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ut ece flowchart

ut ece flowchart

Description

School: James Madison University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Joshua linder
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Test 2 Study Guide
Description: The study guide contains 66 flash cards and a pdf of a flowchart (I guess you can call it) I made showing chromosomes, genes, DNA, and bases. The lecture notes and some reading/quiz material are included in the flash cards. Good luck studying!
Uploaded: 02/27/2016
18 Pages 8 Views 5 Unlocks
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Test 2: ANTH 196


Who is Gregor Mendel?



Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Pea plants: discrete and discontinuous

Gregor Mendel

a single pea plant has male and female reproductive organs

Discontinuous vs Continuous

tall or short vs an infinite range of heights

Meiosis

process where chromosomes split and find another to attach thems elves with during sexual reproduction

Principle of Individual Assortment

inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of another

i.e. a pea plant can be tall and purple or tall and white; the height d oes not affect the color

Test 2: ANTH 196


what is the difference between discontinuous and continuous?



Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Which is dominant and which is recessive? T=tall and t=short

T=dominant t=recessive

Phenotype & Phenotype Ratio

3:1

Definition: what does it look like? i.e. tall/short

Genotype & Genotype Ratio

1:2:1

Definition: TT, tt, Tt

two alleles create a genotype

Homozygous Dominant

Homozygous: having the same alleles

i.e. TT

Test 2: ANTH 196


What is Meiosis?



Don't forget about the age old question of rpi final exam schedule

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Homozygous: having the same alleles

Homozygous Recessive

i.e. tt

Heterozygous

having different alleles

Tt

Genes

portion of DNA that make proteins which influence our physical trait s

Locus

location of a gene on a chromosome

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

alternate form of DNA sequence at locus

Alleles

i.e. tall and short are two different alleles

Gametes

sex cells (sperm and egg)

Zygote

egg fertilized by sperm

Blood Types:

What are the phenotypes, alleles, and genotype?

Phenotype: A, B, O, AB We also discuss several other topics like spss rutgers

Alleles: A, B, O

Genotype: AA, AO, BB, BO, OO, AB

A and B are dominant over O

A and B are co-dominant

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Polygenic/Continuous Trait two or more genes affect a trait

Somatic Cells

body cells

DNA Bases

adenine (A) and thymine (T) bond together

cytosine (C) and guanine (G) bond together

DNA Sequence

a combination of bases

i.e. ACTGCAATGC would pair with TGACGTTACG

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Chromosomes wound up DNA

Proteins

large organic compounds that are composed of amino acids

Amino Acids

molecules which are the building blocks of all proteins

each triplet of bases (ATGC) codes for one amino acid this is called a Codon *see codon flashcard If you want to learn more check out rel 3170 fsu

20 different amino acids (do NOT need to have them memorized for the test)

RNA (Ribonucelic Acid)

switch base Thymine (T) to Uracil (U)

tRNA= transfer RNA

mRNA= messenger RNA

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

a set of three bases *see Amino Acid flashcard

Codon

ribosomes read a codon at a time

Template Strand

DNA RNA

T - A U - A

A - T \ A - U

C - G \ C - G

G - C / G - C

C - G / C - G

C - G C - G

*bolded bases are the template strand

DNA to mRNA to tRNA to Amino Acids

DNA: T C A G C C T A A

mRNA: A G U C G G A U U

tRNA: U C A G C C U A A

amino acids: look at mRNA bases NOT tRNADon't forget about the age old question of What is the rationale for this model?

Haploid vs Diploid

23 pairs (haploid)

46 chromosomes (diploid)Don't forget about the age old question of What are the areas for product liability negligence?

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743an organized profile of a person's chromosomes

Karyotype

chromosomes are arranged and numbered by size (largest to small est) We also discuss several other topics like bsc 2000

How many chromosomes do you get from your parents?

