infancy final study guide
infancy final study guide Psyc3260
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc3260 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Bourgeois in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Infancy in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Infancy 3260 Student Study Guide EXAM 3 FINAL Chapter 9 What physical and motor developments are seen in 12- to 18-month- old children? Walk up and down stairs with help. Straighter and more consistent steps. Can perceive how different types of surfaces affect locomotion. Use objects as means toward a goal. What type of surfaces do infants prefer walking on? Matte and rigid Give an example of a tertiary circular reaction. How do these differ from primary and secondary circular reactions? Active experimentation and the search for novelty. Can adapt to new situations. Figuring out which objects fit best into specific containers. How does the child’s ability to imitate develop over this time period? They can imitate novel actions. Begin to understand intentionality What changes are seen in infant memory and categorization? Remember and comprehend cause and affect over long time. Large generalized schema (animals) What positive and negative emotions are seen in 12- to 18-month olds? Remain happy over longer periods without continued stimulation. Play active role in creating situations that produce/ maintain happiness. Delight in own achievement. Show affection from a distance. Work to control distress. Show elation and delight. Understand the basic properties of language semantics (meaning) productivity (ability to express different meanings) and displacement (describe distant/ absent objects or abstract concepts)…. Syntax, pragmatics Be able to identify and describe past and present theories of language o learning – language as delayed imitation” “generalization” (cant explain linguistic universals of syntax and cant explain why is it acquired at the particular time in infants life o behavioral ecology (CHOMSKY) innate universal grammar. BUT Too many exceptions to rules of infant grammar o functional (once joint attention is created it is relatively easy for infants to begin associating objects/ event with words)interactive systems theory. Milestones are achievements of parent- infant dyad Discuss coordinated joint attention as a frame for language development; compare mothers with peers. What is particularly helpful in developing children’s language to more advanced levels? a joint focus on attention makes it easier for infants to associate objects and events with words. More likely to acquire the correct word when they are looking at the object. Use more words and gestures with the mother than with peers or alone. .. adults can use combination of pointing, showing and words to highlight specific features of the object. The more mothers do this the more advanced the childs language skills. o Emphasie single words, shared book reading Describe the emergence of conventional gestures and words; can babies be taught conventional gestures? At what rate do infants acquire new words when they first start speaking? First acquire words at a rate of 1-3 words per month (object, social interactions, and simple concepts first.) children can be taught conventional gestures prior to having acquired words What is the relationship between language production and language comprehension? Comprehension comes before production. Can understand 50 words at 13 months but cannot speak 50 words till 19 months. How do infants communicate with peers at this age? Very little, mostly parallel play What is the effect of mother’s presence on the way an infant plays with peers? More likely to initiate play, more likely to seek physical cotact and show negative emotions with mothers. One study showed infants were more sociable and less negative to peers when mothers were not there. What other situational constraints affect peer relationships? Understand the sense of an elaborated subjective self- exaggerated facial experessions and social actions as if to explore their own subjectivity in relation o another. The communicate more intentionally. They discover that they have some emotion regulation skills. will oook toward someone for confirmation of an achievement but will also recognize the achievement for themselves What factors mediate the effects of child care on child outcomes? Quality of care and the quality of the family environment Should parents be concerned about child care for children under 1? Why/why not? Depdns on quality of child care and home environment. More hours in child care under age 1 is related to lower school readiness at age 5 How do the child care policies of the U.S. differ from other countries? More than half of the young children in the us are n second-rate child care situations . US subsidizes child care for less than 10% of children under 6 years. (compared to 100% in Sweden 90% in france and 50% in Israel and hungary) Chapter 10 Understand Preoperational Stage VI the invention of new means through mental combinations children can think about the possible path to a goal and eliminate the most improbably ones and only then act. Understand that infants at this age begin to know about symbols. Understand symbolic objects are not that same as the thing is represents How do can they categorize objects at this age? Learn to categorize by sequential order, or by cause and effect. (can remember sequence up to 2 weeks later) Do smart toys, TV, and the Internet make babies smarter? No especially DVD and TV What changes are seen in emotional development during this time period? What is the infant’s predominant emotional expression? Self conscious emotions emerge. Adult have active role in emotion regulation. Adopt emotion-regulation styles found in families. Laughter How does symbolic thought affect the child’s emotional experiences? (think about nightmares) fear can be envoked by a symbolic mental image What emotion does a child experience when recognizing one’s self for the first time? embarassment What self-conscious emotions develop during this stage? Contrast shame and pride prise is the result of metting their own standards, awareness of having accomplished a personal goal….shame always felt in the eyes of someone else, communicates failulre What is a transitional object? Are they useful? Objects