Nutri 2030 Final Exam (Module 5) study guide
Nutri 2030 Final Exam (Module 5) study guide 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
Popular in Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlin Samuels on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
Reviews for Nutri 2030 Final Exam (Module 5) study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/27/16
Module 5 Exam Study Guide Life cycle terms: • Early childhood carries: also known as baby bottle tooth decay o tooth decay from prolonged tooth contact with formula, milk, fruit juice or other sugar-rich liquid offered to an infant in a bottle • Colostrum o carotenoid-rich, yellowish fluid (has a little fat & a lot of protein, vitamin A, & minerals) that’s expressed from a mother’s breast after birth and before the development of breast milk • Complementary foods • Fetal programming o Process by which the prenatal environment interacts with genetic & other factors to produce permanent change • Gestational diabetes o Form of diabetes that may form during pregnancy in women who hadn’t previously been diagnosed with diabetes • Infancy o The age range from birth to 12 months • Lactation o Production of milk in a woman’s body after childbirth and the period during which it occurs • Large for gestational age o Babies who weigh more than the 90 percentile of weight for gestational age • Pica o craving non-food items (ex. Chalk, dirt, etc.) • Preeclampsia o Condition developed late in pregnancy in which hypertension, severe edema (swelling), and protein loss occur • Small for gestational age (SGA) th o Babies who weigh less than the 10 percentile of weight for gestational age • Toxoplasmosis o Food-borne illness o Pregnant women should avoid litter boxes, contaminated food, and raw meat • Trimester (pregnancy) • Very low birth weight o A baby that weighs 3 lbs 4 oz (or less) at birth Pregnancy Nutrition 1. Preparing for pregnancy a. Adequate Nutrition i. Lower risk of maternal complications ii. Ensure normal fetal tissue growth iii. Increase likelihood of optimal birth weight iv. Decrease risk of chronic disease b. Inadequate Nutrition i. Increase risk of maternal complications ii. Increase prenatal morbidity & mortality iii. Increase risk of chronic disease-including obesity 2. Maternal Weight Gain a. Low weight gain risks i. LBW (low birth weight) infants: weigh less than 5 pounds 8 oz § Risk groups: 1. Teenagers 2. African Americans ii. Increase risk infant mortality iii. Increase risk obesity iv. Increase risk chronic disease b. Excessive weight gain risks i. HTN-preeclampsia (high blood pressure) ii. Gestational diabetes iii. Post-partum obesity iv. Infant chronic disease (fetal programming) c. Weight Gain Pattern i. Too little weight gain: increase risk of pre-term & SGA infant ii. Too much weight gain: increase risk of post-partum weight retention iii. 1 Trimester § 2-4 lbs total nd rd iv. 2 & 3 Tndmester: approx. 1 lbs/week § 2 trimester: +340 kcal/day § 3 trimester: +453 kcal/day § Both trimesters: +25 g protein/day 3. Fetal Programming a. Optimal maternal nutrition during critical points of pregnancy may prevent or delay a child’s risk of chronic diseases (i.e. heart disease & diabetes) later in life 4. Nutritional Needs During Pregnancy a. Energy: increase BMR. Increasing energy (kcal) needs i. Select nutrient-dense foods ii. Minimum of 175 grams CHO/day (approx. 12 servings) b. Protein: support fetal growth (+25 g/day) i. Min=71 g/day ii. Complete & complementary incomplete protein foods c. Essential fatty acids: fetal growth & development i. Linoleic acid ii. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) iii. EPA & DHA-fatty fish § Consume 8-12 oz/week § Limit white albacore tuna to < 6 oz/week § Avoid: swordfish, tilefish, shark, king mackerel § Choose variety of low-mercury containing fatty fish d. Folic acid: support fetal neural development i. Prevent: spinal defects ii. consume 400 mcg in pregnancy & continue during iii. RDA: 400 mcg prior to & 600 mcg during (get from cereal grains) e. Vitamin B12: assist folate metabolism f. Iron: support larger blood volume & oxygen transport i. Iron deficiency anemia common in woman & infant ii. RDA (pregnancy): 27 mg/day iii. Iron-rich foods & vitamin C rich foods g. Zinc i. DNA, RNA, & protein synthesis (healthy cells) h. Calcium: bone development i. Absorption increase w/pregnancy; RDA stays the same § 1300 mg/day=kids (<18) § 1000 mg/day=(19+) § 1200 mg/day= (50+) i. Vitamin D i. Calcium absorption & bone metabolism 5. Nutritional Concerns During Pregnancy a. Morning sickness (hyperemesis gravidarum) i. Keep blood sugar stable ii. Investigate use of vitamin B6 & ginger b. Pica (see life cycle terms); commonly mineral deficiency c. Heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) d. Constipation & Hemorrhoids i. Fiber intake: min g/days ii. Fluid intake: min 10 cups/day e. Listeriosis & toxoplasmosis: foodborne illnesses i. Listeriosis: caused by bacteria § Avoid: deli