •   teeth include: incisors, canines, molars •   digestion of plants- do not have proper enzymes to break down cellulose o   some contain certain bacteria’s or have a chambered stomach through evolutionary means, ex. cows •   hooves and horns: o   hooves- pads of kertain o   horns- bone covered in keratin o   antlers- deciduous bone; sexually dimorphic •   some have evolved to flight Mammalian Orders: •   Monotremeres- egg-laying mammals, such as platypus •   Marsupials- pouched mammals; females have 3 vaginal openings; males have double- headed penis •   Placental Mammals (Eutheria) is the largest group o   Subclass Theria; examples: §   Serenians §   Endentates §   Primates- grasping hands and feet; binocular vision, ex. monkeys (anthropoids: higher primates- monkeys, apes, humans) •   Humans evolved language, reduced body hair, bipedalism, and a larger brain §   Rodents- ‘gnawing’ mammals, ex. beavers §   Carnivores- large canine teeth and claws, ex. bears §   Insectivora- eat insects •   Placental and Marsupial mammals have developed to similar ninches •   Mammals have evolved to diverse habitats, including various terrestrial locations •   Mammal have diverse teeth and diets Human Origins: Differing views of hominid tree: •   Lumpers- look at fossil commonalities •   Splitters- focus on fossil differences •   Ardipithecus ramidus- relatively small; 4.4 mya •   Australipithecines- about a meter tall; bipedal; preceeded large brains •   Genus Homo: first humans evolved about 2 mya o   Homo habilus o   Homo rudolfensis o   Homo ergaster •   Homo erectus- larger brain, walked fully upright, larger than homo habilis, rounder jaw and larger brow ridges (1 mya in Africa) •   Modern humans- (600,000 in Africa); four species including homo florensiensis (hobbit) o   Homo sapiens- only surviving hominid, migrated from Africa in three major directions §   Characteristics: tool use, conceptual thought, language- The Vertebrate Body: Form and Function Organization of the Body •   There is a relationship between surface area and volume •   There is a constraint on small and large animals •   Vertebrates are supported by an internal structure •   4 Levels of Organization: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems •   Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve Tissues •   Connective: each secretes a different kind of matrix o   Within extracellular matrix o   Loose connective tissue- provides protection between skin and internal organs o   Bone- structure, support, muscle attachment §   constructed in layers called lamellae around Haversian canals that run parallel to the length of the bone §   contains nerve fibers and blood vessels §   formed by osteoblasts within deep connective tissue o   Cartilage- flexible support and fibers o   Blood- contains plasma and platelets (erythrocytes: red blood cells- contain hemoglobin; leukocytes: white blood cells- fight infection; thrombocytes: platelets) •   Epithelial: covers every major surface of vertebrates o   3 germ layers o   acts as a barrier with regenerative abilities o   has polarity o   apical surface- faces external or internal environment o   basolateral surface- connects to other tissues o   simple- one layer (good for diffusion) o   stratified- multiple layers (good for protection) o   Glands- special tissues that produce and release secretions §   exocrine glands- (ex. sweat glands) §   endocrine glands- lack ducts Muscles o   Cardiac- small cells, connected by gap junctions o   Skeletal- larger, attached to bones or tendons, responsible for muscle contractions o   Smooth- found inside of organs such as guts Nerves •   Transmits electronegative signals to nervous system and throughout nerves o   Myelin sheath acts as an insulator of axons Organs - functional units composed of various types of tissues Organ Systems - work together for body to perform various functions Surface Area and Volume Ratio •   Important for exchange and absorption of materials •   Small animals o   Higher surface area:volume ratio o   Lose heat rapidly o   Need a high metabolism o   Need high food intake •   Large animals o   Lower surface area:volume ratio o   Need thicker bones Homeostasis •   The body must maintain proper levels of heat, water, electrolytes, blood glucose, blood pressure, and pH. •   Endothermy vs. Ectothermy •   Homeothermy vs. Heterothermy •   Overview: o   sense stimulus o   compare to level needed o   respond •   Negative feedback- responds to stimulus in opposite way to return levels to proper standing (ex. blood glucose levels- islets of Langerhans in pancreas monitor; insulin is produced when levels get too high) o   Antagonistic effectors: increasing activity of one factor, lowers the activity of another •   Positive feedback- drive conditions farther from needed levels respond in same direction of stimulus Body Temperature •   Hypothalamus decreases temperature by sweating and dilation of blood vessels vs. Hypothalamus increases temperature by shivering and constricting blood vessels •   Ectoderms: rely on envirornmental heat vs. Endoderms: maintain their own body temperature •   Homeothermic: do not allow temperature to fluctuate vs. Heterothermic: allow temperature to fluctuate •   Adaption: allows extremities to get cold