23 chromosomes from each parent = 46

*a person with Downs Syndrome has 47

Reductive Division

begin with 4 chromosomes in 1 cell

end with 4 cells with 2 chromosomes

when the sperm fertilizes the egg there is no need for 46 chromoso mes in each, so there is a reduction so that a person has 46 total n ot 46 from each parent

Crossing Over

exchange of genes between homol

ogous chromosomes, resulting in a

mixture of parental characteristics

in offspring

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Random Assortmentchromosomes are randomly separ ated and paired

Mitosis vs Meiosis

mitosis replicates

meiosis splits

Genome

the entire genetic makeup of an individual or species

Dr. Francis Collins

led the Human Genome Project

used genetic sequence to determine health risks

he is an evangelical christian that believes in evolution as well as a musician and author

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

What are the epigenetic mechanisms for turning genes on and off? methylation is placing a chemical (methyl) tag on the C base; these 'molecular tags' turn genes on and off

Evolution (microevolution perspective)

change in the frequency of a population's alleles over time

Population Genetics

study of if, how, and why allele and genotype frequencies change fr om one generation to the next

Forces of Evolutionary Change

mutation, gene flow, genetic drift,

natural (& sexual) selection

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Definition: change in structure or amount of genetic material

mutations that occur in gametes are inheritable

Mutation

can be good, bad, or neutral

introduces new alleles into a population

Point Mutation

change from one DNA base to another

Synonymous vs Nonsynonymous

Synonymous does NOT alter your amino acid

- aka 'Silent Mutation'

Nonsynonymous DOES alter your amino acid

Hemoglobin

protein on red blood cells that carries oxygen to different parts of t he body

normal hemoglobin: A

mutated hemoglobin: S

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

anemia: deficiency of red blood ce

lls or

Sickle Cell Anemia

hemoglobin

more prominent in Africa and Midd le East

Malaria

-caused by a parasite called plasmodium

-completes it's lifecycle in your liver

-gets into & eventually explodes out of red blood cells

-transmitted by mosquito

-symptoms: fever, shivers, headaches, vomiting

-Sickle Cell Anemia makes it harder to get Malaria because of the si ckle shape of the blood cell

Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia Genotypes

(A - normal & S - mutated)

AA won't have SCA but more likely to get Malaria

AS has mild SCA but less likely to get Malaria

SS has full blown SCA but least likely to get Malaria

Frameshift Mutation

caused by insertion or deletion of DNA bases

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Trisomy 21 most common form of Down syndrome, caused by an extra copy o f chromosome number 21

Gene Flow

movement of genes from one population to another

reduces genetic differentiation and introduces new alleles into a pop ulation

Genetic Drift

changes in allele frequencies due to random factors

this change is felt more in a smaller population

The Founder Effect

person or small group that have a lot of descend

ants, and they pass their alleles to their offsprin

g

rare alleles can become prevalent due to disprop

ortionate frequencies in an initial breeding popula

tion

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743i.e. northern elephant seals were

Bottleneck Effect

hunted so drastically that their enti re population today comes from a stock of about 20

Biological Species Concept (BSC)

species are members of populations that actually or potentially inte rbreed in nature

not according to similarity of appearance (i.e. ape vs monkey)

Allopatric Species

new species form due to geographic location

cannot use the biological species concept

i.e. Mandrill and Drill are separated by a river in Cameroon

Allopatry vs Sympatry

Allopatry: populations living in diffe

rent locations

Sympatry: populations living in the

same location

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Micro: evolution occurring below the species level and usually takes

a much shorter time

-change in a population of a species

Microevolution vs Macroevolution

Macro: evolution that results in the production or destruction of a s

pecies and usually takes a much longer time

-origin and extinction of a species

What evolutionary forces can help create new species?

natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation

*gene flow is NOT on the list because it makes the species more si milar

Adaptive Radiation

rapid evolutionary change through:

-extinction of competitors i.e. dinosaurs

-colonization of area where no competitors are found i.e. finches an d lemurs

-adaptive 'breakthroughs' i.e. incubated egg

Carolus Linnaeus

binomial nomenclature

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743

Taxonomy science of finding, describing, naming, and classifying organisms

What Kingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Class, and Order do Homosapi ens fit in?

Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Subphylum: vertebrata

Class: mammalia

Order: primates

Phylogenetics

the study of the evolutionary relati

onships among organisms

Cladistics

Goal: to determine the evolutionar

y relationships among organisms b

ased on characteristics shared bet

ween organisms that share a com

mon ancestor

Test 2: ANTH 196

Study this set online at: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/test-2-anth-196-6920743traits shared between organisms d

Convergent Evolution

ue to similar use but do not have a common ancestry

Maria Concepcion Soto

'founder' of the Huntington's Disease in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela an example of the Founder's Effect

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