Ch. 14 and 15 week 14
Ch. 14 and 15 week 14
Popular in Human Behavior Social Environment II
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslie Dudley on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Pilkinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Behavior Social Environment II in Social Work at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Ch. 14 The Transition From Childhood to Adulthood The word adolescence means “to grow into maturity.” Rites of passage — ceremonies that demarcate the transition from childhood to adulthood. All adolescents experience profound biological, psychological, psychosocial, social, and spiritual changes. In advanced industrial societies, these changes have been divided into three phases: early adolescence (ages 11 to 14) middle adolescence (ages 15 to 17) late adolescence (ages 18 to 20). Puberty is the period of the life course in which the reproductive system matures. Primary sex characteristics are those directly related to the reproductive organs and external genitalia. Secondary sex characteristics are those not directly related to the reproductive organs and external genitalia. Pubertal timing varies greatly. Adolescents experience growth spurts. The Adolescent Brain: Adolescence is a time of continued brain growth and change. “Cold cognition” problem solving occurs when the adolescent is alone and calm. “Hot cognition” problem solving occurs in situations when teens are with peers. In situations of “hot cognition,” adolescent problem solving is more impulsive. Human adolescents tend to demonstrate three behavior changes: increased novelty seeking, increased risk taking, and greater affiliation with peers. Nutrition, Exercise, and Sleep. Recommend choosing a variety of fruits and vegetables each day selecting from all five vegetable subgroups. Students who eat breakfast obtain higher test scores and are less likely to be tardy or absent from school. Physical fitness should be achieved by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance. Aolescents in the United States are the most sleepdeprived segment of a very sleepdeprived society. Affected by insufficient sleep:ﬁ School performance ﬁ Mood. Sleep deprivation is associated with depression in adolescents. Drowsiness or fatigue is a principle cause of at least 100,000 policereported traffic collisions annually. Sleep deficit contributes to: Acne, aggressive behavior eating too much or unhealthy foods to illness. It also heightens the effects of alcohol and can lead to increased use of caffeine and nicotine. Sleepdeprived youth may also present with symptoms which are similar to ADHD and thus run the risk of misdiagnosis. Psychological Reactions to Biological Changes. Young adolescents are able to reflect upon and give meaning to their biological transformations. Responses to puberty are influenced by the way other people respond to the adolescent’s changing body. Reactions to puberty are influenced by other events in the adolescent’s life. It appears that puberty is usually viewed more positively by males than by females: Pubescent boys tend to report an improved body image. Pubescent girls are more prone to depression. For females, but not males, early puberty has been linked with depression, not only at puberty but across the life course. With early maturing males and females engaging in more heavy drinking than later maturing youth and early puberty serving as a risk factor for alcoholrelated problems across the life course. Formal operational thought the capacity to apply hypothetical reasoning to various situations and the ability to use symbols to solve problems. The adolescent brain is capable of retaining larger amounts of information. Adolescents are capable of hypothesizing beyond the present objects. The developing brain needs social environments that encourage hypothetical, abstract reasoning and opportunities to investigate the world. Older adolescents have more stereotypes, intuitions, memories, and selfevident truths that they may employ in processing information. Ch. 15 Carl Jung’s Analytic Psychology: Differentiation the process by which humans develop unique patterns and traits. Individuation the full development of all aspects of the self into a unique and harmonious whole that gives expression to repressed attributes and desires. Individuation does not happen before age 40. Before age 40 focused on breaking away from parents and meeting responsibilities to family, work, and community. Once those tasks have been accomplished, the individual can work on greater understanding and acceptance of the self. Levinson’s Theory of Seasons of Adulthood. Adult life is composed of alternating periods of relative stability and periods of transition. The concept of life structure “the underlying pattern or design of a person’s life at a given time”. Central components designate the relationships that have the greatest significance to a life structure. The ages of 17 to 33 the novice phase of adulthood. During the novice phase: Young persons’ personalities continue to develop. They prepare to differentiate from their families of origin. It may take up to 15 years for some individuals to resolve the transition to adulthood and to construct a stable adult life structure. About 40 to 65 the era of middle adulthood. It is a time of reduced biological capacities, a period when many people are energized by satisfying intimate relationships and gratifying contributions at work and in the community. This transition balances four opposing aspects of identity: young versus old, creation versus destruction, feminine versus masculine, and attachment versus separation. Arnett’s “Emerging” Adulthood: Emerging adulthood a developmental phase distinct from both adolescence and young adulthood. Most individuals make the transition from emerging adulthood into young adulthood by age 30. Emerging adulthood is a period of prolonged exploration of social and economic roles where young people try out new experiences related to love, work, financial responsibilities, and educational interests without committing to any specific lasting plan. Most young persons in emerging adulthood are in education, training, or apprenticeship programs working toward an occupation. The transition from emerging adulthood into young adulthood is marked by solidifying role commitments. The difference between those who follow a default individualization pathway versus a developmental individualization, is a firmer commitment to goals, values, and beliefs for those in the developmental individuation pathway. Personal agency, across race and ethnicity, is associated with a more flexible and exploratory orientation to adulthood commitments, and is less associated with premature closure and circumscribed commitment. Residential stability and mobility is another theme of this transition. Globally: family size has decreased, timing of first marriage is being delayed, a decrease in teenage marriages, overall decreases in adolescent labor accompanied by increases in educational attainment, increased reliance on finding employment outside the family, emphasis on more formal schooling rather than familybased learning, a decreased gender gap, greater transiency in young adulthood, and trend in declining fertility rates. Individual routes of development are contingent on socialization processes experienced within family, peer groups, school, and community. Environmental opportunities, expressed community attitudes, and family expectations may all influence the timing and sequencing of transitions during emerging adulthood. Decisions may be heavily weighted toward maintaining family equilibrium. Successful adult development may be defined through the lens of pragmatism. Foster youth aging out of care suggest that such youth face significant transitioning risks. Culture and gender have significant influence on young adult roles and expectations. Some environments may offer limited education and occupational opportunities. Childhood socioeconomic status is an important mediating factor in young adult transitions. A family’s economic background and resources is strongly associated with the adult status of the family’s children. Individuals with greater financial stability often have more paths to choose from and may have more resources to negotiate the stressors associated with this developmental period. Physical functioning is typically at its height during early adulthood. Most biological systems reach their peak performance in the mid20s. Agerelated changes are usually gradual, accumulating at different rates in different body systems .The biggest changes in biological functioning and physical and mental health in middle adulthood are in: physical appearance, mobility the reproductive system, and health
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