SPAU 3304: Exam 4 Review
SPAU 3304: Exam 4 Review SPAU 3304
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPAU 3304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Garst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Communication Sciences in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
PRODUCTION and PERCEPTION of VOWELS: Part 1: Resonance Differences between Vowels & Consonants Vowels: o Produced by relatively free air passage o Through the larynx and oral cavity o Nucleus of a syllable Consonants: o One (or more) areas of vocal tract narrowed by some degree of constriction (partial or complete) Three Sources of Speech Sounds: 1. Nearly Periodic Complex Waves (fundamental frequency w/ harmonics on top of it) » Source = vocal fold vibration » All vowels, many consonants **a /v/ sound would use both 1 & 2 2. Continuous Aperiodic Waves » Source = turbulent flow through a supraglottal constriction (noise) » Many consonants, such as /s/, /f/ 3. Transient Aperiodic Waves » Source = rapid pressure change » Some consonants such as /p/, /b/ Acoustic Theory of Speech Production AKA Source-Filter Theory » Assumptions: o What we hear coming out of someone’s mouth is the consequence of The generation of a sound source Filtering of that sound source via the vocal tract’s resonant properties o The source and filter (vocal tract) operate in a largely independent manner. o Different postures change the shape of the resonator. o Can use acoustic signal to gather info about vocal tract position/features. Spectral Characteristics of the Source Sound from Larynx: Vibration rate determines fundamental frequency and harmonics Acoustic Characteristics of the Source: IDEALIZED glottal volume velocity = volume of air flowing through the glottis as a function of time **better explained as a Triangular Wave ACTUAL glottal volume velocity: o Speed and completeness of vocal fold closure affect roll-off. o In general, the low frequency harmonics dominate. Acoustic Theory of Speech Production Vocal tract acts as a filter o is frequency dependent. o Certain frequencies of the source signal pass through the filter with greater amplitude than others. **Selected frequencies Characteristics resonances formants Vocal Tract Transfer Function: - Resonance characteristics of the vocal tract - Specifies the vowel - Example: Model the vocal tract like a uniform tube » “schwa” vowel Ə Rule: For a tube closed, at one end and open at the other, the natural resonant frequency = wavelength 4X the length of the tube. Tube Representation of Vocal Tract In the Model… Glottis: ((with adducted vocal folds)) o Air particles vibrate LEAST effectively o Minimum velocity o Maximum pressure o Node (meaning there’s minimum velocity + maximum pressure) Lips: ((separated for vowel production)) o Air particles vibrate MOST effectively. o Maximum velocity o Minimum pressure o Antinode Some differences… Vocal tract not a completely uniform cross-section Oral cavity meets pharynx at 90 degree angle » Doesn’t matter acoustically Standing Wave Patterns Rule: The vocal tract will resonate only at odd-numbered multiples of the lowest frequency. Each resonant pattern is a standing wave = FORMANT **To find next formant: multiply lowest by 3, then 5, etc. VOWELS - Supraglottal cavities are shaped by articulators - Formant values correspond roughly to articulatory postures. (will change the circumference of the tube) - Open stream, free-flowing stream of air VOCAL TRACT ((TRANSFER FUNCTION)) – describing the resonant characteristics of the VT - Example: Finding First Resonant Frequency (F1) Recall: that wavelength = c/f Rearrange to F n= c/wavelength o F n = formant number (F1, F3, etc.) o c = velocity of sound (34,000 cm/sec) o L = vocal tract length (17.5cm) Wavelength = 4 x 17.5 = 70cm F1 = 34,000 cm/sec / 70cm = 485.7 Hz Where F1 = lowest resonant frequency of the vocal tract; VT at rest *NOT the only frequency that’s present! F1 = 34,000 cm/70 = 485.7 Hz F2 = 485.7 x 3 (odd multiple) = 1,457 Hz F3 = 485.7 x 5 (odd multiple) = 2,428 Hz F1, F2, F3 Theoretically, the vocal tract has an infinite number of formants. In reality, only the first 4-5 are relevant for speech For vowels, only the first three are relevant. Vocal Tract Length & Gender/Age Vocal tract length affects formant frequency Fn = c/wavelength » Assume female vocal tract = 15cm (instead of standard 17.5) Acoustic Characteristics of Lip Radiation: - Lip serve as boundary between the vocal tract and the atmosphere - Affects resonance Before reaching the lips: o Lower frequency harmonics have greater energy At the lips: o The atmosphere offers greater resistance to lower harmonics (added disadvantage) o So… higher frequency harmonics are resonated more than lower frequency harmonics. » Glottis = Boost/lower harmonics » Lips = Boost at higher harmonics General Relationship: Vocal Tract Posture + Formant Frequencies Vowel Articulation and Acoustics: o Acoustic description based on formants: F1 and F2 convey information on vowel quality. Formant values correspond