Psyc 3120 Final exam study guide
Psyc 3120 Final exam study guide PSYC 3120
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 Middle Adulthood Physical changes associated with Middle Adulthood (osteoporosis prevention, double standard for appearance, menopause, sexual factors, visual problems, loss of taste and smell, middle age spread) Double standard • Men like it, it’s a value for them. Makes them more appealing to women due to the marriage gradient. And • Women has more of a negative connotation Osteoporosis • a condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, often brought about by a lack of calcium in the diet. • found in females more than males • Can reduce risk by maintaining a diet high in calcium & exercising regularly Menopause o Cessation of menstruation (period stops) o Cycles become irregular and less frequent during a 2 year period starting at around 47/48 o 40-60 years of age o marks the point at which traditional pregnancy is no longer possible o production of estrogen and progesterone (female sex hormones) begin to drop producing a variety of hormone related changes o symptoms o hot flashes o headaches o dizziness o heart palpitations o aching joints Perimenopause o Period beginning around 10 years prior to menopause when hormone production begins to change o Marked by sometimes radical fluctuations in hormone production, resulting in some of the same symptoms found in menopause Visual Problems PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 o The decline of visual acuity o Visual acuity= the ability to discern fine detail o Starts around 40 o Glaucoma § a condition in which pressure in the fluid of the eye increases, either because the fluid cannot drain properly or because too much is produced. § If left untreated will result in blindness. § Can be treated with medication or surgery o Presbyopia • loss of near vision. • leads to the need of reading glasses or bifocals o Floaters § tiny spots, specks, flecks and "cobwebs" that drift aimlessly around in your field of vision. § annoying, but very common and usually aren't cause for alarm. § appear when tiny pieces of the eye's gel-like vitreous break loose within the inner back portion of the eye. o Dry Eye § chronic and typically progressive condition. § Depending on its cause and severity, it may not be completely curable. § most cases, dry eyes can be managed successfully, usually resulting in noticeably greater eye comfort, fewer dry eye symptoms, and sometimes sharper vision as well. o Cataracts § clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. § most common cause of vision loss in people over age 40 and is the principal cause of blindness in the world Loss of Taste and Smell o Taste buds replaced at a slower rate after 40 o Smell receptors deteriorate Sexuality o Sex hormones Decline § Testosterone= men § Estrogen= women o Activity Level o Sexual activity does not fade away for most middle age adult PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 o Frequency declines but doesn’t disappear. It continues to be important o Middle aged adults have more freedom for sexual enjoyment § Children are out of the house, more time to be with themselves, less self conscious, less concern with pregnancy o Difficulties o Erectile dysfunction in men o Pain during sex with women o Female Climacteric o Change from being able to bear children to not o Most notable sign is menopause, which is accompanied by physical and emotional discomfort o Male Climacteric o Change in their reproductive systems o Production of sperm and testosterone declines and the prostate glands enlarge causing issues with urination o 50s Normative Crisis Model o The approach to personality development that is based off fairly universal stages tied to a sequence of age related crisis o Criticism § Outdated, not applicable anymore § Sample size wasn’t focused on the nation as a whole • Mainly upperclass males § Rigid gender roles o Eric Erikson Life Events Model o Suggest that it is the particular events in an adults life, rather than age per se, that determines the course of personality development o Ravenna Helson Erikson (last two stages), Valliant, and Levinson’s theories o Erikson § Generativity vs Stagnation PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 • The stage during middle adulthood in which people consider their contributions to family • Generativity o People make a personal contribution to family, community, work, and society as a whole o Strive to play a role in guiding and encouraging the future generations (continuing their own lives thru others) • Stagnation o Focusing on the triviality (negatives) of their own lives, may feel that they have made only limited contributions to the world and that their presence has counted for little o Just kind of satisfied with where they’re at, don’t want to grow or see a need to Valliant § Another crisis theory § Ages 45-55 § “keeping the meaning vs rigidity” • adults seek to extract the meaning from their lives and to “keep the meaning” by developing an acceptance of the strength and weaknesses of others. Relatively content • people who are not able to keep the meaning in their lives risk becoming rigid and increasingly isolated from others Levinson o Early adulthood • 20 to middle adulthood • “the dream” o what is my plan to do with my life? § Enact plans for achieving goals o Spend a lot of time thinking how can I achieve my goals § Settle down in their 30s o By the end people are settling down & living the dream § Middle adulthood • 40-45 • midlife transition: time of questioning o maybe I was wrong with my plan, what can I do with the rest of my life to make it productive • finite nature of life • first signs of aging PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 o confront the knowledge that they will be unable to accomplish all their goals before they die • Doubt value of accomplishments o Second guessing what they did o Midlife Crisis o Marked by intense psychological turmoil • Uncertainty & indecision o About the direction of their life • Desire to correct past mistakes o Do all of the things they never got to do when they were young • Time for action • Future depends on resolution of midlife crisis • Criticism o Small sample size § Only men were tested • He overstated the consistency and the generality of the patterns he found within the samples • Most people the passage into middle adulthood is relatively tranquil, find middle adulthood to be rewarding o Those who feel regret are motivated to make a change and those who change end up better psychologically Big 5 Personality traits (Costa and McCrae) o NEOAC (can be arranged to spell OCEAN if that’s easier to remember) § Neuroticism • Someone who tends to worry • Have issues with change • Anxious • Self critical § Extraversion • Outgoing • gain energy from being around people § Openness to Experience • Interested in trying new things (curiosity) • Creative PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 § Agreeableness • Easygoing and helpful a person tends to be § Conscientious • Responsible, pays attention to detail • organized Work and careers (general attitude, burnout) o Greatest productivity, success and earning power o Burnout § Occurs when workers experience dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration and weariness from the job § Strikes those who were most idealistic and driven • They become overcommitted to their jobs and the realization that they can make only minor dents in societal problems can be disappointing and demoralizing • Example: Helping professions o Unemployment § Financial and psychological effects • Can leave people anxious, depressed, and irritable, self confidence may plummet • No job means no income o Changing careers is harder due to stereotypes and technological advances § Stereotypes of older workers may lead to age discrimination • Not as competitive, afraid they cant keep up, etc § However older workers • Less absenteeism o Not caring for younger children • More reliable • Hold job longer • More willing to learn new skills Empty nest syndrome; Role reversal/Sandwich generation; Boomerang children; midlife crisis; midlife transition o Empty Nest Syndrome § Refers to instances in which parents experience unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression from their children’s departure from home PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 § Hardest on women especially those who were stay at home moms. § Feelings of loss over the departure of children are common but it opens up more opportunities for spouses to be with one another. And they have an opportunity to throw themselves into their own work without having to worry about helping kids with homework, carpools, etc o Sandwich Generation § Come to be applied to these middle adults who feel squeezed between the needs of both their children and their aging parents § People in middle adulthood provide a range of care for their parents • Sometimes the care is merely financial such as helping them makes ends meet on meager pensions. In other situations it takes the form of help in household such as taking down storm windows in the spring or shoveling snow in the winter • In extreme cases elder parents may be invited to live in the home of a son or daughter. § Adult children in the middle generation are no longer children they are in charge of the household o Boomerang Children § Young adults who return after leaving home for some period, to live in the homes of their middle adulthood parents § Typically come back for economic reasons • Cant find jobs after college or the positions they do find isn’t enough to make ends meet. § Close to a third of young adults live at home Speaker • Mary o 47 o planning ahead o gardening o water project o burn out à job switch o positive view of stagnation PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 Late Adulthood Define gerontology, ageism o Gerontology § The study of aging o Ageism • Prejudice & discrimination of older people o Behavioral interpretations o Negative attitudes about competence and attractiveness § Reflects in the way they’re treated § Gender double standard continues • Older women= unflattering terms • Aging men= maturity that enhances their status o Job discrimination o Becomes a self fulfilling prophecy that hinders their performance Stability Vs Change in Personality • Neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience decline somewhat from early adulthood thru middle adulthood • Agreeableness and conscientiousness increase to a degree Deadly Disorders o Due to long-term behavior patterns o Heart disease § Atherosclerosis § Hypertension § Stroke o Cancer § Lung § Colon Factors related to improved life span • Eat healthy • Exercise • Avoid threats to health o Smoking • Extend peoples active life spans PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 Death gene, genetic programming theories, wear-and-tear theory o Death Gene § genetic material contains a “death gene” that is programmed to direct the body to deteriorate and die o Genetic Programming Theory § Our body’s DNA genetic code contains a build in time limit for the reproduction of human cells After a certain amount of time has gone by – determined genetically- the cells are no longer able to divide and the individual begins to deteriorate § Cells