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ODU / Engineering / BIOL 322 / What is the study of systems in state of constant motion at rest and c

What is the study of systems in state of constant motion at rest and c

What is the study of systems in state of constant motion at rest and c

Description

School: Old Dominion University
Department: Engineering
Course: Anatomical Kinesiology
Professor: Phil sabatini
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Final Review Guide
Description: Put together some of the most important stuff from all the test
Uploaded: 04/27/2016
7 Pages 164 Views 2 Unlocks
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Final Exam Review 


What is the study of systems in state of constant motion at rest and constant velocity?



Anatomical Position

In the anatomical position, body is:

– Standing erect

– Eyes look straight

– Upper limbs hang by sides

– Palms of the hands facing forwards

– Lower limbs parallel

– Feet together  

– Toes pointing forwards

Anatomical Adjectives

Superior – closer to head or higher than another structure (cranial) Inferior – closer to feet or lower than another structure Anterior – front side in anatomical position (ventral) Posterior – back side in anatomical position (dorsal) Medial – closer to midline


What is the study of systems not in steady-state motion at acceleration is non-zero?



Lateral – away from midline

Distal – farther from trunk

Proximal – closer to trunk

Distal/Proximal continued

Superficial – closer to surface

Profundus (deep) – farther from surface We also discuss several other topics like Who was the leader of the french revolution?

Central – towards central axis of the body

Peripheral – away from central axis of the body

Ipsilateral – of the same side Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between position and displacement?

Contralateral – of the opposite side


What is metaphysis?



Plantar surface of foot – lower surface

Dorsal surface of foot – upper surface

Radial – towards outer border of upper limb

Ulnar – towards inner border of upper limb We also discuss several other topics like Is there an equivalence between the citizens and the state to goodness?

Fibular – towards outer border of lower limb

Tibial – towards inner border of lower limb

Terminology

Valgus- Knocked knees

Varus- Bowlegged “var is the ball”

Planes

Saggital- Divides the body into Right and Left portions - Mediolateral (ML) Axis 

Frontal- Divides the body into Front and Back portions - Anteroposterior (AP) Axis

Transverse- Divides the body into Upper and Lower portions. - Longitudinal (vertical) Axis

Satic Mechanics

Study of systems in state of constant motion at rest and constant velocity

Dynamic Mechanics

Study of systems not in steady-state motion at acceleration is non-zero

Breaks down in to kenimactics and kenetics

• Kinematics - description of motion and includes consideration of time,  displacement, velocity, acceleration, and space factors of a system’s motion • Kinetics - study of forces associated with the motion of a body Don't forget about the age old question of Explain why people are afraid when they’re dying.

Newton’s 1st Law: Inertia

A body will stay at rest...

A net force acts on the body

Law of Acceleration

A change in the acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that  caused it.  

Newton’s 2nd Law: F=ma

Mass times acceleration

Newton’s 3rd Law: Action-Reaction

For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction.

Levers

1st class: FAR

2nd class: ARF

3rd class: AFRWe also discuss several other topics like What was used to determine the helical structure of dna?

Muscle Fiber Types Type I 

Slow Twitch

Highly Oxidative

Low force potential Fatigue Resistance “Dark Meat”

Rotator Cuff Muscles

Supraspinatus

Infraspinatus

Teres minor We also discuss several other topics like What are the structures of the foot?

Subscapularis

Glenohumeral Flexion • Anterior deltoid

Type IIa/IIx 

Fast Twitch

Minimally Oxidative High Force potential Easily Fatigued

“White Meat”

Shoulder 

• Pectoralis major (clavicular head)

Glenohumeral Extension

• Teres major

• Latissimus dorsi

• Pectoralis major (sternal head) • Deltoid

Glenohumeral Abduction

• Deltoid

• Supraspinatus

• Pectoralis major (clavicular head)

Glenohumeral Adduction

• Latissimus dorsi

• Teres major

• Pectoralis major (sternal head)

Glenohumeral Internal Rotation

• Latissimus dorsi

• Teres major

• Subscapularis

• Pectoralis major (sternal head)

Glenohumeral External Rotation

• Infraspinatus

• Teres minor

Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction

• Posterior deltoid

• Infraspinatus

• Teres minor

Glenohumeral Horizontal Adduction

• Anterior deltoid

• Pectoralis major

• Coracobrachialis

Scapular Movement 

Elevation

• Rhomboids  

• Trapezius, upper and middle fiber

• Levator Scapulae

Depression

• Trapezius Lower Fibers

• Pec minor

Retraction (ADD)

• Rhomboids  

• Trapezius middle fibers

Protraction (ABD)

• Serratus Anterior  

• Pec minor

Upward Rotation

• Trapezius upper and lower fibers  

• Serratus anterior

Downward Rotation

• Rhomboids

• Pec minor

Muscles of the Elbow

Flexion

• Biceps Brachii

• Brachialis  

• Brachioradialis  

• Pronator Teres

Extension

• Triceps Brachii  

• Anconeus  

Supination

• Biceps Brachii  

• Supinator  

• Brachioradialis  

Pronation

• Pronator Teres  

• Pronator Quadratus  

• Brachioradialis  

Wrist/Hand

Wrist Flexors

• flexor carpi radialis

• flexor carpi ulnaris

• palmaris longus *Variable (13% Missing)

Wrist Extensors

• extensor carpi radialis longus

• extensor carpi radialis brevis

• extensor carpi ulnaris

Finger Flexors

• Flexor digitorum superficialis

• Flexor digitorum profundus

• Flexor pollicis longus (thumb flexor)

Finger Extensors

• Extensor digitorum

• Extensor indicis

• Extensor digiti minimi

• Extensor pollicis longus (thumb extensor) • Extensor pollicis brevis (thumb extensor)

Abductor of thumb & wrist • Abductor pollicis longus

Hip

Hip Flexion:

• Iliopsoas

• Pectineus

• Rectus femoris

• Sartorius

• Tensor Fasciae Latae

Hip Adductors:  

• Adductor brevis

• Adductor longus

• Adductor magnus

• Gracili

Hip External

• 6 Deep Rotators

• Gluteus Maximus

Hip Internal

• Gluteus Minimus  

• Gluteus Medius  

• Tensor Fasciae Latae

Knee

Hip Extension:  

• Gluteus Maximus

• Biceps femoris

• Semitendinosus

• Semimembranosus • External rotators  

Hip Abductor:  

• Gluteus medius

• Tensor Fasciae Latae • Gluteus Maximus • Gluteus minimus

Knee Extension

• Rectus Femoris  

• Vastus Lateralis  

• Vastus Medialis  

• Vastus Intermedius

Knee Internal Rotation

• Semimembranosus  

• Semitendinosus  

• Popliteus

Ankle Dorsiflexion

• Tibialis Anterior Extensor  • Digitorum Longus  

• Peroneus Tertius

Knee Flexion

• Biceps Femoris  • Semitendinosus  • Semimbranosus

Ankle  

Transverse Tarsal and Subtalar Inversion • Tibialis Anterior  

• Tibialis Posterior

Transverse Tarsal and Subtalar Eversion • Peroneus Longus

• Peroneus Brevis

• Tertius Extensor  

• Digitorum Longus

Foot and Toe

Toe Flexion

• Flexor Hallucis Longus  

• Flexor Digitorum Longus

Toe Extension

• Extensor Hallucis Longus

• Extensor Digitorum Longus

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