roughly to articulatory postures. o Traditional classification based on impressions of articulation: Tongue height (high, mid, low) Tongue advancement (front, mid, back) Traditional Description of Vowels: Tongue Height: o High (close) o Mid o Low (open) Tongue Advancement: o Front o Back Resonating Cavities Resonant frequencies are specified by the volume of air being resonated Formant frequencies increase: » As overall length of vocal tract shortens. » As resonating cavities within vocal tract become smaller. Constrictions Affect Formant Frequencies: Constricting near a node: o Raises the formant value o Example: a constriction in the lower pharynx raises F1 Constricting near an antinode: ((closer to the lips)) o Lowers the formant value o Example: a constriction at the lips lowers F2 Vocal Tract Resonance and Tongue Position - First formant (F1) related to: o Volume of pharyngeal cavity o Influenced by tongue height - Second formant (F2) related to: o Length of oral cavity o Influenced by tongue backing Resonance Basic Rules F1 Rule – inversely related to jaw height. » As the jaw goes down, F1 goes up. F2 Rule – Directly related to tongue fronting. » As the tongue moves forward, F2 increases. Lip Rounding Rule – ALL formants are lowered by lip rounding (because lip protrusion lengthens the vocal tract “tube”) Finishing Production/Perception of Vowels (think resonance) Ways to think about Resonating Cavities o Modeled as two tubes: Pharyngeal Cavity Oral Cavity Larger Resonating Spaces = lower formant frequency Longer Vocal Tract “tube” = lower formant frequency Another way… The “infinite tube” model o Modeled as a series of unlimited number of tubes Formants of “ee” in spectrum and spectrogram – tongue high and front Review: F1 Inversely related to jaw height – volume of pharyngeal cavity o Relatively low value (towards the bottom of spectrogram); true for all vowels F2 Directly related to tongue fronting – length of oral cavity o Relatively high value (related to frequency (Hz)); **Longer tube = lower resonant frequency Vowel Formants Systematic relationship (with vowels and formants) Front Vowels: o F1 and F2 far apart o F2 and F3 close together Back Vowels: o F1 and F2 close together (oral and pharyngeal space closer in volume) o F2 and F3 further apart Vowels Across Speakers » Relative patterns of formant values are consistent across speakers » Absolute formant values vary across speakers: o Overall vocal-tract length differences o Parts of the vocal tract may differ in size (ex: pharynx) o Dialect and idiolect differences Normative Data No absolute values for F1, F2, F3 exist F1 – F2 relationship: relative frequencies How to describe Vowels: » Tenseness tense to lax o Tense Vowels: e.g. [i e o u]: Involve more extreme articulations Have longer durations Can occur in open syllables (e.g., CV); “bee” May be diphthongized (e.g., [el oU]); putting two vowels together o Lax Vowels: Have less extreme articulatory postures Are shorter in duration Occur only in closed syllables (e.g., CVC) » Monothongs vs. Diphthongs o Diphthongs (Ex: “boy”, “say”, “tie”, “wow”, “no”) Two vowels within the same syllable nuclei Smooth glide from one vowel to the next 5 common diphthongs in American English Onglide – articulatory starting position for diphthong Offglide – ending articulation point Vowels in Clinical Populations (vowels more preserved in stroke patients typically) - Vowel space in postlingually deaf speakers: o Constrained jaw and tongue positions o Smaller range formant values - Foreign accents may involve errors in vowel production Targets: 1. Articulatory (vocal tract shape) 2. Acoustic (auditory targets) - Visual feedback (e.g., via spectrograms) may help speakers improve vowel production CONSONANTS Production and Perception of Consonants Part 1: Consonants (Stops and Fricatives) o One or more areas of relative constriction of the vocal tract Source of Sound: o Voiced o Turbulent airflow Coarticulation: - Any sound is influenced by the phoneme immediately preceding and following it (or coming up) - Coarticulation = Simultaneously articulating more one phoneme. - Coarticulation is essential to the perception of certain consonants. - Types: o Anticipatory (forward) Coarticulation Ex: “Sue”; already rounding lips for the “oo” during the “s” o Retentive (backward) Coarticulation Ex: “Toots”; /s/ produced with lip rounding left over from the “oo” Vowel Transitions Between o Vowel and consonant (VC) onglide o Consonant and vowel (CV) offglide Phonetic Description of Consonants: Place of articulation where the constriction happens o Bilabial (lips come together) o Tongue + fixed point of articulation o Pharynx/glottis (“h”); that turbulence sound Manner of articulation // Manner of airflow describes the flow of air o Complete vs. Transient Cessation of airflow o Constriction with continuous airflow Voicing o Voiced or unvoiced MANNER: Stops o Examples: p, b, t, d, k, g o Complex phonemes with many variations o Four acoustic cues: I. Silence (Stop Gap) **be able to ID in spectrogram » Occlusion to release (pretty close to a straight line) » Voiceless stops: Complete silence » Voiced stops: Varying amount of silence » Low amplitude voicing (close to bottom of spectrogram) o Voiced bar on spectrogram II. Release Burst **be able to ID in spectrogram » Burst noise as blocked air is released » 10 – 30ms for voiced stops slightly longer for voiceless cognates » Sudden change in amplitude » Release of voiceless stops noted with aspiration III. Aspiration (Coarticulation effect) » Brief hiss of air (shaded area after a burst) » Sometimes after voiceless stops (not after voiced) » Won’t see after s-clusters IV. Voice Onset Time = time from release of the stop closure to onset of voicing. How do we hear voiced vs. unvoiced stops at the beginning of words? (bat vs. pat) » Depends upon the VOT Can be variable. o Pre-voicing: voicing begins just before release o Simultaneous: voicing begins on release o Voicing begins AFTER air is released Short-Lag vs. Long-Lag time <20ms = voiced >25ms = voiceless Syllable initial stops are perceived as voiced for » Pre-voiced » Simultaneous » Short-Lag VOT Syllable initial stops are perceived as voiceless for » Long-Lag VOT Fricatives – key acoustic markers o Narrow constriction but not completely occlusion (/s/) o Aperiodic sound source in upper vocal tract Turbulence, frication o Categorized by place of articulation o All fricatives may be voiced or voiceless Frication Noise o Examples: (s, z) higher frequency noise (near top of the spectrogram) Affricates – acoustic features o Stop releasing into a fricative o Acoustics show features of both: Silent/Voiced Closure region Release burst Frication noise Approximants o Articulators close together, but not so close to create friction o Glides: Lingual – alveolar /j/ & bilabial /w/ (less energy than a vowel would’ve) o Liquids: Retroflex /r/ & lingual-alveolar /l/ Still considered consonants despite: » Relatively unconstricted » Presence of formants but not syllabic nuclei? o Nasals: Block oral cavity, open velopharyngeal port ALL nasals = voiced Nasals: o Large nasal resonating space and narrow opening o Nasal Murmur = very low F1 (250 – 500Hz) o Low energy of all formants (high damping) » F2, F3 vary Vowel Nasalization o Co-articulation effect o Portion of vowel closest to nasal consonant becomes nasalized. SUPRASEMENTALS (aspects of the utterance): - Features of the utterance that are not defined by the individual speech sounds (beyond the phoneme) - BUT can carry meaning - Examples (acoustic description): Voice quality (fundamental frequency) Speech Melody (intonation) – the up and down within the utterance Loudness (intensity) Timing (duration) Stress **They don’t change the distinctive phonological quality, but can change utterance meaning. Suprasegmentals (Prosody): 3 Components 1) Pitch Contour (tone/intonation contour) Multiple levels of 0contours within an utterance Reflects changes in 0over an utterance Provides information on speaker affect Can differentiate questions versus statements Pitch Contour for Statement vs, Question o Statement: Falling intonation (but can also stay stable) o Question: Rising intonation Questions may have different pitch contours o Yes/No questions: Rising intonation o Wh- questions: Dropping intonation pattern Statements may have different pitch contours depending on their meaning… o Angry: Falling intonation o Disbelief: Both falling/rising o Uncertain: Rising intonation F0Declination: Tendency for F 0to decrease over the course of an utterance Individual syllables may receive a slight upward inflection 2) Duration Length of phonemes o Used to distinguish between syllables Examples: » Flap-tap duration (pretty, patio, saddle) » Diphthongs longer » Lax vowels shorter » Phase – Final Position 2 syllable “tomorrow” lengthened “Tomorrow I’ll go” vs. “I’ll go tomorrow” Juncture (duration between syllables) o Used to distinguish between the words in an utterance; your pauses 3) Stress The amount of emphasis placed on a segment for purposes of conveying meaning Relative depends how syllables relate to nearby syllables o F0 (pitch) – usually higher o Intensity (loudness) – usually greater o Duration – usually longer Lexical Stress: o Stress patterns in words: » Ex: unicorn, immediate » Varies between nouns and verbs in English For example, digest (noun) vs. digest (verb) Compound Noun vs. Adj + Noun Stress Contrast “black board” vs. “blackboard” (less of a juncture + initial stress) Sentential Stress: o Emphasizes words in sentences: Is that your red book? (not the green one) Contrastive Stress: o Emphasizes normally weak syllable to clarify a contrast: Receive, not deceive; abduct, not adduct PHSIOLOGY MEASURES Used to Measure Articulation - Acoustic vs. Physiological Measures o Acoustic analysis evaluates speech signal o Other methods can describe articulator movement Examples of Physiology Measures: o X-ray microbeam o Electromagnetic midsagittal articulograph o Optoelectric Tracking o Strain gauge o EPG
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