in the Body only can only duplicate a certain number of times • Throughout our lives new cells are being made through cell duplication to repair and replenish all of our various tissues and organs. According to this view the genetic instructions can only be read a certain number of times before ineligible. These incomprehensible cells stop producing and because the body is not being renewed at the same rate, people begin to experience bodily deterioration and ultimately death § Telomeres • Each time cells divide the telomeres (tiny protective areas of DNA at the tip of chromosomes) grow shorter. When a cell’s telomere has just about disappeared, the cell stops replicating, making it susceptible to damage and producing signs of aging o Wear and Tear Theory • Mechanical functions of the body simply wear out with age, like cars do Robert Peck’s theory, Erickson’s Theory (last two stages), Selectivity Theory o Robert Peck § Ego differentiation vs Work – Role preoccupation • Changes that occur when people stop working can trigger a difficult adjustment that has major impact on the way people see themselves PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 § Body transcendence vs Body preoccupation • Period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes in physical capabilities as a result of aging § Ego transcendence vs Ego preoccupations • Period in which elderly people must come to grips with their coming death o Erikson § Ego integrity vs Despair • A process of looking back over one’s life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it • Some People experience a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment in which erikson terms “integrity” o Feel they have realized and fulfilled the possibilities that have come their way in life and have few regrets • Some see dissatisfaction o Feel they missed important opportunities and have not accomplished what they have wished o Overall feeling of despair o Selectivity Theory § Social networks become more selective as we age. Don’t need social interaction in the same way the young people do but still need contacts for emotional regulation § Days are numbered • Prefer pleasurable rewarding relationships Importance of relationships oSiblings • 80% of Americans over he age of 60 have at least one living sibling • siblings = insurance policy PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 o unusually strong emotional support because they share old pleasant memories and the usually present oldest existing relationship o Friendship • more flexible than family o we choose friends, we’re in control • companionship • social support o assistance and comfort supplied by another person or network • reciprocity • expectation that if someone provides something positive to another person eventually the favor will be returned oMarriage • Provide substantial companionship and support emotionally Grand parenting styles o Involved § Actively engaged in grandparenting & have influence over grandchildren’s lives § Take care of kids multiple times a week o Companionate § Relaxed § More of a supporter or buddy § Visit and call often o Remote § Detached and distant § Show little interest in children’s lives What is the average life expectancy in the US? 78 PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 Death and Dying Functional death • Heart stops, person’s not breathing • Can be revived Brain death • Officially medical term of death • No revival Child, adolescent & adult concepts of Death(and perspective towards death) Death in Childhood • 2 to 6 year olds • Problem with permanent aspect o View death as temporary and reversible • May APPEAR unaffected by the death of a love one • May take responsibility for the individual’s death • Develop a concept of death= age 5 o Being dead is a thing o 6 to 9 year olds • May take responsibility for death of someone else o Might feel like it was something they did or didn’t do • Understand the death is final= age 9 • 9 to 12 year olds • May take responsibility for death of someone else • Can probably handle most of the information one would give to an adult • Can understand customs involved with death o How there’s a funeral and then body is either buried or cremated Death in Adolescent • Clearly understand the finality and irreversibility of death • Tend to think it cant happen to them, which may result in risky behavior o Results from the beliefs cause death in adolescents • Adolescents who learn that they have terminal illness often feel angry and cheated, that life is unjust to them PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 Death in Young Adulthood • Time when most people feel primed to being their lives • Actively pursuing their girls in life, they are angry and impatient with any illness that threatens their future • Desire to keep intimate relationships • Future planning o Getting married o Have a career so you experience everything before their time to go • Orientation= number of years lived Death in Middle Age • Aware that they are going to die someday o Their bodies are starting to break down • Consider death in a realistic manner o Making funeral plans • Fears of death are greater during this time than any other • Orientation= number of years remaining Death in Late Adulthood • Know with certainty that time is coming to an end • Disengagement theory o Start to decide who are they going to spend their time with and how o Separating themselves • Face a large amount of death in their environment • Less anxious about dying • More realistic about death • Some seek out death o Suicide rate increases during this stage Developmental understanding of Death (3 concepts of Death) • Permanence