Art History II: Exam 4 Study Guide
Art History II: Exam 4 Study Guide ART 1023
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Benjamin Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see History of Art 2 in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
EXAM FOUR / FINAL 04/08/16 Manet Olympia 1863 Oil on canvas Salon of 1865 Eakins The Gross Clinic 1875 Oil on canvas The doctor (main figure) is Dr. Gross (hence “Gross Clinic”) Eakins is also very interested in photography Louis Daguerre Paris Boulevard 1839 Daguerreotype Images are flipped horizontally (like a mirror) People in the street move too fast for the photo and don’t show up, except for the shoeshine man because he was still long enough to be captured The light is what actually creates the image even though humans have invented the process Daguerreotypes create only one image that cannot be copied Regarded as precious and very special because of how unique they were 04/11/16 Photography Used for anything from landscape to portraiture Visitors would leave a photo of themselves at the homes they were visiting if the resident wasn’t home so they would know who had came to see them Draws attention to how light functions Emphasizes neutrality within an image Painting Emphasizes the “artist’s touch” Is able to utilize multiple (brighter) colors within one image Is able to capture physical and visual texture Muybridge Horse Galloping 1878 Collotype print Hired to photograph a horse galloping to see the specific movements happening Left to right orientation of the horse to make the running seem more natural o Moving the same direction that we read so that it is more natural to view and easier to understand as a time sequence Impressionism Uses the previously mentioned qualities of painting to stress the aspects of images that photography can not convey 8 “Impressionist” exhibitions over 12 years o Sparse space, not crowded like the salons Used materials that were mass produced and made for amateur artists o Tubes of paint o Pre stretched canvases o Portable easels Materials allowed them to work outside and capture fleeting moments from nature “Sense of a moment” because it can not capture an actual moment in time because of how long it takes to actually create the painting Monet is the “poster boy” for the Impressionist movement; most well known impressionist artist Very interested in color theory o How colors are perceived in relation to the colors surrounding them o Allows them to give the color a more intense/saturated look Painting shows brush strokes clearly o Gives the viewer the sense of the time and skill it takes to create the painting Rebuilding of Paris: “Haussmanization” knocking down the older buildings in Paris to create a cleaner and more modern city; including making straighter/wider roads, and more emphasis on transportation Had a tendency to outline figures in a thin/small blue halo to suggest atmosphere o Used lots of blue in their paintings in general Claude Monet Gare St. Lazare 1877 Oil on canvas Modern subject suggesting: o Industrialization o New types of transportation o Modern architectural elements Busiest railroad station in Paris Caillebotte Paris: A Rainy Day 1877 Oil on canvas One of the best examples of an image of the “new Paris” Crossroads represent a place to make a choice 04/13/16 Monet Gained fame with 3 main subjects o Ballerinas/dancers o Equestrian (horses and jockeys) o Portraiture Degas The Dance Class 1874 Oil on canvas Shows the effort/work that goes into the final illusion that is the ballet Space is inside of the old opera house that had been destroyed by this time (to be replaced by the new one) Manet A Bar at the FoliesBergère 1882 Oil on canvas Same artist that painted Olympia Has been influenced by impressionism o Lightened and brightened colors o Looser brush strokes Pushes the idea of prostitution shown in Olympia further in this Reflections in the mirror are not quite accurate o May show a different moment in time or different thoughts o Placement and angles are off Female impressionists Concentrated on more interior spaces Depicted more domestic scenes If they worked outside they would draw unwanted/negative attention o Not a readily accepted activity for an middle/upper class women o Women should be chaperoned Common subject was women in public with their chaperone No “easy” access to study the nude figure o Studios that were open to male artist to view nude figures were not open to female artists Cassatt The Bath Circa 1893 Oil on canvas Mentored by Degas One of many women who were a part of the impressionist movement Subject had many advantages for Cassatt o Showed her knowledge of anatomy and the nude figure o She could pose the scene in her home o Was an appropriate subject for a woman to paint o References a “Madonna and Child” scene Comparable to Madonna with the Long Neck 04/15/16 Seurat A Sunday on La Grande Jatte 188486 Oil on canvas Displayed in the impressionist exhibit of 1886 (the final one) Painted with the pointillism technique o Tiny dots/lines of color placed near each other in a way that (from a distance) they blend into the color of the object being painted o Color theory is very important o Very mechanical technique because of the repetitive movements used to create the tiny spots of color Van Gogh Post impressionist Bright color Thick layering of paint to give a 3D effect visually and physically Feels connected with Japan and Japanese art o References and is inspired by Japanese prints Naturally inclined to copy nature as impressionists do, but inspired by Gauguin to imagine more than he copies nature Van Gogh Starry Night 1889 Oil on canvas Combination of 3 diff locations o His homeland’s landscape of Holland o Landscape he sees from his window’s view from the asylum o Japanese print influence Cypress tree: associated with graveyards Stressing formal artistic elements o Line, color, texture, and shape Gauguin The Vision after the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel) 1888 Oil on canvas Collective hallucination by the