l Format for final exam:
10 geography questions (3 points each): Match the number that corresponds to the location in the description
5 IDs (8 points each): Write 23 sentences defining each term and explaining its historical significance
2 Essays (15 points each): 5+ sentences answering the question or questions.
Please be able to locate and explain the significance of the following cities or regions: ∙ Aachen4
Carolingian empire under Charlemagne
Palace and leaders at Aachen
Included administrative infrastructure: counts and missi dominici (messengers of the lord)
Center of learning
Beacon of education
∙ Baghdad 10
Abbasid caliphate established capital at Baghdad
House of wisdom (ulama would go there to train)
Greek and Roman texts from everywhere go to the house of wisdom to be translated to Arabic
Had public libraries
Widespread use of paper
Seljuk Turks take Baghdad
∙ Cordoba 1
We also discuss several other topics like What is pacs (political action committees)?
became the political and cultural center of the Islamic west
umayyad stayed in the Iberian peninsula, capital made at Cordoba
Huge center of learning
The byzantine empire was in Constantinople
People spoke Greek and called themselves romans.
Centralized Government > the basillus
Constantinople was destroyed during the Nike riots
After the riots, it was renovated and defined as Byzantine We also discuss several other topics like What is an old palace abandoned after myecanean age?
Entire region taken over by the ottoman turks in 1453 > collapse of the byzantine ∙ Ireland2
Peaked as a place of importance in 9th century
6th – 9th century: golden age of innovation We also discuss several other topics like What is the goal is to minimize total fraud costs?
People converted to Christianity by St. Patrick (slavery was not Christian) Celtic Monastic Rule: catholic Christians reported to the pope
Only place you could have gotten an education
Invaded by the Vikings.
∙ Jerusalem 7
first crusade, Jerusalem was captured
Jerusalem becomes a separate kingdom
Battle of hattin paved way by Saladin to retake Jerusalem
Known as the holy land
∙ Mecca 9
Where Hajj is taken place
People of medina decide to retake Mecca with 10,000 people
The Ka’ba (site for trade and religious gatherings) is located in mecca ∙ Medina 8
Burial place of prophet Mohammad
Second holiest city in Islam
Medina was Mohammad’s destination after his hijrah from mecca
Al medina simply means the city
∙ Normandy 3
Battleground (Viking raids)
permanent settlement for the Vikings We also discuss several other topics like What does it take to win an election?
∙ Scandinavia 5
Vikings are the Norsemen that left Scandinavia
(GermanicSpeaking people from Scandinavia)
Please be able to identify the following individuals and explain their contributions to history ∙ Constantine
First Christian emperor of Rome.
Reunified the empire
He made Christianity a lawful religion in Roman society
He founded the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. ∙ Charlemagne We also discuss several other topics like What is separation distress?
or Charles the Great, was king of the Franks, 768814, and emperor of the carolingian empire(West, 800814).
He founded the Holy Roman Empire, stimulated European economic and political life, and fostered the cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
Carolingian empire under his rule became the largest in Western Europe since the fall of Rome
∙ Leif Eriksson
first to set foot in the new world, opening a new land rich with resources for the vikings to explore. Norse/ Viking
Son of erik the red
His father was Exiled
Discovered north america
∙ Justinian and Theodora
Theodora was the empress of the Byzantine empire.
Hagia Sophia built under them.
Theodora was a circus performer. Renovation of cities.
Justinian made Law codes, and expanded empire. If you want to learn more check out What is bluetooth?
Marchant who turned prophet.
Followers called themselves Muslims.
Angel in the form of man told him to spread the message that there was only one God, and revealed the Qur’an.
Qur’an was his spiritual teachings written in Arabic. Founder of Islam ∙ Pope Urban II
Called first crusade to take Nicaea and the Levant.
He granted a plenary indulgence to all of those who crusade. Responsible for the first crusade.
was sultan of Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Yemen
founded the Ayyubid dynasty, and captured Jerusalem from the Christians. Was respected by Christians because he let them go instead of killing them. Was an anticrusader and ended christian attempt to take egypt
Launched biggest land battle in jerusalem: Battle of Hatin
∙ Genghis Khan
“Universal Leader”, leader of the mongols and controlled the largest land empire. Rapidly expanded the Mongol Empire.
Band tribes together and took local territories.
Established trade routes with high speed horses, also establishing postal service. Transmit messages within hours.
