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Test 2 Study Guide

by: Jordan Butcher

Test 2 Study Guide Anth 196

Jordan Butcher

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About this Document

The study guide contains 66 flash cards and a pdf of a flowchart (I guess you can call it) I made showing chromosomes, genes, DNA, and bases. The lecture notes and some reading/quiz material are in...
Biological Anthropology
Dr. Joshua Linder
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Butcher on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 196 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Joshua Linder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 458 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 02/27/16
Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Pea plants: discrete and discontinuous Gregor Mendel a single pea plant has male and female reproductive organs Discontinuous vs Continuous tall or short vs an infinite range of heights process where chromosomes split and find another to attach thems Meiosis elves with during sexual reproduction inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of another Principle of Individual Assortment i.e. a pea plant can be tall and purple or tall and white; the height d oes not affect the color Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Which is dominant and which is recessive? T=dominant T=tall and t=short t=recessive 3:1 Phenotype & Phenotype Ratio Definition: what does it look like? i.e. tall/short 1:2:1 Genotype & Genotype Ratio Definition: TT, tt, Tt two alleles create a genotype Homozygous: having the same alleles Homozygous Dominant i.e. TT Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Homozygous: having the same alleles Homozygous Recessive i.e. tt having different alleles Heterozygous Tt portion of DNA that make proteins which influence our physical trait Genes s Locus location of a gene on a chromosome Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: alternate form of DNA sequence at locus Alleles i.e. tall and short are two different alleles Gametes sex cells (sperm and egg) Zygote egg fertilized by sperm Phenotype: A, B, O, AB Alleles: A, B, O Blood Types: Genotype: AA, AO, BB, BO, OO, AB What are the phenotypes, alleles, and genotype? A and B are dominant over O A and B are co-dominant Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Polygenic/Continuous Trait two or more genes affect a trait Somatic Cells body cells adenine (A) and thymine (T) bond together DNA Bases cytosine (C) and guanine (G) bond together a combination of bases DNA Sequence i.e. ACTGCAATGC would pair with TGACGTTACG Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Chromosomes wound up DNA Proteins large organic compounds that are composed of amino acids molecules which are the building blocks of all proteins each triplet of bases (ATGC) codes for one amino acid this is called a Codon *see codon flashcard Amino Acids 20 different amino acids (do NOT need to have them memorized for the test) switch base Thymine (T) to Uracil (U) RNA (Ribonucelic Acid) tRNA= transfer RNA mRNA= messenger RNA Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: a set of three bases *see Amino Acid flashcard Codon ribosomes read a codon at a time DNA RNA T - A U - A A - T \ A - U C - G \ C - G Template Strand G - C / G - C C - G / C - G C - G C - G *bolded bases are the template strand DNA: T C A G C C T A A mRNA: A G U C G G A U U DNA to mRNA to tRNA to Amino Acids tRNA: U C A G C C U A A amino acids: look at mRNA bases NOT tRNA 23 pairs (haploid) Haploid vs Diploid 46 chromosomes (diploid) Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: an organized profile of a person's chromosomes Karyotype chromosomes are arranged and numbered by size (largest to small est) 23 chromosomes from each parent = 46 How many chromosomes do you get from your parents? *a person with Downs Syndrome has 47 begin with 4 chromosomes in 1 cell end with 4 cells with 2 chromosomes Reductive Division when the sperm fertilizes the egg there is no need for 46 chromoso mes in each, so there is a reduction so that a person has 46 total n ot 46 from each parent exchange of genes between homol ogous chromosomes, resulting in a Crossing Over mixture of parental characteristics in offspring Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: chromosomes are randomly separ Random Assortment ated and paired mitosis replicates Mitosis vs Meiosis meiosis splits Genome the entire genetic makeup of an individual or species led the Human Genome Project used genetic sequence to determine health risks Dr. Francis Collins he is an evangelical christian that believes in evolution as well as a musician and author Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: What are the epigenetic mechanisms for turning genes on and off? methylation is placing a chemical (methyl) tag on the C base; these 'molecular tags' turn genes on and off Evolution (microevolution perspective) change in the frequency of a population's alleles over time study of if, how, and why allele and genotype frequencies change fr Population Genetics om one generation to the next mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, Forces of Evolutionary Change natural (& sexual) selection Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Definition: change in structure or amount of genetic material mutations that occur in gametes are inheritable Mutation can be good, bad, or neutral introduces new alleles into a population Point Mutation change from one DNA base to another Synonymous does NOT alter your amino acid - aka 'Silent Mutation' Synonymous vs Nonsynonymous Nonsynonymous DOES alter your amino acid protein on red blood cells that carries oxygen to different parts of t he body Hemoglobin normal hemoglobin: A mutated hemoglobin: S Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: anemia: deficiency of red blood ce lls or hemoglobin Sickle Cell Anemia more prominent in Africa and Midd le East -caused by a parasite called plasmodium -completes it's lifecycle in your liver -gets into & eventually explodes out of red blood cells Malaria -transmitted by mosquito -symptoms: fever, shivers, headaches, vomiting -Sickle Cell Anemia makes it harder to get Malaria because of the si ckle shape of the blood cell (A - normal & S - mutated) AA won't have SCA but more likely to get Malaria Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia Genotypes AS has mild SCA but less likely to get Malaria SS has full blown SCA but least likely to get Malaria Frameshift Mutation caused by insertion or deletion of DNA bases Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: most common form of Down syndrome, caused by an extra copy o Trisomy 21 f chromosome number 21 movement of genes from one population to another Gene Flow reduces genetic differentiation and introduces new alleles into a pop ulation changes in allele frequencies due to random factors Genetic Drift this change is felt more in a smaller population person or small group that have a lot of descend ants, and they pass their alleles to their offsprin g The Founder Effect rare alleles can become prevalent due to disprop ortionate frequencies in an initial breeding popula tion Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: i.e. northern elephant seals were hunted so drastically that their enti Bottleneck Effect re population today comes from a stock of about 20 species are members of populations that actually or potentially inte rbreed in nature Biological Species Concept (BSC) not according to similarity of appearance (i.e. ape vs monkey) new species form due to geographic location Allopatric Species cannot use the biological species concept i.e. Mandrill and Drill are separated by a river in Cameroon Allopatry: populations living in diffe rent locations Allopatry vs Sympatry Sympatry: populations living in the same location Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Micro: evolution occurring below the species level and usually takes a much shorter time -change in a population of a species Microevolution vs Macroevolution Macro: evolution that results in the production or destruction of a s pecies and usually takes a much longer time -origin and extinction of a species natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation What evolutionary forces can help create new species? *gene flow is NOT on the list because it makes the species more si milar rapid evolutionary change through: -extinction of competitors i.e. dinosaurs Adaptive Radiation -colonization of area where no competitors are found i.e. finches an d lemurs -adaptive 'breakthroughs' i.e. incubated egg Carolus Linnaeus binomial nomenclature Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Taxonomy science of finding, describing, naming, and classifying organisms Kingdom: animalia What Kingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Class, and Order do Homosapi Phylum: chordata Subphylum: vertebrata ens fit in? Class: mammalia Order: primates the study of the evolutionary relati Phylogenetics onships among organisms Goal: to determine the evolutionar y relationships among organisms b Cladistics ased on characteristics shared bet ween organisms that share a com mon ancestor Test 2: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: traits shared between organisms d Convergent Evolution ue to similar use but do not have a common ancestry 'founder' of the Huntington's Disease in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela Maria Concepcion Soto an example of the Founder's Effect


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