that help create security for the child (blankets) How do infants at this age cope with stress? What is the role of the parent in developing emotion regulation? Transitional objects. Seem to be little need for transitional objects when children have continued access to physical contact. Parents should let children resolves issues themselves. Children are better regulated if mothers have talked with them about children’s feelings What happens to children and their parents during separations? What suggestions are given for making separations smoother? By 2 years toddlers understand parents will return after a separation. Separation is more smooth if the parents prepares the child and gives instructions for what to do during separation, if dopped off at a familiar setting, if the caregiver stays at a distance shortly before departure, if dropped of by father rather than mother (because mother took longer to leave the children) What is the vocabulary spurt? +5 words per week When does it usually occur? Around 18 months How do sentences begin to develop? around 20 months telegraphic speech. How can parents help their children develop better language skills? using speech that is more responsive to a childs focus of interest, clear speech Describe guided participation and discuss how it helps children become competent in language. Are they cultural differences? Children set the agenda, the child takes an active role in observing and participating in the organized activities. Establish coordinated joint attention ebased on childs initiatives, the adult transfers responsibility for larger segments of the task to the child. o Cultural difference- mother from the US acted more like peers, wanting to take turns.. maya mothers retained more of an adult- child status differential. o When adults participate in children spontaneous actions, children can achieve higher levels of language, plu, and cognitive development. Develop higher levels of symbolic play when mothers give more options that stimulate creativity. Describe Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Infant skills that are in the process of developing (what they can do WITH help) What is the best way for parents to discipline and guide their children? Authoritative What are some of the findings related to the use of spanking (corporal punishment)? Different for white and AA and hispanic families. White children who were spanked were at 5x greater risk for later behavioral problems. For AA and Hispanic families there is no relationship seen as normal parenting. When given a choice, who does the infant prefer to play with? Peer over mothers Discuss changes in peer relationships at this age begins to take on a more game-like quality. Words are used a little, little cooperation and collarboration. Understand self-awareness and the development of the existential self. How do children who are more self- and other- aware behave? Begin to create a whole picture of themselves as someone who can be recognized and distinguished. They recognize themselves in a mirror, categorize and and remember familiar sequences. o Begin to use personal pronouns. o Begin to reason about others people’s desires. o Infants who are more self and other aware More securely attached Show more concern for others distress Can coordinate mirror image imitation More competent with peers What was the rouge mirror test? Self recognition. Do students know its them in the mirror (if yes they will touch their foreheads, if not they will look for someone else) How do autistic children differ from typically developing children. Be able to identify behavioral characteristics. Fail to develop existential self. Impaired ability to interact socially, speech and langage deficits and unusual movements of the body. Chapter 11 What small motor and large motor changes are seen in the third year? Adult hand preference. Draw simple shapes. Small motor ( use large crayons and pencils, hand gestures, and building yors, use pint and clay) large motor ( rides large wheeled toys, walk up and down stairs with both feet on each step, jump with two foot take off, throw a ball, walk sideways and backwards, run, hop) What is exercise play? Physically vigorous playful movements When dnds it derdlop and what does it do for children? Develops during the 2 and 3 year. Accounts for 7-14 % of behavior in day care settings. Higher activity level for boys. o Benefits Increases fitness, endurance, strength and skill May reduce rat and increase the ability of the body to regulate temperature May enhance cognitive ability. Understand the relationship between language and thought or action. What is private speech? Self produced actions. Able to correct their errors and persist until task was completed. Attention span increases. Private speech is the use of language to self-regulate. How does pretend play develop during this period? Can children this age differentiate between reality and make believe? Begins acting out roles of mothers and fathers or other important figures in their lives. Understand the difference between real and make beleive What is meant by categorical self? Understanding that you are part of different conceptual categories. What is the difference between autobiographical memory and participatory memory? Autobiogrpahical is the sense of ones own life events created in CONVERSATION with others. Participatory is relived memories. Seem to have physical memory but no verbal recall or explanation. When do children begin saying they are a boy or a girl? About 18 months How does gender labeling influence gender stereotyping? Boys are more concerned with not acting like a girl. What role do parents play in toy choices for children? Parents unconsciously socialize children into acting out their gender What sex differences are observed in emotional communication with children? Girls are more caring and have more concern for others. Talk more about emotions. Parents are more likely to provide a way to resolve daughters emotions interpersonally. Understand “theory of mind.” When is it fully developed and what abilities are necessary to have theory of mind? An understanding that other people have psychological states which may be different than their own. Fully developed around 4 years. When does empathy develop? Why is this important? 