women as the Priest is lecturing on the story of Jacob wrestling with the Angel Gauguin worked closely with Van Gogh and Degas Influenced by stained glass, enamel jewelry making; flat planes of color Hidden profile shape of a cow in the red background 04/18/16 Paul Cézanne Still Life with Plaster Cupid Oil on paper mounted on canvas Circa 1895 Thought of himself as an impressionist artist, is now also classified as post impressionist Interested in natural appearances, but also incorporating distortion to emphasize classic art techniques (line, color, forms, etc.) Constructive stroke: use of hatch markings to apply the paint, gives a clearly painted feel; builds a kind of grid over the image Proportions and relation of depth are distorted Edvard Munch The Scream 1910 (original version: 1893) Tempera on board Series of painting all depicting the same/similar scene Repeated composition with small changes throughout the series Makes multiple copies in paint, pastel, and even lithograph What is screaming? o The figure with its hands up to amplify the scream Pathetic fallacy; nature is complementing human emotion o Nature, and the figure is covering it’s ears Nature is creating/inspiring the feeling of the individual Composition is comparable to Starry Night Presymbolic: so natural that it has no need for translation; before development of language, meaning embedded in human nature Auguste Rodin The Burghers of Calais Bronze 188495 Exists in multiple forms o Rodin focused mainly on the plaster casting process and was able to replicate his more famous works in multiple medias to create many replicas of the original Six burghers (wealthy, welltodo citizens) going to the King to turn in their keys to the city of Calais; expecting that the King will kill them Almost at ground level to connect the common public to the scene (city raised it up a bit; Rodin wanted it on the ground) Antiheroic depiction of the characters; not idealized Meaning of public art: relationship between the art object and the social space/viewer o Meaning changes as the location of the work changes Original plaster cast version was displayed in Paris in 1889 04/20/16 Art Nouveau Focused on design elements Advertisements become focused on art as well as the product Thinner lines Klimt The Kiss 190708 Oil on canvas Two ways to read it o Mutual affection, kiss of love o Forced kiss, straining Fauves “Wild animals” / “wild beasts” Meant as a negative association initially Focused on basic forms Changed naturalistic colors to overly exaggerated/imagined colors Henri Matisse Dance 1 Oil on canvas 1909 Focused on flattened space Broken circle o Visually still whole because of the placement of the leg Cubism Brought about mainly by Picasso and Barque Two types: o Analytic cubism Conventional materials and genres Breaking up time and space o Synthetic cubism Combining materials (conventional and nonconventional) Picasso Still Life with ChairCaning 1912 Oil and oilcloth on canvas Example of synthetic cubism Includes real rope as a sort of frame and a photograph of chair caning (printed on oilcloth) 04/22/16 Balla Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash 1912 Oil on canvas Marcel Duchamp Fountain 1917/1964 Porcelain urinal & paint Not popular at the time; piece was lost/destroyed Became important/celebrated in 1960’s Combining the idea of the high, cultured, clean spaces with low, animal, dirty spaces Also combining the gendered spaces Signed: “R. Mutt 1917” Was it really Duchamp’s idea? o Baroness Elsa von FreytagLoringhoven’s original idea and work? o After she dies he appropriates her ideas as his own Surrealism Use realism techniques to create dreamlike, nonsensical images Magritte The Treachery of Images 192829 Oil on canvas The inscription beneath the image says “this is not a pipe” Paradoxical The image is not a pipe, it is only a representational image of a pipe Magritte focuses in some of his works on the relationship between and object and the word we use to represent it His pieces are very easily reproduced because of his straightforward style 04/25/16 Picasso Guernica Oil on canvas 1937 Works with and is friends with Surrealist painters, but is not one o Also not a Cubist painter Classified as a combination of a history, surrealist, cubist painter o Style all his own Jackson Pollock One: Number 31, 1950 1950 Oil and enamel paint on unprimed canvas More important for the implied movement of the artist and the gestures used to create the markings o Very focused on the physical process o Not focused on meaning Canvas laid on the floor, Pollock dripping, flicking, etc. paint over it Andy Warhol Campbell’s Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirtytwo canvases Originally displayed in a single row around the gallery space 04/27/16 Minimalism Not important that the artist actually makes it o Usually planned by the artist and installed by a second party Smithson Spiral Jetty (Great Salt Lake, Utah) 1970 Black rock, salt crystals, earth, red water (algae) Reminds viewer of a labyrinth Changes with the tide of the lake Partially minimalism & partially landart Site vs. nonsite o Site: location in nature/space where art exists naturally/is made to be seen naturally o Nonsite: a gallery space or location specifically used to exhibit art, or a film or image used to show an artwork Lin Vietnam Veterans Memorial (Washington, D.C.) 1982 Black Granite Anonymously judged competition to decide what the memorial would look like and who would design it Names listed chronologically (by death) as opposed to alphabetically o Draws attention to the number of people who died in each year and how long the war was o Removes the impersonality that listing alphabetically would cause Black marble o Very reflective Shows involvements between past&present and living&dead o References mourning and death FINAL EXAM th Thursday May 5 12:00pm3:00pm Focus on the different movements Timeline of the movements and artists What type of visual language each movement/artist uses
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