while core body temperature is contained (ex. whale tongues and some bird feet) •   Not all mammals must maintain a constant temperature: ex. dessert animals; hibernation Water and Electrolyte Balance •   Regulate water and the concentration of: sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, etc. •   Solutes move by diffusion (high to low concentration) •   Water moves by osmosis (high to low concentration) o   Osmotic pressure of a solution: measure of its likelihood to take in water o   Osmoconformers- osmolality of body fluid is isotonic/same with seawater (most marine invertebrates, hagfish, sharks) §   Sharks: ATP pumps sodium chloride into gills and out of rectal glands o   Most animals are not isotonic with their environment §   Freshwater fish- hypertonic (water tends to enter body) §   Marine bony fish- hypotonic (water tends to leave body) §   Terrestrial animals- breathing and evaporation o   How can salmon be a freshwater and marine fish? §   They alter their gill filament and are able to secrete and import electrolytes •   Removal of water/salts is coupled with removal of metabolic waste (ex. ammonia) o   Insects- Malpighian tubules o   Crustaceans- antennal glands o   Flatworms- flame cells o   Earthworms- nephridia o   Many terrestrial vertebrates: obtain water from consumption and lose it through urine o   Mammals convert ammonia to urea §   Allatonin converts uric acid to be more soluble o   Birds, reptiles, insects convert it to uric acid Kidney •   Top part: cortex •   Bottom part: medulla •   Receives blood from renal artery •   Made of thousands of nephrons which all have a bent tube (mammals have millions) •   Glomerulus is the filter on the top of each nephron •   Water is passed through filter and pulled into tissues along tubes •   Reabsorption of glucose and amino acids through active transport •   Secretion of waste Digestion 1.   Fragmentation 2.   Chemical digestion 3.   Absorption 4.   Secretion Digestive Tract: •   Mouth- jaws and teeth are modified for specific diets; tongues mix food with saliva •   Esophagus- muscles contact and move food down esophagus •   Stomach- endocrine glands contain parietal (secrete hydrochloric acid) and chief (secrete pepsinogen) cells •   Small intestine- divided into duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; walls covered in villi and microvilli; massive surface area •   Large intestine- small intestine empties into large intestine •   Rectum •   Anus •   Salivary glands •   Liver- secretes bile •   Gallbladder- stores bile •   Pancreas- secretes digestive enzymes; controls blood glucose •   Digestive systems may differ between organisms, ex. ruminants- large, divided stomachs Ventilation, Circulation, and Respiration •   Exchange of O a2d CO thro2gh diffusion or breathing •   Oxygen taken in and directed to tissues •   Carbon dioxide removed and excreted •   Variation in available oxygen: o   Organisms who live in higher altitudes and in the water have specific adaptations o   Warmer temperature holds less oxygen o   Higher altitudes hold less oxygen o   Water holds less oxygen o   More solutes lead to less oxygen •   All gases must diffuse in and out of the body o   Frick’s law of diffusion •   Maximizing respiration o   Increased surface area of structures o   Thin respiratory structures Structures •   Aquatic organisms: gills o   External gills are more efficient but have disadvantages o   Internal gills require water to move across them §   Countercurrent flow maximizes oxygen diffusion •   Terrestrial organisms: tracheae (insects) and lungs (terrestrial vertebrates) o   Tracheae- body movement pushes air through tracheae o   Positive pressure breathing in frogs o   Negative pressure breathing in mammals §   Boyle’s law: pressure decreases when volume increases §   Flow: larynx, trachea, left and right bronchi, bronchioles, and then alveoli §   Alveoli- gas exchange: small diffusion and massive surface area o   Birds- gas exchange in parabronchi; cross-current blood flow; air sacs take in air and push it through the lungs Blood •   Plasma- fluid matrix with blood cells and platelets •   Erythrocytes- red blood cells; carry oxygen •   Leukocytes- white blood cells; defend the body •   Platelets- cell fragments from cytoplasm of bone marrow cells; help blood to clot Circulatory Systems •   Systemic circulation- take oxygenated blood from lungs to throughout body •   Pulmonary circulation- returns deoxygenated blood to lungs •   Renal artery- sends blood to kidneys for filtration •   Transportation- respiratory, nutrition, excretory, hormones •   Protection- blood clotting, immune defense •   Regulation- hormone transport, temperature regulation •   Open vs. closed circulatory system o   open: hemolymph leaves vessels and comes into direct contact with tissues o   closed: blood never leaves vessels •   Arties- carry blood from heart (larger muscles and smaller space- high blood pressure) •   Veins- carry blood to heart (smaller muscles and larger space- lower blood pressure) •   Capillaries- carry blood from the arterial to venous system •   Systolic phase- contraction •   Diastolic phase- relaxation •   Lymphatic System- collects interstitial fluid and returns in to the blood; plays a large role in immune