Vitamin and Mineral Specific Review
Vitamin and Mineral Specific Review EXSC 408
Popular in Nutrition
Popular in Physical Education
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ticynn London on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EXSC 408 at Old Dominion University taught by Kim Baskette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Physical Education at Old Dominion University.
Reviews for Vitamin and Mineral Specific Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/27/16
Vitamin and Mineral In-depth Review Antioxidants Free oxygen radicals produced from oxidative phosphorylation process & other sources Beneficial effects • Some free radicals help to destroy bacteria & other foreign particles Oxidative stress Amounts of free radicals produced exceeds body’s clearance ability Formation during exercise directly related to intensity & duration Can result in increased production of tissue-damaging free radicals Importance of balanced diet Antioxidant mechanisms • Conversion of free radicals to compounds that can be eliminated safely ÷ Ex. Vitamin C • Antioxidant enzymes – contain mineral cofactors ÷ Ex. Fe, Zn, Cu, Se • Reacting directly with free radicals breaking reaction chain of cellular damage ÷ Ex. Vitamin E & beta-carotene • Regeneration of antioxidants Ex. Vit C assists in regeneration Vit E & Niacin in regeneration of Vit C Vitamin b12 Deficiencies can result in anemia due to poor intake or mal-absorption Pernicious anemia – decreased production of intrinsic factor (IF) Needed for intestinal absorption of B12 Typically occurs with production declines with age (>50yrs) Vitamin B12 injections needed Deficiencies due to poor intake (normal IF levels) - remedied with diet or oral B12 supplements Vegans & vegetarians Megaloblastic anemia (decreased B12 or foliate) Proceeded by subclinical manifestations - decreased blood & RBC levels Supplementation Recommended to reverse clinical deficiency Foods: liver, red meat, fortified foods Vitamin A Found as Retinol in animal sources ¡ Integral part of normal vision; involved in cell differentiation Carotenoids (plant sources) ¡ Found in red, orange, & yellow pigments in plants ÷ Ex. Beta-carotene, lycopene (red), lutein (orange) ¡ Weak antioxidants - react with and inactivate some reactive oxygen species ¡ DRI ¡ 700mcg - adult, non-pregnant women ¡ 900mcg – adult males Foods: sweet potatoes, carrots, dark leafy greens, winter squashes, lettuce Thiamin Part of coenzyme involved in release of energy from macronutrients About 80% found in body as TDP or TPP TPP catalyzes reactions involving pyruvate & alpha-ketoglutarate & BCAA’s 50% body found in skeletal muscle Food: Wheat and bread Riboflavin & Niacin A. Part of two coenzymes (FMN & FAD) involved with ATP production B. Part of two coenzymes (NAD & NADP) Foods: dairy and meats Vitamin B (6yridoxine) Most found in skeletal muscle as part of coenzyme pyroxidoxal phosphate (PLP) Involved in AA metabolism & release of glucose from glycogen Foods: rice, nuts, liver Pantothenic Acid & Biotin A. Part of coenzyme A (CoA) & directly involved in energy metabolism B. Involved in several energy-related reactions C. Both found in a wide variety of foods Foods: wide variety Vitamin E Also identified as Tocopherol Primary antioxidant found on or near cell membrane ¡ Breaks chain reaction involved in oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes ¡ Prevents oxidative damage & maintains cell membrane integrity ¡ Must be regenerated from Vitamin C & other compounds Involved in RBC production Foods: Almonds, seeds, chard, kale Vitamin C Works independently & in conjunction with Vitamin E ¡ Reacts with oxidized Vitamin E to regenerate molecule ¡ Antioxidant activity primarily in extracellular tissue ¡ Deficiencies associated with scurvy ¡ Proper collagen formation DRI ¡ 75mg/dl (non-smoking females) ¡ 90mg/dl (non-smoking males) Foods: oranges, bell peppers, dark leafy greens, kiwifruit, broccoli, berries, citrus fruits, tomatoes, peas, and papayas Foliate Involved in DNA synthesis & AA metabolism ¡ Plays a part in cell division of RBC’s & other cells in body ¡ Provides critical support for rapid cell division ¡ Prevent neural tube defects during fetal growth Forms of vitamin ¡ Foliate –in the body or in natural forms in foods ¡ Folic acid – form used in fortified foods & supplements DRI ¡ 400mcg – adults Foods: broccoli and spinach and dried legumes such as chickpeas, beans and lentils Vitamin D Essential for bone growth & development Regulation of other tissues in the body (ex. cardiac & skeletal muscle) Modulation of cell growth of normal & cancerous cells Immune system function “Active” form - Calcitriol Helps maintain blood levels through absorption from diet Foods: Fatty fish, fortified milk and orange juice Vitamin K Fat-soluble; stored in adipose tissue and liver Important role in coagulation and bone health Sources: ¡ Production by intestinal bacteria Levels have been found to associated with bone health Deficiencies are rare Foods: Green leafy vegetables, beef liver Calcium Most important for bone formation Foods: dark leafy greens, cheese, low fat milk and yogurt Phosphorus • Phosphorus – part of hydroxyapatite crystals • Variety of foods & absorption rate extremely high • 85% of women & 95% of men consume adequate amounts through their diets • Calcium supplements can interfere with absorption Foods: Organ meats, walleye, pollock or sardines Fluoride • Stimulates osteoblastic activity - larger extent in trabecular bone • Increases spinal bone density Foods: Grape products, dried fruit, dried beans, cocoa powder, and walnuts Magnesium • Intracellular action • Contributes to structural development of bone Foods: Nuts, fruits, legumes Iron • Deficiency in Fe levels – results in body’s inability for normal RBC production • Declines in VO2max due to impaired oxygen transport • Range from 10-50% depending on severity of anemia • Reduction in endurance capacity • Fe part of some oxidative enzymes needed in oxygen utilization & ATP production Foods: Beef, red meat, beans, chard Zinc • Constituent/cofactor in >200 enzyme systems • Deficiencies • Damaged skin & GI cells - affects non-specific immune responses • Decreased production & function of lymphocytes • Excessive intake • Inhibits copper absorption • Decreases lymphocyte response Foods: oysters, chicken, cheese
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'