o It’s a permanent thing, they cant come back from the dead • Universality o Everyone and everything dies • Nonfunctionality PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 o Understanding that when the body has died there is no functional activity Common Childhood Reactions To Death • May APPEAR unaffected by the death of a love one • May take responsibility for the individual’s death • Negative behavior o Acting out, throwing temper tantrum, to get attention • Increased activity o Anxious because they don’t know what’s going on • Dependency o Clingy, develop separation anxiety • Regression o Revert back to old coping mechanisms § Sucking thumb, etc Elisabeth Kubler-Ross: Stages of dying • Denial o Defense mechanism to give them to comprehend the news o Resist the idea that they are dying o Order more tests § “there must be some mistake” o helps individual come to terms with the news of illness • Anger o Direct anger at others o “why me?” o angry at God, family members, and health professionals • Bargaining o Try to negotiate way out of death o Will dedicate their lives to good § “I will dedicate myself to charity” o ask to live until milestone event § “just let me spend one more Christmas with the family” • Depression o Reactive depression § Reactive to loss of things (functions) they’ve already encountered • Example: No more driving o Prepatory depression PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 § About the things in the future/ wont be there to see • Example: grandchildren • Acceptance o Fully aware that death is approaching o No positive or negative feelings just numb o “at peace” with death • Criticisms o Stages only apply to those who know they’re dying and have time to process death o The stages are not universal o The stages do not occur in the same sequence for everyone Age of highest rate of suicide for Caucasian men 85+ , Due to loss of function, not wanting to take anything away from their family, etc Bereavement • Knowledge you lost someone, feel numb Grief • Emotional reaction to the death • Stages 1. Entails shock, numbness, disbelief, or denial a. People may avoid the reality of the situation, trying to carry on with usual routine of their lives, although pain may break thru causing anguish, fear, and deep sorrow and distress. (if pain is too sever, person may go back to numbness) b. Few days or weeks 2. People begin to confront the death and realize the extent of their loss. a. They fully experience their grief and they begin to acknowledge the reality that the separation from the dead person will be permanent. May suffer deep depression. May yearn for lost individual. 3. Accommodation stage a. Begin to pick up the pieces of their lives and to construct new identities PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 Reactive Depression o The feelings of sadness are based on the events that have already occurred o The loss of dignity that may accompany medical procedures o the end of a job o the knowledge that one will never return from the hospital to the home Preparatory Depression o people feel sadness over future losses o they know death will bring an end to their relationships with others o they will never see future generations o the reality of death is inescapable and it brings about profound sadness over unalterable conclusion of ones life Hospice o care for the dying provided in places devoted to those who are terminally ill o designed to provide a warm supportive environment for the dying o don’t focus on extending people’s lives but rather on making their final days pleasant and meaningful o typically people who attend are removed from painful treatment and no extraordinary or invasive means are employed to make their lives longer o patients appear to be more satisfied with the car they receive than those who receive more traditional treatments in traditional settings o provides clear alternative to traditional hospitalization for terminally ill Cultural Variations in Funerals/Grief o western societies o funeral rituals follow a typical pattern despite some surface variations. § Prior to the funeral the body is prepared in some way and is dressed In special clothing. Usually include celebration PSYC 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE spring 2016 of religious rite, delivery of eulogy, procession of some sort and some funeral period such as a wake o Irish Catholics and Shivah for Jews o Relatives and friends visit the mourning family and pay their respects o Military o Include the firing of weapon and flag draped over the coffin o Sometimes noisy celebrations take place at funerals while others silence is the norm o Some societies shave their heads, while others allow the hair to grow and men stop shaving for a period of time o Some cultures may hire mourners to wail and grieve o Balinese funerals in Indonesia o Mourners show little emotion because they believe they must be calm in order for the gods to hear their prayers o African American o Encouraged to show grief, funeral rituals are meant to allow attendees to display their feelings o Traditional Hindu Practice in India o Now illegal, but a widow was expected to throw herself into the fire that consumed her husbands body o Ancient china o Servants were sometimes buried alive with their masters body Guests o Louise (75) Dan (77) o They did not meet at a topless bar o High marital satisfaction o Companionate o Coach Myers o Involved grandparenting o Softball o Oldest head coach at auburn o Coach Cochran o Football coach from fort benning o 59 o has lots of “kids” o very satisfied with life o remote grandparenting
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