responses •   Amphibian, fish, and mammals/birds/crocodiles have various circulatory systems Nervous System •   Central nervous system: brain, spiral cord •   Peripheral nervous system: nerves- sensory pathways; motor pathways: somatic and automatic: sympathetic and parasympathetic) •   Signals are sent to effector cells from the brain •   When reflexes occur, sensory information bypasses the brain •   Neuron: signals travel through electrical signals by action potentials o   between synapses (intercellular junctions)- chemicals signal neurotransmitters o   sodium potassium pump pushes out 3 positive sodium ions and brings in 2 potassium ions (reduces net charge by 1+) o   resting potential (inside of cell is more negative) and action potential (once a specific level of depolarization is reached) o   membrane potential results in activation of gated ion channels o   Somatic motor neurons- stimulate skeletal muscle contractions o   Autonomic motor neurons- regulate activity of muscles and glands o   Glutamine- main excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS o   Glycine and GABA are inhibitory neurotransmitters Evolution of Nervous System: •   Developed independently within various phyla •   Brain o   Hindbrain was the principle component in early vertebrates o   Forebrain contains thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum o   Cerebral cortex controls much of the neural activity o   Left hemisphere dominant for language o   Right hemisphere is dominant in spatial reasoning o   Memory is within multiple parts of the brain; includes short (electrical impulses) and long-term (structural changes in connections) §   Alzheimer’s disease- loss of memories and eventually higher brain functions •   Spinal cord o   Relays messages and functions in reflexes •   Somatic neurons- stimulate skeletal muscles to contract to conscious commands •   Autonomic nervous system o   Sympathetic- ‘fight or flight’ §   Epinephrine is produced in adrenal gland then norepinephrine is produced as well o   Parasympathetic- ‘rest and digest’ Sensory Systems 1.   Stimulus 2.   Transduction to electrical charge 3.   Transmission to action potential 4.   Interpretation of stimulus •   Environmental Stimuli o   Mechanical forces (ex. pressure and sound) §   Detecting temperature and pressure: cutaneous receptors; thermoreceptors (naked dendrite sensitive to temp. changes); sensors in hypothalamus to maintain internal body temperature; nociceptors transmit impulses perceived as pain §   Sensing movement and vibration: hair cells sense movement; within a lateral line system, cupula move with vibrations which bend cilia and stimulates neurons §   Gravity and angles sensed by vestibular apparatus in mammalian inner ear; cupula- through ear canal and ear drum •   Cochlea is the inner part of the ear- detects specific frequencies and sounds o   Elephants can produce infrasound o   Bats can produce ultrasound for echolocation o   Chemical stimuli (ex. taste and smell) §   Chemoreceptors contain membrane proteins that can bind to particular chemicals §   Taste buds mediate taste in vertebrates, ex. bitter and sweet §   Other organs may be used such as hairs or tongues o   Electromagnetic and thermal stimuli (ex. heat and magnetism) §   Eyes start simple, ex. flatworms can detect light and no image §   Binocular vision- ability to have 3D images and have depth perception §   Vertebrates and cephalopods have ‘camera eyes’- light enters and is focused •   Rods cells- black and white vision •   Cone cells- sharpness and color vision §   Images are processed though the brain Skeletal System •   Hydrostatic skeletons- fluid-filled cavity with muscles surrounding; muscles contact, moving cavity shape •   Exoskeletons- limit body size; must shed skeleton •   Endoskeleton- rigid skeletons with muscles attached o   Axial skeleton- axis of body and support o   Appendicular skeleton- limbs on body •   Joints: movable, slightly moveable, immovable •   Muscles- antagonistic; attach to bone by tendons o   Skeletal- Type I: slow twitch fibers (more capillaries and mitochondria); Type II: fast twitch fibers o   Cardiac o   Smooth o   Synergists- muscles that cause action at joint o   Antagonists- muscles that produce opposite actions o   Muscles are made of muscle fibers, which are made of myofilaments: §   Thick, dark A bands §   Thin, light I bands §   Sarcomere: sections chunked ‘vertically’ from Z line to Z line §   Purple actin filaments (thinner) surround and slide towards middle of red myosin filaments (thicker) §   ATP is essential for this process o   Muscles may produce lactic acid if they are strained for oxygen and switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration The Endocrine System Chemical Signals: •   Autocrine and Paracrine- localized signaling (ex. inflammation and blood clotting); do not enter circulatory system o   Paracrine- cytokines, growth factors, and neurotrophins §   Prostaglandins- participate in inflammation, ovulation, clotting, gastric secretions, etc. §   Aspirin and drugs such as aspirin may inhibit these processes •   Endocrine- hormones pass through bloodstream •   Neural Signals- neurotransmitters •   Neuroendocrine- neurotransmitters through bloodstream •   Pheromones- messenger