2 year olds seem to have a asense of empathy. Know that children at 3 years old have different types of laughter comment, chuckle, phythmical, squeal How does culture influence emotion regulation? Give a specific example Who would you expect to be the most physically aggressive child (boys or girls and at what age is aggression highest)? Boys and higher between 24 and 36 months Understand the various changes in speech and language development that occur at this age (e.g., nouns/verbs, adding proper endings, overregularization, asking questions). Acquire nouns faster than verbs. Source- path – goal. Overregularization (ed, s) after mastering subject-verb-object component of sentences begin asking questions What changes are seen in defiance and refusal to cooperate during the third year (do they increase or decrease)? Defiance and refusals gradually diminish, start to use negotiation strategies. What accounts for increasing peer coordination at this age? Incorporate sumbolic play into peer interactions. Begin to imitate each other, first nonverbally and then verbally. Emergence of complementary roles and alternative responses. The growing use of language What are dominance hierarchies? The members of a group are ranked according to their relative power or lack of power over others. What family factors and sociocultural factors affect peer relationships? Birth order (without siblings more sociable than firstborns but firstborns more sociable than later born) , attachment style, self-control, how family-oriented a family is, Understand impact and dynamics of sibling relationships. Should parents intervene in sibling disputes? Siblings relationships based on: each ones relationship with mom, older siblings prior relationships outside the family, sex/age difference, temperaments, and parental interventions. Parents can help siblings learn to negotiate ( when intervening cant favor younger siblings or pick on older siblings.) if the oldest child is before the age of 3 parents must get involved. o Younger imitate others and are more likely to follow directions and that designated roles o Older more likely to give direction and orient attention, more like to support and tease younger sibling. Use motherese o Chapter 12 Understand the concept that development is a complex dynamic process. No single factor predicts later outcomes, development is multifactorial, no two individuals respond the same to the same factors, What are the 2 basic principles of developmental change? Development is a complex multifactor process. No two individuals respond in the same way to the same factor Is infancy an important period of life even if we don’t have autobiographical memory of it? Yes, impact later life even if we cannot trace that impact to a specific event. Understand the general findings for each area in terms of research on continuity between early and later development. (This shouldn’t be too difficult. The majority of this information has been covered previously in the semester. This is a good summary of the major research findings in these areas.) o Perinatal Factors long term effects are more likely when perinatal risks are more severe, teratgoens (especially those that occur during periods of rapid growth) prenatal stress (ongoing) variability in the outcome interventions reduce risk if infants are not at risk it is hard to predict behavior based on this period o Motor Development Simulation of motor systems advances motor development in theshort term but NOT long term Practice helps have pre school but not before o Parental Contributions Not whether mother works but if she enjoys it Not if they go to child care but the quality Consistency of attachment (definitely for short term) Gravitate to people with same attachment style When behaviors are severe (disorganized attachment) more likely to predict future maladaptive behavior Internal working models may account for long-term consistencies in attachment… but there are individual differences Guided participation enhances childs competence and sense of participations. More likely to have children with advanced languages and cognititve skills. Parental proactive parenting strategies is related to infant compliance Social competence intelligence and attentional control, emotion regulation and language ability is correlated with maternal vocalization, contingent responsiveness, and parenting involvement Lack of responsiveness predicts disruptive behavior problems during early and middle childhood (maternal depression) o Risk and Disadvantage Poverty- depression, poor peer relationships, social withdrawal and low self-esteem. More likely to have physical ailments, school problems, aggressiveness, deviant behavior and language and cognitive deficits. Resilience Stress- multiple or long term stresses create cyclical patterns of increasing risk and deprivation (more likely ot e associated with long term emotional or behavioral disorders later in life) Child is less likely to be affect by parental psychopathology is there is a sensitive non-pathological parent available. Abuse and neglect Deprivation Malnutrition Importance of early intervention. 0-3 o Culture individualistic vs. collectivist. Older siblings provide child care Cultural influences affects social and emotional processes (sharing empathy and self disclosure) and gender-specific behavior Variability within cultures o Gender By age 3 children begin to express a gender identity and adopt gender role- appropriate behavior Individual difference in gender-role orientation exist Don’t understand continuity of gender Fathers have especially strong gender-role socialization behavior Boys and girls process information differently They require different types of environmental inputs to maintain their levels of cognitive growth o Intellectual Development greater skill in problem solving and exploratory play in the 2 ndand 3 year o Exposure in the 1 year to an enriched home environment with a variety of objects o Age-appropriate play is beneficial o Efficicency of information processing in the first 6 months predicts later cognitive development o Infants who habituate quickly are likely to have more advanced cognitive and language outcomes o Early verbal interaction is one of the strongest predictors of language competence o Temperament Limited evidence of continuity More long term stability is extreme groups
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