Used brutal war tactics
Allowed for the transmission of black death
∙ Ferdinand and Isabella
Started spanish inquisition
Isabella was super religious; iberian muslims and jews were driven out Continued reconquista
Please be able to define and explain the significance of the following: ∙ Caesaropapism
when the emperor is head of the state and church (double power);
started by Constantine
∙ Council of Nicaea
Constantine standardized christianity (325CE);
Meeting of Christian Bishops;
Closed canon of New Testament
Lived in a common
lived under an abbot
started out living in caves (monks)
Scriptoriums (preserving manuscript)
Emperor of Byzontine empire
Roughly translates to “Head of Courts”, Justinian & Theodora(Example)
∙ Nike Riots
30,000 were killed
Let to the Destruction of Constantinople. Rebuilt after riots.
building at the center of AlMasjid AlHaram in Mecca.
Before Islam: Trade hub, peaceful place where idols were kept; house of rock built by abraham
Site of Hajj
The word of god that contains revelations to his prophet muhammad The holy book of islam, “finest piece of literature in arabic history” Chapters: Surahs, Verses, ayas
It is not about Mohammed’s life
God is not personified
Leader of the muslim community
∙ “House of Wisdom”
Translated Greek/Roman text, originated in Baghdad
spread the use of paper
∙ The Great Schism
A split with the [roman catholic] church. ( Latin Christian and Eastern Orthodox.) The cause of it was over papal authority.
∙ Gregorian Reforms
Reformed the clergy
more educated clergy
integrity of clergy: banned simony, enforced celibacy
∙ Plenary Indulgence
If fought in crusade, buying for forgiveness
Granted to those in the crusade by pope Urban II
used to help Alexius I against the turks
land captured by spanish;
Umayyad conquest of iberian peninsula;
resumed apocalypticism and land competition
For the test, please be able to…
1) Trace the transmission of Greek and Latin texts and ideas from the Fall of Rome to the 12thcentury Renaissance through more than one route
After the fall of Rome only a few centers remained in Europe.
2) Explain the political and religious factors that led up to the Crusades Before the Gregorian reforms (11th and 12th century) there was a low literacy rate among local clergy & laity and there was little understanding of Christian theology.
After the reforms there was an increase in education in the clergy, enforcement of laws concerning chastity, simony and pluralism for the clergy, and an overall increased presence of the Church. This marked an increase in Christianity where there was a rise in persecution for nonchristians.
3) Describe the effects that the Black Death had on Europe culturally, religiously and politically
Originated in Cambodia from fleas and rats. Airborne. Appeared in 1340s in China along coast, same time Genghis Khan establish trade routes. Europe establish new trade routes with middle east.
Harvests were ruined. People were starving to death. People leaving farms going into city to find jobs, increased urbanization. Wheat begins to be stored, gets moldy due to humidity. Rats begin to increase. 7090% fatalities, areas heavily affected by trade. Death to 19 million people in 14th century. The economy suffered for a while because with the half the population lost, there was no one at the time to come in for those jobs. Increased in religious fervor, people try to find who is blamed. Jews get blamed , people are being burned alive & exiled. Accused of not believing in god and poisoning wells. AntiSemitism.
Longterm results: Increased wages, falling prices for goods all which were caused by the lowering of the population
4) Describe how the balance of power shifted between Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Middle East throughout the medieval period
500 CE: Eastern Europe strongest military, everyone could read, not super educated but literate. They had a strong economy and organized bureaucracy.
700950 CE: Middle East/ N Africa They had a strong caliphate (political and religious unity)They had a strong military and large land holding.
5) Compare the Viking and Columbian contacts with North America in terms of their impact on the peoples and environment of North America
Vikings were master navigators who were in search of arable land and because they went through a population explosion, they decided to set out to find new land.
Traveled to Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland with Eric the Red
Also traveled to Newfoundland/Vinland with Bjarni Herjolfsson and Leif Eriksson, were repelled by the Native Americans because they did not want conflict and the climate was colder Less diseases, better military, natives were not dying because they (natives) were healthier
The Spanish, lead by Christopher Columbus, brought new crops, new diseases, new animals like horses.
Since they landed in a warmer climate, diseases were able to thrive unlike if they were to land up north like the Vikings did.
The Spanish were exposed to more they were able to pass more diseases off to animals and people. BECAUSE OF THE SHIPS