compounds released to environment to signal/act on others (ex. alarm and sex/mating pheromones) Endocrine System: •   Endocrine glands release hormones into the blood •   Non-soluble hormones bind to membrane and sends signal or bind to gated ion channels •   Soluble hormones enter cell through membrane •   3 major types of hormones: o   peptides and polypeptides, ex. growth, anti-diuretic hormone, oxytocin, o   amino acids, ex. adrenaline, and thyroxine o   steroids, ex. testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol •   Though these may circulate through the whole body, only certain parts will be affected o   ex. adrenaline will only respond in specific tissues or it may target heart •   Negative feedback loops •   Pituitary gland o   directly connects to hypothalamus o   produces ADH and oxytocin o   anterior pituitary- master gland §   produces own hormones and these hormones act on other glands §   ex. growth hormone: stimulates growth of muscle, bone, and tissues o   posterior pituitary- ADH- antidiuretic hormone to kidney tubules •   Thyroid gland o   front of throat o   produces thyroxine, which stimulates cell respiration o   in amphibians, it plays a role in forming larvae to adults •   Parathyroid gland o   four glands attached to thyroid o   produces parathyroid hormone which helps release osteoclasts in bones to dissolve calcium and therefore release calcium into the blood •   Adrenal glands o   above kidneys o   inner medulla and outer cortex o   medulla- produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and sends signals to nervous system o   cortex- produces corticosteroids which maintains glucose •   Pancreas o   near stomach; connected to duodenum o   helps regulate insulin and glucagon (antagonistic actions) §   Type I diabetes- pancreas doesn’t produce insulin §   Type II diabetes- tissues become resistant to insulin due to overwhelming of sugar •   Others: o   Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone o   Testes produce androgens and testosterone o   Pineal gland- secretes melatonin which regulates biological clocks o   Molting/Metamorphosis- regulated by brain hormone (ecdysone) and juvenile hormone) Disrupting Endocrine Channels: •   Chemicals which interfere with hormone function: hormone agonists •   Chemicals which block receptor site so hormone doesn’t go to correct site: hormone antagonists •   ex. thyroid gland removed from tadpole leads to metamorphosis into an adult frog Sex and Reproduction •   Asexual reproduction- genetically identical cells are produced from a parent cell •   Sexual reproduction- new individual (zygote) forms from the union of two gametes •   Parthenogenesis- virgin birth; exclusive, alternating, haplodiploidy •   Hermaphroditism- an organism has both sex organs o   Sequential- change from being males to females and vice versa Sex Determination: •   either environment or chromosomes will determine sex •   secondary sex characteristic arise later in development Fertilization and Development: •   External fertilization- sperm is released to environment and eggs are fertilized •   Oviparity- eggs fertilized internally and deposited outside to continue development •   Ovoviviparity- fertilized eggs remain inside female but all nourishment is obtained from yolk sac •   Viviparity- young develop inside mother and obtain nourishment from her blood o   Bony fish- most eggs externally fertilized o   Sharks and rays- eggs internally fertilized o   Amphibians- fertilization usually external; eggs developed in water; staged life cycles o   Reptiles- oviparous, and lay amniotic eggs o   Birds- internal fertilization; homoeothermic (keep eggs warm); young are nurtured o   Mammals- females usually go through cycles/estrous cycles: release of mature ovum §   FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) from pituitary gland drive changes in cycle §   Estrous cycles are not continuous §   Menstrual cycles are continuous §   Some animals are induced ovulators §   Monotremes (primitive mammals)- oviparous; produce milk with no nipples §   Marsupials- birth developed fetuses which continue development in the pouch §   Placental- retain young for long period of development Development of Reproductive Systems: •   Males o   XY embryos develop testes o   Leydig cells in tissue between tubules secrete testosterone o   Testosterone develops penis and scrotum o   Testes descend into scrotum before birth §   Seminiferous tubule contains germinal cells which will become sperm through meiosis §   1 spermatocyte forms 4 sperm §   Spermatozoa- contains head with nucleus and capped by acrosome (enzyme to help with egg penetration) §   FSH stimulates Sertoli cells which help sperm development §   LH stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone •   Females o   With no testosterone, embryo develops a clitoris and labia majora o   Embryotic ovaries have ovarian follicles with an egg cell and granulosa cell o   Puberty leads to secondary sexual characteristics via estrogen o   Menstrual cycle §   Menstrual cycle divided into follicular and luteal phase §   Follicular/ovulation: higher estradiol levels cause LH to induce follicle to burst §   Luteal phase: secretes estrogen a


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