meats, unpasteurized milk & cheese, seafood, raw meat (i.e. steak) ii. Toxoplasmosis: pregnant women should avoid cat litter boxes, contaminated food, raw meat f. Consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners i. Allowed during pregnancy g. Caffeine: limit to 200 mg/day h. Avoid: Alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome), smoking, drugs Nutrition in Infancy 1. AAP, AND, & WHO Recommendations for breastfeeding a. Exclusive breastfeeding for 1 6 months b. Introduce complementary foods by 6 months old c. Continue breastfeeding until at least 12 months of age 2. Maternal Nutrient Needs a. Energy= +500 kcal/day during 1 6 months i. +330 kcal food intake & 170 kcal from fat stores ii. supports maternal weight loss 1.75 lb/month iii. achieve >1500 kcal intake per day b. Protein= +25 g/day c. Essential fatty acid intake d. Adequate vitamin & mineral intakes (iron & calcium) 3. Benefits for Mom (breastfeeding) a. Oxytocin release-uterine contraction & reduced post-partum blood loss b. Prolactin release-delays ovulation (birth spacing) c. Post-partum weight loss d. Reduction in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, & RA e. Psychological benefits-reduced post-partum depression & improved self- confidence f. Reduced food costs-annual cost $1500 4. Benefits for infants a. Nutritionally complete for 1 6 months b. Immune support i. T- & B- lymphocytes ii. Immunoglobins iii. Histocompatibility antigens iv. Bifidus factors v. Nutrient carrier proteins: iron & vitamin B12 vi. enzymes c. Decrease risk infant mortality (ex. SIDS) d. Decrease occurrence in infant acute illness e. Decrease risk of allergens f. Decrease risk of chronic illness-DM, GI, CA g. Decrease risk of childhood obesity h. Improved cognitive function 5. Introduction of Complementary Food a. 4-6 months i. introduce solid foods with iron-fortified rice cereal ii. gradually transition to other iron-fortified cereals b. 6-8 months i. add strained vegetables before fruits ii. plain vegetables: green peas, potatoes, carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, beans iii. plain fruit: bananas, applesauce, apricots, pears, peaches, melon c. 8-12 months i. add strained & then chopped meats 6. General Principles a. Introducing allergen-containing food early on can lower the risk of allergy b. DO NOT feed honey/corn syrup to an infant < 12 months old c. DO NOT feed cow’s milk until after 1 years old & then only provide whole milk d. Add single food ingredients one at a time at intervals of 2-7 days between to asses for allergies & intolerances e. NO caffeinated beverages i. Sugar sweetened beverages ii. Herbal beverages & products iii. “low calorie” or non-nutritive sweetener beverages & products 7. Juice a. Only after 6 months b. Limit intake: 4-6 fl oz/day c. Provide only in a cup-early childhood caries d. Provide only pasteurized juices e. Should be complementary to breast milk/infant formula Body Composition 1. 3 parts: a. lean/fat-free mass i. includes muscle & organs b. fat mass c. skeletal mass 2. Body Weight a. Sum of all body components 3. Fat Mass vs Fat-free mass 4. Fat mass= adipose tissue a. Location: subcutaneous fat-under the skin & between the muscles vs visceral fat- internal organs; stored in the abdominal area b. Adipocyte=fat cell c. White adipose tissue- normal adipose tissue d. Brown adipose tissue (BAT)- mostly found in infants; generates heat e. Hypertrophy: enlarge the size of the cell f. Hyperplasia: multiplies the number of cells 5. Lean body mass: primary determinant of resting metabolic rate (RMR) a. Cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle b. Higher in men than women c. Increases with exercise d. Decreases with age 6. Fat distribution a. Android (“apple-shaped”) i. Males (mostly)-androgens ii. Increas lipoprotein lipase (LPL) action in abdomen b. Gynoid (“pear-shaped”) i. Females (mostly)-estrogen ii. Increase lipoprotein lipase (LPL) action in gluteofemoral area iii. Hardest location for fat loss 7. Measuring body composition a. Underwater weighing (hydrostatic weighing) b. Air displacement plethysmography c. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) Energy Balance 1. Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) is the sum of: a. Basal metabolism ~1200 kcal/day (60%) b. Thermic effect of food ~200 kcal/day (10%) c. Physical activity thermogenesis ~600 kcal/day (30%) i. Exercise ii. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) 2. Energy Balance a. Energy balance i. Energy intake = energy need ii. Weight maintenance b. Negative balance i. Energy intake < energy need ii. Weight loss c. Positive balance i. Energy intake > energy need ii. Weight gain 2 3. BMI equation: [weight in pounds/(height in inches) ] x 703 2 Underweight < 18.5 kg/m Healthy 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 Overweight 25-29.9 kg/m 2 2 Obesity (class I) 30-34.9 kg/m Obesity (class II) 35-39.9 kg/m 2 Extreme obesity (class III) 40+ kg/m 4. Factors affecting BMR a. Age-decreases with age b. Height-increases with height c. Gender-more lean mass=higher BMR; males typically have more lean mass d. Sleep-lowest when sleeping e. Fever-increases f. Stress-increases g. Environment temp- increases in both hot & cold h. Fasting/starvation-decreases i. Growth-higher in kids, teens, & pregnant women j. Smoking & caffeine-increases BMR k. Malnutrition-decreases 5. Factors affecting thermal effect of food (TEF) a. Age-decreases with age b. Fiber- high fiber= low TEF c. Type of fuel- fat has the least effect, protein has the greatest d. Environment temp-cold environment increases TEF e. Obesity- obese people have lower TEF f. Alcohol- increases TEF; reduces TEF if consumed in a cold environment g. Intense exercise- TEF is higher after intense exercise h. Athletes-lower TEF than non-athletes i. Meal composition- consume all 3 macronutrients together = lower TEF than eating them separately 6. Waist circumference: used to determine pattern of obesity a. Women: measurement > 35 inches = high risk for disease b. Men: measurement > 40 inches = high risk for disease 7. Hormones a. Ghrelin: signal from stomach-tells you you’re hungry b. Leptin: secreted from fat cells-tells you you’re full c. Insulin: released from pancreas-reacts from ingestion of carbohydrates; aids leptin 8. Appetite vs Hunger vs Satiety a. Appetite: desire to eat food whether or not there’s hunger; taste for particular foods in reaction to cues such as sight, smell, or thought of food b. Hunger: physical sensation associated with the need or intense desire for food c. Satiety: feeling of fullness after a meal Weight Management & Popular Diets 1. Bariatric Surgery Candidacy (NIH Guidelines since 1991) a. Clinically severe obesity i. BMI > 40 OR BMI > 35 + comorbidities (ex. Diabetes, high blood pressure) b. Documented failure of non-surgical weight loss c. Good surgical candidate d. Age 14-75 e. Clearance by healthcare team f. Commitment to follow post-surgery diet 2. Mechanisms of Action for Procedures a. Restrictive-limiting amount of food b. Restrictive & malabsorption- prevents digestion (absorption of some nutrients) c. Hormonal regulation-become fuller faster; last only about 2 years 3. Wishnotsky & the 3500 kcal rule a. ~ 1 lb human body fat = 3500 kcal b. paper lists several caveats i. composition of the diet ii. protein & carbohydrate stores iii. weight & energy expenditure iv. adaption 4. Regulation: Set Point a. Body weight is set at a particular weight b. Set point can be altered c. Change in nervous system-hypothalamus d. Les control during gain than loss 5. Settling Point a. Body weight isn’t fixed throughout adulthood b. Increase seen between age 30-60 & pregnancy c. environment Nutrition & Physical Activity 1. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans a. At least 2 hours & 30 min (150 min) per week of moderate intensity aerobic activity b. At least 2 sessions of strengthening activities per week 2. Components of Physical Fitness a. Muscular strength b. Resistance exercise c. Endurance exercise d. Cardiovascular fitness e. flexibility 3. Estimating VO Max 2 a. Heart rate at which the highest level of O 2consumption occurs (“maximal heart rate”) roughly corresponds to VO 2ax i. Max heart rate (MHR)=220-age ii. Target heart rate (THR)=(220-age)x %MHR 4. Glycogen & Performance a. Hitting the wall i. When muscle glycogen is depleted, fat, & liver glycogen must be used as fuel b. Banking i. When live glycogen is depleted, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level lower than 70 mg/dl) occurs 5. Carbohydrate loading a. Increase carbohydrate intake to 60-70% of calories for 1-4 days prior to an endurance event 6. Hydration status a. Sweat rate i. Fluid loss per hour of exercise § It equals the sum of body weight loss plus fluid intake b. Dehydration i. Thirst should not be your guide-once you’re thirsty, you’re already dehydrated 7. Weight Management a. Female athlete triad i. 3 components: § disordered eating § amenorrhea (absent menstrual periods)-in women with high physical activity & deficient caloric intake § osteoporosis (low bone density) b. Weight cycling-ex. Wrestling i. Repeatedly “making weight” before a match can be dangerous-even life- threatening ii. Reduces glycogen stores iii. Increase risk of dehydration iv. Can stunt growth in long term 8. Activity & Energy Utilization a. Aerobic & low-moderate intensity: fat b. Anaerobic & high intensity: glucose (carbohydrates) 9. Protein a. Helps repair & rebuild muscle b. RDA=0.8 g/kg of body weight per day 10. Pre-event, event, & post event foods a. Pre-event: 2-4 hours prior to event i. High carbs, low glycemic index, low in fat & fiber, moderate in protein, provide about 2 cups of water b. Endurance Event: >1 hour duration i. Sports drinks (fluid + electrolytes + carbs), energy bars or gels c. Post-event: within 30-60 min after event i. Fluids, carbohydrates, high quality protein
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'